Global warming and CO2 sequestration by kfm14657


									                                                                                   Global Warming
 Greenhouse EffectÑa Natural Process                                                                                                                           Fact: Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions magnify the
                                                                                                                                                                     greenhouse effect. These emissions are
 As the sun emits solar radiation, greenhouse gases                                                                                                                  created by the production and use of coal,
 in the earth’s atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide                                                                                                                   oil and natural gas—fossil fuels we all rely
 (CO2), trap some of this solar heat. Without                                                                                                                        on to power our world.
 this natural process to warm our planet,
 the earth would be so cold it would                                                                                                                           Fact: Other leading sources of human-produced
                                                                                                                                                                     CO2 are
 be uninhabitable.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  v Iron and steel mills
                                      The earth and its
                                      atmosphere reflect                                                                                                                                          v Cement kilns
                                      some solar radiation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  v Lime manufacturing plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                  v Ethanol plants

                                                                                                                                                               Fact: More undesirable greenhouse gases include
                                                                                                                                                                     methane and nitrous oxide: emissions
                                                                                                                                                                     produced from landfills, agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                     practices and industrial processes.
Most solar radiation is absorbed
by the earth and its atmosphere.

                                                                                     Greenhouse gases in the earth’s
                                                                                     atmosphere trap some solar radiation.

                                                                                            Now, because of the increasing amount
                                                                                            of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere,
                                                                                            too much solar radiation is being trapped.
                                                                                            Every day, more and more CO2 and other
                                                                                            greenhouse gases are being released into
                                                                                            our atmosphere, which could lead to
                                                                                            negative changes in our climate.

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                                                                           Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas
                                                                           emitted from fertilized croplands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Carbon dioxide is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  emitted into the
                                                                                                                                                                               Photo by Cecil Williams
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  atmosphere when
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  fossil fuels are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  burned for energy.

                                                            Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are emitted
                                                            from slash and burn deforestation techniques.

                                                                                                                                       Photo by Jamie Kitson

       Carbon dioxide is a common greenhouse
       gas that is emitted from automobiles.

                                                                                                                 Photo by Samer Ajam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The greenhouse gas methane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        is released from livestock.
                                                                                                                                                        Photo by James Snell
Carbon Dioxide SequestrationÑ
a Solution to Global Warming?
Science is seeking a variety of solutions to slow global
warming. One suggested way is capturing carbon
dioxide (CO2) before it is released into the air. Then,
in a liquid form, it is permanently sequestered—or
stored—in rock formations deep beneath the earth.
An exciting step in this direction is taking place right
now in eastern Ohio.
The Ohio Geological Survey, in partnership with
Battelle Memorial Institute, recently completed drilling
nearly 9,000 feet below the earth’s surface to collect
valuable geologic data on deep-rock formations. The
knowledge gained from this research site will help in
making critical decisions about the future of carbon
dioxide storage in Ohio.

                                                           Illustrated above are three primary types of rock formations
                                                           that serve as reservoirs for storing CO2 underground:
                                                               v Deep unmineable coal seams
                                                               v Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
                                                               v Deep saline reservoirs

                                                           For millions of years, many of these geologic formations have
                                                           stored crude oil, natural gas, saline fluids, and naturally
                                                           occurring carbon dioxide. Today, they are logical places to
                                                           consider for the storage of human-made CO2.
                                                           Injecting liquid carbon dioxide into these formations also
                                                           could increase the recovery of natural gas and oil, providing
                                                           value-added byproducts that can help offset the cost of
                                                           CO2 capture and storage.

Drill rig on location at the Ohio Geological
Survey CO2 No. 1 carbon sequestration
research well in Tuscarawas County, Ohio.

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