UCR Water Conservation

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					 UCR Water
Conservation
   Where we are…
 Where we are going…
  What we can do…
Where does our water come from?
                     Riverside's water supply
                     begins as pure rain and
                     snow which is naturally
                     filtered through the sand
                     and gravel of the Bunker
                     Hill and Riverside Basins in
                     San Bernardino and
                     Riverside. This water settles
                     in pools deep in the earth
                     and are then tapped for
                     domestic use by 51 wells
                     operated by Riverside
                     Public Utilities.
                     In 2002, Riverside met 99.0
                     percent of its water needs
                     from underground
                     resources receiving only 1
                     percent from Western
                     Municipal Water District.
A Little History About UCR’s Water
Potable water is supplied to us from the city of
Riverside
A large portion of our buildings were
constructed in the 1960’s, with another boom in
the 1990’s
This means a large amount of our water is used
in older style water fixtures and sprinklers that
had little or no water conservation design
UCR is now expecting another surge
     in building/population.
 Currently we are around 18,000 students
 The campus is preparing for a population of
 25,000 by the year 2015
 Of that 25,000 students, the target to have living
 on campus is 50%
 That means more buildings to landscape/irrigate
 and more showers, toilets, etc.
          Water Use at UCR
50% - 60% of the water on campus is used for irrigation
In 2008, UCR purchased 540,100,000 gallons of water
(annual)
The city of Riverside averages 70,000,000 gallons of
water used per day
Who manages water use at UCR?
  Landscape & Refuse Services (my shop)
  Housing Services
  Agricultural Operations
My shop is responsible for the main campus = estimated
to average about 400K to 500k gallons a day for
landscaping
    Water Use Issues at UCR
Responsible for 150 acres of landscaped area
(not including Housing or Ag Ops)
Turf is roughly 60 acres
Turf requires min. equivalent of 50” rainfall/yr.
Ave. rainfall here is 10-13”/yr.
ET is an issue… What is ET?
  EVAPOTRANSPIRATION the sum of
  evaporation and plant transpiration from the earth's
  land surface to atmosphere.
Initial Efforts to Save Water
                In 1980 UCR installed
                one of the first
                computerized irrigation
                control systems: the
                Solar Wind System. For
                its time it was state of the
                art. It gave us central
                control of the 73 exterior
                controllers around the
                campus.
             CIMIS Weather Station
                        manually ET based
                                    1.    Total solar radiation
                                          (pyranometer)
                                    2.    Soil temperature
                                          (thermistor)
                                    3.    Air temperature/relative
                                          humidity
                                    4.    Wind direction (wind vane)
                                    5.    Wind speed (anemometer)
                                    6.    Precipitation (tipping-
                                          bucket rain gauge)
                                    UC Riverside, station #44 online in 1985
                                    http://wwwcimis.water.ca.gov/
- Only 150-200 stations statewide   cimis/welcome.jsp
- Measures ET for UCR area
-Web-based data
Next Step in Irrigation Control
                 We are currently in the
                 middle of a program to
                 switch all the solar wind
                 units over to a new radio
                 controlled Toro Sentinel
                 system. This system has
                 water conservation as its
                 central theme.
       Automated ET Based
The “Sentinel” is an ET
based,
(evapotranspiration)
system. It uses a weather
station to determine
sprinkler run times.
With this system we will
be able to adjust more
quickly to weather
changes.
Generated Flow Graphs Help
Determine the Best Run Times
Sentinel Water Use Report
Convert Appropriate Turf Areas to
           Synthetic




We converted a grass soccer field to synthetic turf a
couple of years ago.
It will handle more use with less down time.
It is estimated to save approx. 3 acre feet of water a
year (one acre foot of water is 325,851.4 U.S. gallons).
    Other Turf Related Issues
We no longer collect grass clippings. All large mowers
are equipped with mulching blades, chopping clippings
into small pieces.
This helps reduce water consumption and fertilizer
requirements.
Cutting grass at a higher length reduces water usage.
TURF CONVERSION…
  Eliminate small sections of turf that are not needed to more
  sustainable planting
  Parking lot perimeters, medians
  Under-utilized turf areas
                     Hydrozoning
Hydrozoning is a landscape practice that groups plants with similar
water requirements together in an effort to conserve water. For example,
drought tolerant plants, such as sages or cactus, would not be planted in a
lawn, but would be separated since grass has a higher water requirement.
Hydrozoning also seeks to take advantage of microclimates. Plants that
tolerate more heat and wind might be planted near the street, while more
sensitive plants might be planted in shade, under roof overhangs, or in fenced
areas.

Hydrozoning can also refer to a design practice in irrigation in an effort to
improve watering efficiency. The system is designed so that plants with
similar watering requirements are watered together and treated differently
from plants with different requirements. For example, one group of plants
may need watering for 20 minutes, while another group of plants may need
only 10 minutes.
Design Systems with Water
 Requirements in Mind
                   A Modified Hydrozone
                   Here is an area we
                   designed with 3 separate
                   drip systems, to more
                   accurately control the
                   water:
              1.   Trees
              2.   Large – Medium shrubs
              3.   Small shrubs
More Ways to Save
          By mulching open areas
          we cut down on water
          usage.
          We also use soil
          amendments to increase
          water holding capacity.
          Drip irrigation is also the
          most water efficient way
          to irrigate. It places
          water exactly where you
          want it.
Complete “Low Water” Designs Will Need to
          Become the Standard
Psychology Redesign
             The irrigation and
             planting here was re-
             designed before
             landscape construction
             ever started.
             The original design
             would have used 493
             gallons/day of water in
             summer.
             This design only uses
             135 gallons/day of water
             based on the same
             summer day.
Water Conservation Must Be a Priority for
       Future Campus Expansion
            Things Yet to Come
Use of Grey Water
    Australian School
An Aquacell G6 Water Recycling
System was chosen to recycle up to
6,000 liters-a-day of grey water
from showers and hand basins in
accordance with '4-star water'
standards (Australian Water
Association ranking method). This
Aquacell technology will reduce the
school's reliance on precious
groundwater, with the recycled
grey water suitable for toilet
flushing and for irrigating
landscaped areas.
                                          Reclaimed Water
                                                            water                                                              by
This plan will provide nearly 5 billion gallons of recycled water each year by 2015, and more than 13 billion gallons per year by 2030.
    Thinking Outside the Box
This is a golf course that
captures run off water, a
stream that runs through the
property, and a seasonal
underground spring.
During the winter it supplies
8 to 9 holes with the water
needed.
During the summer it
supplies 2-3 holes with water.
 Targeting a 20% Cut in Outdoor
           Water Use
Using all these methods, we should be able to
make a cut of 20% in our outdoor water usage.
Funding will have to be provided in order to
make these improvements the standards we use
for all future work and renovation.
As the water crunch tightens, it will only
become more and more important and cost
effective.
          Future Water Use
In 2008, UCR used:
  311.9 million gal/water for irrigation
Sustainability Plan Water Goals:
  Reduce per capita potable water use
  Pilot water conserving fixtures
  Best practices for irrigation, reduce turf areas
  Educate campus community through programs
What About the Rest of Water Used on
  Campus? (and at home as well)
                       We need to move to water
                       conservation on the inside
                       of the buildings as well.
                  1.   Low flow and dual-flush
                       toilets
                  2.   Waterless urinals
                  3.   Low flow showers
                  4.   Low flow faucets
                  5.   Water saving clothes
                       washers
Toilets

•Largest user of water in most homes

•Average use = 5.1 flushes per person per day

•Conventional = 4 to 5 gallons per flush (gpf)

•New toilets = 1.6 gpf

•1.6 gpf toilets have been required since 1994
              Clothes Washers
•Average use = 2.6 loads per week per person

•Conventional = 45 to 51 gallons per load (gpl)

•Front-loading = 27 gpl

•Disadvantages
    •More expensive initially
    •Bending to get clothes
    •Longer wash time

•Advantages
    •Significant energy savings
    •Less detergent
    •Less drying needed
    •Larger load capacity
    •Cleaner clothes
    •Less wear and tear on clothes
Dishwashers

   •50% of homes have one

   •Similar water use to hand-washing

   •Average use = about 1 load per week per person

   •Conventional = about 11 gallons per load

   •Water efficient = 4 to 7 gpl
                           Faucets



•Average use = 4 minutes per day per person

•Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

•Low-volume = 1.5 gallons per minute
(as low as 0.5 gpm for bathroom)

•Very inexpensive

•2.5 gpm faucets required since 1994
                      Showerheads


•Average use = 8 minutes per day per person

•Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

•Low-volume = 2 to 2.5 gallons per minute

•Some have manual shut-off for extra savings

•Very inexpensive

•Savings depend on habits also

•2.5 gpm showerhead required since 1994
 Estimated Annual Water and Energy
              Savings
                        (Family of Four)
                             Water Savings   Energy Savings
Appliance                    (gallons)       (kilowatt hours)
Low-flush toilet             18,000                       0
Low-volume showerhead         4,000                     500
Low-volume faucet             9,000                     500
Front-loading washer         13,000                   1,300
Water-efficient dishwasher      600                     150
Total                        44,600                   2,450
Our Water is Limited!
Ultimately We All Have to Make
         Wise Choices