What is J2EE

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					What is J2EE?

   J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) is a
    combination of tools and java technologies
    available to simplify application development
    and deployment on the Internet.
   Technologies include Servlets, JSP(s),
    Enterprise Java Beans and JDBC to name a
    few.
   Tools include the JDK and Forte for Java
What are Java Servlets?
   Servlets are Java technology's replacement for CGI
    programming. They are java programs that run on a
    web server or J2EE container and provide dynamic
    web content.
   Commonly used to extend the functionality of a web
    server.
   Built upon a request-response model (doGet,doPost
    methods)
   Access to Java API(s) bundled with JDK such as
    JDBC.
Advantages of Servlets over CGI
   Efficient/Scalable: JVM is loaded once and each HTTP request is
    handled by a lightweight java thread. CGI executes a heavyweight
    OS process for each user request. The overhead of this OS
    process degrades performance and impacts scalability.
   Powerful: simplified session tracking (session API provides
    support for getting track of state using cookies, URL rewriting and
    hidden form fields) and data sharing that allows easy
    implementation of things like connection pooling.
   Portable: runs on any web server with servlet support. (All of
    them)
Client Server Architecture
HttpServlet Class

   All Servlet classes extend the HttpServlet abstract
    class
   HttpServlet simplies writing HTTP servlets by providing
    a framework for handling the HTTP protocol.
   Since HttpServlet is abstract, you must extend it and
    implement at least one of the methods (doGet,doPost)
   Your Servlet class is declared as public so the web
    server or J2EE container can access it.
Typical Servlet Class
import javax.servlet.*; // contains generic (protocol-independent) servlet classes
import javax.servlet.http.*; // contains HTTP servlet classes

public class TypicalServletClass extends HttpServlet {

    public void init() throws ServletException {
      }
    public void doPost (HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
               throws ServletException, IOException {
     }
    public void doGet (HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
               throws ServletException, IOException {
    }
    public void destroy() {
    }

}
Life of a Servlet

   Life cycle is controlled by the web server or
    container in which the servlet is deployed.
   (1) If instance of servlet class does not exist:
       Loads the servlet class
       Creates an instance of the servlet class
       Initializes the servlet instance by calling the init()
        method.
Life of a Servlet (Cont)

   (2) Invokes a service method (doGet(),
    doPost()) and passing in a request and
    response object.
   (3) If the servlet needs to be garbage collected
    (removed from memory), then the destroy()
    method is called by the web server/J2EE
    container (finally)
doGet vs. doPost Method
   doGet is called in response to an HTTP GET request.
   A GET request is a request to get a resource from the server.
   This is the case of a browser requesting a web page.
   It also happens with HTML Forms that specify the METHOD="GET" in the
    FORM tag.
   doPost is called in response to an HTTP POST request.
   A POST request is a request to post or send form data to a resource on
    the server.
   Both methods are called by the default (superclass) implementation of
    service in the HttpServlet base class.
   You override one or both to perform your servlet's actions.
So Which One do I implement?
   doGet has some limitations in the amount of data that can be passed as
    parameters
   doGet data is sent as a part of the URL and thus sensative data may be
    exposed
   Most implement doPost and and doGet placing the code that will perform
    some action in doPost and calling doPost from doGet passing in the
    request and response objects.
    public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse
    response) throws ServletException, IOException
          {
                   doPost(request, response);
          }
Simple Servlet Example
import java.io.*; // for system input and output
import javax.servlet.*; // contains generic (protocol-independent) servlet classes
import javax.servlet.http.*; // contains HTTP servlet classes

public class SimpleServletExample extends HttpServlet
{
public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws
    ServletException, IOException
{
response.setContentType("text/html");
PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
out.println("<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>Welcome to Bradshaw Marina</TITLE></HEAD>");
out.println("<BODY><H1>Welcome to Bradshaw Marina</H1> <H3>Current Time : ");
out.println(new java.util.Date());
out.println("</H3></BODY></HTML>");
}
}
How to call Servlet from HTML
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Call a Simple Servlet</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1>Call a Simple Servlet that Generates the Welcome Page</H1>
<FORM name="form1" method="post" action="SimpleServletExample">
<p>
<input type="submit" value=“Call Servlet">
</p>
</FORM>
</BODY>
</HTML>
What are Java Server Pages

   Java Server Pages (JSP) is a technology that
    allows you to mix static and dynamic HTML
    content. (very similar to ASP)
    Web content rendered by CGI programs are
    mostly static. Even with servlets you generate
    the entire web page with your java code. JSPs
    allow the two to be separated. Presentation is
    standard HTML and java is written within
    special tags (<%, %>)
Advantages of Java Server Pages
   vs. Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP is a similar technology from
    Microsoft. The advantages of JSP are twofold. First, the dynamic
    part is written in Java, not Visual Basic or other MS-specific
    language, so it is more powerful and easier to use. Second, it is
    portable to other operating systems and non-Microsoft Web
    servers.
   vs. Pure Servlets. JSP doesn't give you anything that you
    couldn't in principle do with a servlet. But it is more efficient to
    write the presentation in HTML than to have many println
    statements that generate the HTML. You can separate the tasks
    among different people.
Advantages of Java Server Pages
   vs. Server-Side Includes (SSI). SSI is a widely-supported
    technology for including externally-defined pieces into a static
    Web page. JSP is better because it lets you use servlets instead
    of a separate program to generate that dynamic part. SSI is only
    intended for simple inclusions, not complex tasks that use form
    data and make database connections.
   vs. JavaScript. JavaScript can generate HTML dynamically on
    the client. This is a useful capability, but only handles situations
    where the dynamic information is based on the client's
    environment. With the exception of cookies, HTTP and form
    submission data is not available to JavaScript. And, since it runs
    on the client, JavaScript can't access server-side resources like
    databases.
Simple JSP Example
<%@ page import="java.util.*" %>
<HTML>
<HEAD><TITLE>Welcome to Bradshaw Marina</TITLE></HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1>Welcome to Bradshaw Marina</H1>
<H3>Current Time :
<%=new java.util.Date()%>
</H3>
</BODY>
</HTML>
Deploying Servlets and JSP(s)

   Web Servers
       Microsoft IIS – servlet/JSP plugin
       Oracle 9ias – built in servlet/JSP support
       Weblogic – built in servlet/JSP support
   J2EE Lightweight containers for Java
       Tomcat - built in servlet/JSP support
       Oracle’s OC4J – built in servlet/JSP support
Additional Resources

   http://java.sun.com/
   http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/index.html
   http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/
   http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/
Demos
   SimpleServletExample –display “Welcome” screen with HTML and
    make a call to the java.util package to get the current date and
    time.
   SimpleJSP.jsp - display “Welcome” screen with HTML and make a
    call to the java.util package to get the current date and time.
   OracleQueryServlet – displays a list of employees from a specific
    department (demonstrates both get and post requests)
   SimpleOracleQueryJSP1.jsp - execute query using statement
    class.
   SimpleOracleQueryJSP2.jsp - execute query using
    preparedStatement class and bind variables.
   CallSPSample.jsp - execute a stored procedure using the
    callableStatement class and bind variables.

				
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