LANDFILLS AS AN

                 Chad Leatherwood, P.E.
                     SCS Engineers
       Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)
      APWA Public Works Congress and Exhibition
        San Antonio, Texas. September 10, 2007.

  l   LMOP and LFG 101
  l   Uses of LFG
  l   Applications of LFG for municipalities
  l   Benefits of LFG use
  l   How can LMOP provide assistance?
     Why EPA is Concerned
      About Landfill Gas

l   Methane is a potent heat-trapping gas
l   Landfills are the largest human-made
    source of methane in the United States,
    accounting for 24% generated in 2005
l   There are many cost-effective options for
    reducing methane emissions while
    generating energy
l   Projects reduce local air pollution and
    create jobs, revenues, and cost savings

      EPA’s Landfill Methane
        Outreach Program
l   Established in 1994
l   Voluntary program that creates
    alliances among states, energy
    users/providers, the landfill gas
    industry, and communities
    Mission: To reduce methane emissions
    by lowering barriers and promoting the
      development of cost-effective and
     environmentally beneficial landfill gas
           energy (LFGE) projects.
Modern Municipal Solid
   Waste Landfill

          Source: Modern Landfills: A Far Cry From the Past, NSWMA 2006

         Landfill Gas 101
l   Landfill gas (LFG) is a by-product of the
    decomposition of municipal solid waste
    n   ~ 50% methane (CH4)
    n   ~ 50% carbon dioxide (CO2)
    n   <1% non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs)
l   For every 1 million tons of MSW:
    n   ~ 0.8 MW of electricity
    n   ~ 432,000 cubic feet per day of LFG
l   If uncontrolled, LFG contributes to smog
    and global warming, and may cause
    health and safety concerns
    Landfill Gas and Green Power
      A Winning Combination
l   Dual benefit     destroys methane and other
    organic compounds in LFG
l   Offsets use of nonrenewable resources (coal, oil,
    gas) reducing emissions of
    n   SO2 , NOX , PM, and CO2
l   LFGE is a recognized renewable energy resource
    n   Green-e, EPA Green Power Partnership, 24 states, Sierra
        Club, NRDC
l   LFG is generated 24/7 and projects have online
    reliability over 90%
l   LFG can act as a long-term price and volatility
    hedge against fossil fuels
     LFG Has Been Used to
        Help Produce…
Aluminum                            Fiberglass, nylon, and paper
Alternative fuels (biodiesel,       Furthering space exploration
     CNG, ethanol, and LNG)         Garden plants
Aquaculture (e.g., tilapia)         Green power
Arts & crafts (blacksmithing,       Ice cream, milk, and tea
     ceramics, and glass)
                                    Infrared heat
Biosolids (drying)
                                    Juice (apple, cranberry, and
Bricks and concrete                      orange)
Carpet                              Pharmaceuticals
Cars and trucks                     Pierogies and snack food
Chemicals                           Soy-based products
Chocolate                           Steel
Consumer goods and                  Tomatoes (hydroponic)
     containers                     Taxpayer savings and
Denim                                    increased sustainability!

          State of the National
          LFGE Industry (Apr 07)
= At   least 424 operational projects in 42
    states supplying:
    <   10 billion kilowatt hours of electricity and 75 billion
        cubic feet of LFG to direct-use applications in 2006
l   Estimated Annual Environmental Benefits
    n   Planting ~20,000,000 acres of forest, or
    n   Preventing the use of ~170,000,000 barrels of oil, or
    n   Removing emissions equivalent to ~14,000,000
l   Estimated Annual Energy Benefit
    n   Powering over 780,000 homes and heating
        nearly 518,000 homes
Landfill Gas Energy Projects
  and Candidate Landfills


                                              (*Landfill is accepting waste or has been closed for 5 years
                                              or less and has at least 1 mmtons of waste and does not
                                              have an operational/under construction LFGE project; or is
                                              designated based on actual interest/planning.)

                 Technology Trends
                        Electricity Projects
 Reciprocating Engine

         Gas Turbine



       Steam Turbine

     Combined Cycle
                                                                            Operational Projects

Organic Rankine Cycle                                                       Under Construction and
                                                                            Planned Projects

                        0   50       100           150               200                250                  300
                                           Number of Projects
            Diversity of Project Types
                       Electricity Generation

    Combustion Engine                                     Gas Turbine
(range from 100 kW to 3 MW)                     (range from 800 kW to 10.5 MW)

                          (range from 30 kW to 250 kW)

                                 Technology Trends
                                       Direct-Use Projects

                     Direct Thermal

              Leachate Evaporation

                           High Btu


                    Alternative Fuel

                        Medium Btu
                                                                               Operational Projects

               Liquefied Natural Gas
                                                                               Under Construction and
                                                                               Planned Projects
                Methanol Synthesis

                                       0   10   20          30            40              50            60
                                                     Number of Projects
                 Diversity of Project Types
                             Direct-Use of LFG
l   Direct-use projects are growing!
    n   Boiler applications – replace natural gas, coal, fuel oil
    n   Combined heat & power (CHP)                         Greenhouse Burlington, NJ

    n   Direct thermal (dryers, kilns)
    n   Natural gas pipeline injection
         u Medium & high Btu

    n   Greenhouse
    n   Leachate evaporation
    n   Vehicle fuel (LNG, CNG)
    n   Artist studio
    n   Hydroponics                Pottery Studio Sugar Grove, NC

    n   Aquaculture (fish farming)                             LFG-fired Boiler Ft. Wayne, IN

                     Municipalities use LFG for:
                      l Space heating at maintenance
                      l Production of biofuels
                      l Supplying electrical and steam
                      l Sludge drying operations at
              Infrared Space Heaters
               l   Fairfax and
                   Frederick Co.
                   VA installed
                   and operate
                   space heaters
               l   Savings of
                   >$5,000/year in
                   heating costs.

             Emerging Technologies:
              LFG for Vehicle Fuel
l   City of Denton, TX uses LFG
    to fuel a 3 million gal/yr
    biodiesel production facility
l   Los Angeles, CA converts
    LFG into CNG to fuel landfill
    equipment (Puente Hills LF)
l   Orange Co, CA – 1st
    commercial LFG-to-LNG
    facility online Jan. ‘07 – used
    in county waste trucks (Frank
    R. Bowerman LF)
          Emerging Technologies:
         LFG for Vehicle Fuel (cont)
    l    Central LF, CA plans to convert
         LFG to CNG to fuel Sonoma
         County school buses
    l    Franklin Co, OH is in the process
         of using LFG to produce methanol
         as a feedstock for biodiesel
    l    Waste Management in CA plans
         to produce 10-20K gal LNG per
         day for garbage trucks

                   Direct -Use Case Study
    City of Denton Landfill, TX and
          Biodiesel Industries
l   One renewable fuel ‘fuels’
l   LFG from city landfill used in
    industrial process to convert
    renewable feedstock, vegetable
    oils, and animal fats into 3 million
    gal/yr of biodiesel                       2005 LMOP
l   City garbage trucks and other            Award Winner
    utility vehicles are fueled by 80%
    diesel / 20% biodiesel (B20)
     n   Improves regional air quality
     n   Stimulates local economic
     n   Reduces dependence on foreign oil
                 Direct- Use Case Study
Jackson County Green Energy Park
                      Sylva, NC

 ct of

 Antioch, IL Community High
 School CHP Project
 l   First school cogeneration
     (CHP) project using LFG
 l   ½ mile pipeline from HOD
 l   12 Capstone MicroTurbines
     with 360 kW total electrical
     generation capacity
 l   Each microturbine exhausts
     300,000 BTU/hr at 550 o F
 l   Exhaust used for space
     heating and/or additional
     electrical output
 l   School expects to save
        Potential LFG Revenue
l   Electric projects
    n   Sale of electricity (4 - 6 cents/kWh)
    n   Sale of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)
    n   Premium pricing for renewables through
        RPS/RPG or voluntary green power markets
    n   Tax credits & incentives
    n   Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs)
l   Direct-use projects
    n   Sale of LFG (~$4.50 per MMBtu)
l   Both
    n   Greenhouse gas emissions trading
    n   Energy cost savings
    n   Local economic growth

         Jobs and Revenue
l   A typical 3 MW LFG electricity project
    is estimated to have the following
    benefits (direct, indirect, and induced)
    during the construction year:
    n   Increase the output of the national
        economy by ~$14 million ($3 million of
        which is a local benefit and mostly
        employee earnings)
    n   Employ nearly 70 people nationally
        (expressed in full-time equivalents [FTE]
        per year)
           Jobs and Revenue
             Creation (cont.)
l   A typical 1,040 scfm LFG direct-use
    project is estimated to have the
    following benefits (direct, indirect, and
    induced) during the construction year:
                      5-mile pipeline   10-mile pipeline
Increase output of
national economy        $6 million        $12 million

Portion of
national benefit at     $2 million         $4 million
local level
People employed
nationally (FTE)            43                80
Look Who’s Talking About
      Landfill Gas!

         There Are Still Many
       Untapped LFG Resources
   l   Currently ~560 candidate landfills with a total
       gas generation potential of 700 million cubic
       feet per day (~14,800 MMBtu/hr) OR electric
       potential of 1,370 MW (~11 million MWh/yr)
   l   If projects were developed at all these
       landfills, estimated
       n   Annual Environmental Benefit =
           Planting ~16 million acres of forest OR removing the
           emissions from ~11 million vehicles on the road, and
       n   Annual Energy Benefit =
           Powering 870,000 homes OR heating 1.5 million
           homes per year
There Are Still Many Untapped
    LFG Resources (cont.)
l   ~490 landfills have a gas collection
    system but no energy project
    n   Potential of 300,000 MMBtu/day or 1,000 MW
l   ~100 landfills have an energy project
    and excess LFG available
    n   Potential of 68,000 MMBtu/day or 240 MW
l   ~1,000 landfills do not have a gas
    collection system
    n   Potential of 240,000 MMBtu/day or 850 MW

             LMOP Partner
           Tools and Services
l   Partnerships (over 620)
    and networking
l   Newsletter and listserv
l   Direct project assistance
    n   Feasibility studies, end user
l   Technical assistance
l   LFG advocate                         EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson
                                  Jenkins Brick LFGE Project Grand Opening

l   PR/Ribbon cuttings                                    Moody, Alabama
                                                             October 2006
    How Can We Work Together?
     Direct Project Assistance
l   Analyze landfill resource – gas modeling
l   Identify potential matches – LMOP Locator
l   Assess landfill and end user facilities
l   Look at project possibilities
    n                        Direct-use (boiler, heating, cooling, direct thermal)
    n                        Combined Heat & Power (engine, turbine,
    n                        Electric (engine, turbine, microturbine)
    n                        Alternative Fuels (medium or high Btu, LNG, CNG)
l   Initial feasibility analyses – LFGcost

    Analyze Landfill Resource
                                                                 Indian River County Landfill


        LFG Production and Recovery (scfm)


                                             1500                                                              Recovery



                                                1979   1989   1999          2009          2019   2029   2039

    Identify Potential Matches

    LMOP Partner Recruitment
       Tools and Services
l   Project and Candidate Landfill Database
l   Green Pricing Accreditation Involvement
l   State Workshops/Conferences
     n   Working with State Partners & other key
l   Peer Matching
l   Web Site (e.g., publications, software,
l   LMOP 11th Annual Conference, Project
    Expo & Partner Awards –
    January 9 -10, 2008 in Washington, DC
                   For More Information
                                       T2 North: Brian
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                                                                       Rachel Goldstein
 Brian Guzzone                                               , (202) 343-9391 , (202) 343-9248                                Victoria Ludwig
                                                              , (202) 343-9291

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