Global Warming Greenhouse EffectÑa Natural Process Fact: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions magnify the greenhouse effect. These emissions are As the sun emits solar radiation, greenhouse gases created by the production and use of coal, in the earth’s atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide oil and natural gas—fossil fuels we all rely (CO2), trap some of this solar heat. Without on to power our world. this natural process to warm our planet, the earth would be so cold it would Fact: Other leading sources of human-produced CO2 are be uninhabitable. v Iron and steel mills The earth and its atmosphere reflect v Cement kilns some solar radiation. v Lime manufacturing plants v Ethanol plants Fact: More undesirable greenhouse gases include methane and nitrous oxide: emissions produced from landfills, agricultural practices and industrial processes. Most solar radiation is absorbed by the earth and its atmosphere. Greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere trap some solar radiation. Now, because of the increasing amount of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, too much solar radiation is being trapped. Every day, more and more CO2 and other greenhouse gases are being released into our atmosphere, which could lead to negative changes in our climate. v go sa . . na w ww s from a ge h im d eart S un a n Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas emitted from fertilized croplands. Carbon dioxide is emitted into the Photo by Cecil Williams atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned for energy. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are emitted from slash and burn deforestation techniques. Photo by Jamie Kitson Carbon dioxide is a common greenhouse gas that is emitted from automobiles. Photo by Samer Ajam The greenhouse gas methane is released from livestock. Photo by James Snell Carbon Dioxide SequestrationÑ Warming? a Solution to Global Warming? Science is seeking a variety of solutions to slow global warming. One suggested way is capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) before it is released into the air. Then, in a liquid form, it is permanently sequestered—or stored—in rock formations deep beneath the earth. An exciting step in this direction is taking place right now in eastern Ohio. The Ohio Geological Survey, in partnership with Battelle Memorial Institute, recently completed drilling nearly 9,000 feet below the earth’s surface to collect valuable geologic data on deep-rock formations. The knowledge gained from this research site will help in making critical decisions about the future of carbon dioxide storage in Ohio. Illustrated above are three primary types of rock formations that serve as reservoirs for storing CO2 underground: v Deep unmineable coal seams v Depleted oil and gas reservoirs v Deep saline reservoirs For millions of years, many of these geologic formations have stored crude oil, natural gas, saline fluids, and naturally occurring carbon dioxide. Today, they are logical places to consider for the storage of human-made CO2. Injecting liquid carbon dioxide into these formations also could increase the recovery of natural gas and oil, providing value-added byproducts that can help offset the cost of CO2 capture and storage. Drill rig on location at the Ohio Geological Survey CO2 No. 1 carbon sequestration research well in Tuscarawas County, Ohio.
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