Great Lakes Pollution Prevention

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					ESM 595   Chris Gibson
  "A lake is the landscape's most
 beautiful and expressive feature. It
is the earth's eye; looking into which
 the beholder measures the depth of
           his own nature."
                Henry David Thoreau,
•   Background
•   Agencies
•   Programs/Projects
•   Updates
     Great Lakes Water Quality
       Agreement (GLWQA)

• Created in 1972, revised in 1978
• Purpose is to “restore and maintain the
  chemical, physical, and biological integrity
  of the waters of the Great Lakes basin
• International Joint Commission (IJC)
The International Joint Commission
prevents and resolves disputes between
the United States of America and Canada
under the 1909 boundary Waters Treaty
and pursues the common good of both
countries as an independent and objective
advisor to the two governments.
• Remedial Action Plans (RAPS)
• 43 total
   – 26 in US
   – 12 in Canada
   – 5 shared
• Ecosystem approach
• Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
  – Toxics Reduction Team
  – Virtual Elimination Pilot Project

• Pollution Prevention Grant Assistance
Strategy for the virtual elimination
of persistent toxic substances in
the Great Lakes
   • Acknowledges and builds on the existing
     Canadian and U.S. regulatory programs
     which address the targeted substances
   • Encourages ongoing programs or emerging
     initiatives to better address toxic releases
   • Provides a context of basin-wide goals for
     localized actions
The Four Step Analytical Process
1. Gather information
2. Analyze current regulations, initiatives,
    and programs which manage or control
3. Identify cost-effective options to achieve
    further reductions
4. Implement actions to work toward the
    goal of virtual elimination
•   Mercury
•   PCBs
•   Dioxin/Furans
•   Benzo[a]pyrene & HCB
•   Pesticides
•   Alkyl Lead
•   Octachlorostyrene
              Critical Pollutants
Level I Substances               Level II Substances
 Aldrin/dieldrin                  Cadmium and cadmium compounds
 Benzo(a)pyrene {B(a)P}           1,4-dichlorobenzene
 Chlordane                        3,3'-dichlorobenzidine
 DDT (+DDD+DDE)                   Dinitropyrene
 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)          Endrin
 Alkyl-lead                       Heptachlor
 Mercury and mercury compounds    Hexachlorobutadiene
 Mirex                            Hexachlorocyclohexane
 Octachlorostyrene                Pentachlorobenzene
 PCBs                             Pentachlorophenol
 PCDD (Dioxins) and PCDF          Tetrachlorobenzene
 (Furans)                         Tributyl tin
 Toxaphene                        PAHs
• Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
  – Toxics Reduction Team
  – Virtual Elimination Pilot Project

• Pollution Prevention Grant Assistance Program
  P2 Grant Assistance Program

• 1992 –1995: GLNPO awarded over
  $1,600,000 in grants
• Funded general P2 technical
  assistance to supporting activities
• Built a network of environmental
                    IN 1997
•   Council of Great Lakes Industry                       •   Michigan Department of Agriculture
    Mobilizing/Coordinating Industry Support of the           Clean Sweeps
    Virtual Elimination Strategy                                – $60,000
       – $70,000                                          •   Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
•   Great Lakes United                                        Mercury Pollution Prevention Project
    Virtual Elimination Strategy Implementation Project         – $100,000
       – $70,000                                          •   National Wildlife Federation
•   Illinois Environmental Protection Agency                  Non-governmental Organization Involvement in
    Reducing Mercury Releases Through Pollution               Implementating Virtual Elimination
    Prevention in Healthcare Facilities                         – $70,000
       – $82,800                                          •   Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
•   Indiana Department of Agriculture                         Protection
    Clean Sweeps                                              A Partnership for Prevention (Mercury)
       – $30,000                                                – $75,000
•   Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin                   •   Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
    Household Hazardous Waste Cleansweep                      Pollution Prevention Specialist
       – $12,000                                                – $18,400
•   Restoration of degraded sites
•   Prevention and control of pollution
•   Conservation and protection of human
    and ecosystem health
•   Great Lakes Cleanup Fund
•   Great Lakes Commission

•   Online partnership

•   State, provincial, federal and regional
    partner agencies and organizations
 Great Lakes Regional Pollution
Prevention Roundtable (GLRPPR)
• Started in 1990
• U.S. EPA Region 5 States
• Today – over 160 organizations and 345
  individuals from the Great Lakes States
  and Ontario
• Ban use of mixing zones
  – 70,000 toxic pounds annually
• Prohibits new discharges
• 10 year phase out
• 300/600 major industrial and municipal
  facilities affected
• Historical P2
   – Focused on TSS and BOD loadings
   – Implemented 2º treatment facilities
• Present P2
   – Concerned with chlorinated organics
   – Replaced elemental Cl with ClO2
• Future P2
   – No discharge of effluent
   – Introduce the closed-cycle mill
               Web Links
• Great Lakes Information Network
• EPA Great Lakes National Program Office
• Environment Canada Great Lakes
  Information Management Resource