SOLAR ENERGY and SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM by qjj20151

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									  SOLAR ENERGY and
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS
     IN VIETNAM

           Prof. Le Chi Hiep

  Director, Program on Renewable Energy &
      Energy Conservation (VNU-HCM)

          Berlin, October 9, 2009

                                            1
              OUTLINE

1.   GENERAL INFORMATION

2.   SOLAR ENERGY and ITS APPLICATIONS
     IN VIETNAM

3.   SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN VIETNAM

4.   DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
                                         2
1. GENERAL INFORMATION




                         3
VIETNAM

Population – 85.8
millions (2009)
Area – 332,000km2
Capital – Hanoi


                4
Latitudes and Longitudes of several
 main provinces/cities in Vietnam
  Location       Latitude   Longitude
  Ha Giang       22o54’N     105oE
    Hanoi        21o03’N    105o54’E
     Hue         16o29’N    107o36’E
  Da nang        16o03’N    108o12’E
  Qui Nhon       13o47’N    109o15’E
HoChiMinh City   10o45’N    106o41’E
  Phu Quoc       10o12’N    103o58’E
   Ca Mau         9o11’N    105o09’E
                                        5
Installed electric generating capacity (9GW,
2004).

In 2004, Vietnam generated 40.1 billion
kilowatthours (Bkwh) of total electricity, of which
52 percent was supplied by conventional
thermal sources and 48 percent came from
hydroelectric sources.

Electricity demand has increased steadily in
Vietnam during the last decade, but the
country’s per capita energy consumption
remains one of the lowest in Asia.

                                                      6
7
8
9
2. SOLAR ENERGY
        and
ITS APPLICATIONS
    IN VIETNAM


                   10
Mean Annual Sunshine Hours

North: 1800 – 2100 hours of sunshine a
year, on average.
South: 2000 – 2600 hours of sunshine a
year, on average.




                                         11
MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS
                   (Hours/day)
  Location: HANOI (21o03’N, 105o54’E)
          January                2.2
          February               1.6
           March                 1.4
           April                 2.7
            May                  5.3
           June                  5.2
            July                 5.9
          August                 5.3
         September               5.4
          October                5.3
         November                4.2
         December                3.5    12
MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS
               (Hours/day)
 Location: DANANG (16o03’N, 108o12’E)
           January           4.4
           February          5.1
            March            3.4
             April           6.9
             May             8.3
             June            7.9
             July            8.3
            August           6.7
          September          5.8
           October           4.7
           November          4.0
           December          3.6        13
 MONTHLY MEAN SUNSHINE HOURS
                 (Hours/day)
Location: HOCHIMINH City (10o45’N, 106o41’E)
                January         7.9
                February        8.8
                 March          8.8
                 April          7.7
                  May           6.3
                 June           5.7
                  July          5.8
                August          5.6
               September        5.4
                October         5.9
               November         6.7
               December         7.2            14
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION
               (kWh/m2/day)
    Location: HANOI (21o03’N, 105o54’E)
 January          2.24
 February         2.40
  March           2.53
   April          3.46        Annual Mean
   May            5.23        Solar Radiation:
   June           5.31
                              3.93kWh/m2/day
   July           5.59
  August          5.10
September         4.79
 October          4.18
 November         3.45
 December         2.97                      15
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION
              (kWh/m2/day)
  Location: DANANG (16o03’N, 108o12’E)
 January         3.5
 February        4.3
  March          5.2
   April         5.8         Annual Mean
   May           6.4         Solar Radiation:
   June          5.9
                             4.85kWh/m2/day
   July          6.5
  August         5.7
September        5.2
 October         4.2
 November        3.1
 December        2.5                       16
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION
             (kWh/m2/day)
Location: NHA TRANG (12o15’N, 109o11’E)
 January        4.66
 February       5.29
  March         5.69
   April        5.91        Annual Mean
   May          5.90        Solar Radiation:
   June         5.66
                            5.15kWh/m2/day
   July         5.66
  August        5.51
September       4.92
 October        4.42
 November       4.04
 December       4.15                      17
MONTHLY MEAN SOLAR RADIATION
                (kWh/m2/day)
Location: HOCHIMINH City (10o45’N, 106o41’E)
   January         5.1
  February         6.3
   March           6.6
    April          5.7         Annual Mean
    May            5.0         Solar Radiation:
    June           4.9
                               5.2kWh/m2/day
    July           5.1
   August          5.0
  September        4.8
   October         4.5
  November         4.3
  December         4.6                         18
                  Location: Ho Chi Minh City, April 28th, 2005
                "A v erag e S o lar R ad iatio n " in "1 0 M in u te S u mmary " o f "C u rren t" d atab as e at "2 8 -0 0 4 -2 0 0 5 "

         1000


         900


         800


         700


         600
W /m 2




         500


         400


         300


         200


         100


           0
                               9A M                                   12P M                                   3P M                        19
28 Thu A pr 2005
 Location: Ho Chi Minh City, June 28th, 2005
         "A v e r a g e S o la r R a d ia tio n " in "1 0 M in u te S u m m a r y " o f "C u r r e n t" d a ta b a s e a t "2 8 - 0 6 - 2 0 0 5 "
         900



         800



         700



         600



         500
W /m 2




         400



         300



         200



         100



           0
                                 9A M                                    12P M                                     3P M                             20
28 Tue Jun 2005
Location: Ho Chi Minh City, March 5th, 2009
       (Total solar radiation, W/m2)
09:00   323    10:40    255   12:20   886
09:10   494    10:50    249   12:30   725
09:20   489    11:00    650   12:40   791
09:30   638    11:10   1064   12:50   934
09:40   658    11:20    464   13:00   797
09:50   650    11:30    871   13:10   785
10:00   508    11:40   1044   13:20   773
10:10   659    11:50   1031   13:30   838
10:20   503    12:00    497   13:40   453
10:30   629    12:10    957   13:50   474   21
Location: Ho Chi Minh City, March 5th, 2009
       (Total solar radiation, W/m2)
14:00   685    15:40   387    17:20   139
14:10   611    15:50   344    17:30    98
14:20   344    16:00   385    17:40    66
14:30   392    16:10   381    17:50    17
14:40   557    16:20   306    18:00     7
14:50   627    16:30   135    18:10     7
15:00   649    16:40   139    18:20     0
15:10   643    16:50   140    18:30     0
15:20   583    17:00   182    18:40     0
15:30   469    17:10   168    18:50     0   22
        Solar Applications
Two main applications:

- Solar hot water
- Solar photovoltaics




                             23
Solar hot water has been developed since
1990. At the early period, it was very
difficult to get the attention of the
community.

But, since around 1998, the number of
installed solar hot water systems has
gradually increased, especially in Ho Chi
Minh city.

                                        24
Currently, solar hot water has become one
of products at high competition. That leads
to the increase of the number of
companies doing business in this field.

But, there is so far no full industry referring
to solar hot water. The main components
of the system (solar collector,…) are
imported, mainly from China.

                                             25
3. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS
       IN VIETNAM



                         26
           3.1. RESEARCH




Researches referring to solar
photovoltaics have been done from 1975.




                                          27
       Early research interests




1. Monocrystalline silicon
2. Polycrystalline silicon
3. Amorphous silicon



                                  28
     Current research interests
Determination of the light- induced degradation rate of
the solar cell sensitized N719 on nanocrystalline TiO2
particles

Thermal degradation kinetics of solar cell dye N719
bound to nanocrystalline TiO2 particles

Fabrication of solar cells based on N719, D520-dyed
nano-crystalline titanium dioxide and investigation of
their performances

Improvement of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Open-
circuit Voltage by Electrolyte Additives and Cell
Treatment with 4-tert-butylpyridine
                                                          29
The Relationship between Electrochemical Impedance
Spectra and Photovoltaic Performance Characteristics
during the Light and Thermal Ageing of Dye-Sensitized
Solar Cells

Effects of Electrolyte Additives on the Open-circuit
Voltage of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Decomposition and degradation of dyes in solar cells
under prolonged thermal and light ageing

Dye-sensitized solar cell based on nano-crystalline
titanium dioxide




                                                        30
Fabrication of solar cells based on titanium dioxide and
organometallic dyes

Grid connected systems




                                                           31
But, due to many difficulties, the research
on solar photovoltaics is nearly activities of
scientists in laboratory only.
It has not exercised its influence on the
society.



                                            32
             3.2. APPLICATION

In 1990, the first 300Wp-unit was installed at
Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh city.

From 1994, solar photovoltaics has been
expanded in the whole country.

Currently, total installed photovoltaics is around
2MWp.


                                                     33
Installed locations:
- Rural areas (PV units were installed at more
than 3000 houses, there have been around
8500 families who can reach PV indirectly by
using batteries charged from stations).
- Cultural centers.
- Medical centers.
- Telecommunication units.
- Traveling boats.

                                                 34
- Post offices
- Ambulances.
- Public lighting systems.
- Traffic lighting systems.
- Battery charging stations.
- Schools.
- Islands.



                               35
2000Wp




         Reference: http://www.soltechvn.com/vn/



                                                   36
                                          810Wp




Reference: http://www.soltechvn.com/vn/



                                                  37
Reference: http://www.selco-vietnam.com.vn/index.php?lang=vn



                                                               38
Main features of photovoltaic development in
Vietnam:

- Most budgets funded by international
organizations and several funded by national
agencies (there is so far nearly no personal
budget invested to set up the system).
- It leads to unstable and unsustainable
development.
- All solar panels are so far imported.


                                               39
Currently, there are only several companies
doing business on photovoltaics in Vietnam.




SELCO-VIETNAM could be considered as the
biggest company in this field (Installed
photovoltaics – 262kWp)



                                              40
Several related websites for your reference:

1. http://www.selco-vietnam.com.vn/index.php?lang=en

2. http://www.soltechvn.com/vn/




                                                       41
Recently, a factory producing solar panels has
been installed in Long An – near Ho Chi Minh
City.

By planning, its expected capacity is 3MWp/year
(first step) and 5MWp/year (next step).




                                                 42
4. DISCUSSION &
  CONCLUSION




                  43
4.1. DISCUSSION




                  44
There is high potential to exploit solar
energy in Vietnam.



There is also high demand on solar
technologies such as solar photovoltaics
and solar hot water.
(Survey: 50,000 families in southern and
central parts of the country need PV
systems)
                                       45
Current situation on solar photovoltaics:

1. Solar hot water has been developed well,
especially in the southern parts of the country.
Currently, it is easy to see solar hot water
systems on roofs of many houses in Ho Chi
Minh city.

2. In the meantime, solar photovoltaics has been
almost done by projects and has been installed
dispersedly. There have been only a few people
who want to invest the systems by their own
budget.

                                              46
Referring to energy policy, currently there
are good enough macroscopic policies
and roadmap to promote renewable
energy activities in Vietnam.

In June 2009, the draft of the law on
energy conservation was submitted to
the consideration of the national assembly.
Hopefully, the similar draft of the law on
renewable energy could be submitted
next year.

                                          47
According to the current energy policy,
renewable energy including solar energy is
expected to be one of main energy
resources of the country.



                                         48
But, unfortunately, the current applications
of renewable energy, especially of installed
solar photovoltaics, are still far from our
expected targets.

Although there have been activities referring
to photovoltaics in Vietnam leading to
around 2MWp installed, but Vietnam is still
nearly a blank area in terms of
photovoltaics.

                                           49
Referring to the current situation, there are
two main questions:



     - WHY?
     - Do we really need photovoltaics?



                                                50
YES, we need solar photovoltaics.



But, like everywhere, the first main reason
is always the price.




                                          51
To set up a photovoltaic system, we often need:
- Solar panel (Kyocera, SolarWorld,…)
- Control system
- Battery (Phoenix,…)
- Converter
- Others

Current mean price in Vietnam (including solar
panel and main components): 8USD/Wp -
10USD/Wp

                                                 52
 That price is too high, it can not get the
       attention of the community
We can see:

- Rural area: very high demand on solar
photovoltaics, but because of high price poor
people can not dream of getting it.

- Urban area: good electricity supply from the
national grid. But, if the price is good enough,
solar photovoltaics can also attract the attention
of the people living in the urban area to prevent
unexpected power shortage (It is quite often in
Vietnam, especially in the dry season).
                                                53
- Currently, there is general macroscopic energy
policy. But, there are so far no concrete policies
such as tax exemption and financial supports,…


- Solar panels and corresponding parts are
mainly imported. There is nearly no industry
referring to solar photovoltaics in Vietnam,
except one factory named RED SUN in Long An
– near Ho Chi Minh City.

                                                     54
   Thus, what do we need to
  speed up the application of
solar photovoltaics in Vietnam?

Price reduction:
1. In-country fabrication by local and foreign
investment.
2. Detailed policies focusing on tax exemption,
or tax reduction, or financial supports ….

                                                  55
Development strategy:

Two steps:

1.To promote the application of solar photovoltaics
in Vietnam, we should firstly set up the new
projects, it means we should not wait for the
personal demands paid by personal budgets.

The new projects must be totally different from the
previous ones, which have been often funded by
international or national organizations and have
been installed mainly for demonstration purpose.

                                                56
The new projects should be invested by people
who are intending to do business in this field.

Under this point of view, the new projects should
not be decentralized and should be connected to
the grid…..

In order to set up the projects, it must be
repeated that we need good financial policies,
hopefully, which would be published in the first
quarter of the next year.

                                               57
2. Following the success of the first step,
the solar photovoltaics together with its
low price can get the attention of the
community.

After this step, hopefully personal budgets
can be expended to buy solar panels.



                                          58
“SOLAR ROOF should be considered as
one of main strategic approaches parallel
with the new projects (step 1) to promote
photovoltaic application in Vietnam,
especially at NEW URBAN AREAS”.

There is high potential to develop the
notion SOLAR CITY at NEW URBAN
AREAS.

                                        59
4.2. CONCLUSION




                  60
Nearly blank market and blank area in
terms of solar photovoltaics are awaiting
you.




                                            61
Let’s spend several seconds to sweep a part
 of the survey done by a German colleague

 “Vietnam Needs Investors To Promote Use Of
 Renewable Energy Technologies”.


 “The Government of Vietnam has been
 exploring more and more the possibilities for
 investment in the country as they recognize the
 toll that electricity shortages nationwide are
 causing”.
                                                   62
“The climate of Vietnam is conducive to positive
impacts from solar energy use, and the sun is a
priceless commodity in both summer and winter.
Research information shows that sunshine is
available between 1,800 hours and 2,700 hours
annually”.



                                              63
“Experts agree that solar energy is a great way
to fill off-grid electricity needs, especially in
areas of a higher concentration of pollution
where mini-grids are not a good idea”.


Sherry Irvin
on behalf of the
BascoTec Internet Limited
Technologie Park 13
33100 Paderborn
Germany

                                               64
               HOT NEWS
The draft of the decree on the means supporting the
development of renewable energy has just been
submitted to the government by the ministry of industry
and commerce (Tuoi Tre daily newspaper, Sept. 8,
2009).

Main contents of the draft of the decree:
     - The government commits to exempt those who
invest to develop the electric generation by renewable
energy from taxes.
     - The price of electricity produced by renewable
energy would be discussed to guarantee the investor’s
rational benefit.


                                                     65
It’s time to invest and to do business
referring to solar photovoltaics in Vietnam.




                                           66
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION




                           67

								
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