Handling noise pollution
Noise pollution raised a problem in the Neckar valley within the past years. The noise immis-
sions are an important aspect which has to be considered in urban development. The recor-
ding of the noise nuisance and its abatement are basic intentions of the inner urban deve-
lopment in Stuttgart. Especially in order to lay foundations for a new residential area, a mi-
xed-used or a center zone.
1.1 The urban planning principle of the Federal Immission Control Act
First of all there is a tight connection between urban development and noise protection
created by the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG) in which the planning principle of
urban development is laid down.
The purpose of the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG) is the protection of human
beings, animals and plants against dangerous immissions, for example noise nuisance or
dust and the prevention of dangerous effects. The urban planning principle is anchored in
§ 50 of the Federal Immission Control Act: „Urban areas have to be arranged, thus environ-
mental nuisance to residential areas and other areas in need of protection would be avoided
as far as possible."
The different kinds of land uses, like residential zones, mixed-used or center zones and in-
dustrial areas, have to be arranged according to this principle. That means at first disturbing
and sensitive uses should be spatially divided.
1.2 Regulations and limit values for noise immissions
Next point to be considered is the definition of dangerous environmental effects according to
the Federal immission Control Act. In order to decide about the danger of immissions for the
affected residents the relevant regulations and noise limit values have to be consulted and
compared with the existing noise levels. The noise limit values are addicted
• to the land use ordinance,
• the time of day (day or night),
• to the kind of noise source (traffic or industrial noise, noise from sport and facility activi-
• to the kind of the planning actions (a development plan or a building project) and
• to planned projects and existing situations.
In order to assess the danger of immissions, for urban development the DIN 18005 has to be
consulted. The acoustic benchmarks for urban development are defined in this DIN-standard.
L a n d u s e o rd in a n c e D IN 1 8 0 0 5
(B a u n u tz u n g s ve ro r d n u n g )
day n ig h t
R e s id e n tia l a re a 5 5 d B (A ) 4 5 d B (A )
S p e c ia l re s id e n tia l a re a 6 0 d B (A ) 4 5 /4 0 d B ( A )
M ix e d z o n e 6 0 d B (A ) 5 0 /4 5 d B ( A )
C e n te r z o n e 6 5 d B (A ) 5 5 /5 0 d B ( A )
L ig h t in d u s tria l a re a 6 5 d B (A ) 5 5 /5 0 d B ( A )
Tab. 1: Some benchmarks for noise immissions in towns
The municipality have to work out measures and ways how the noise values of the DIN
18005 can be under-run. But these noise values are only benchmarks, so in special cases an
exceeding of these values is possible. But the greater the exceeding the more important ha-
ve to be the reasons for it.
In inner urban areas we have not the possibility to realize the same noise abatement measu-
res like in new plannings. In already existing situations like the Proside project area active
measures at the source, for example a noise wall along the street, is not practicable because
of shortage of space and urban design.
During the night from 10 to 6 o´clock, the first value in Tab. 1 applies to traffic noise, the se-
cond value to all other kinds of noise. In residential areas the nighttime value of 45 dB(A)
should not be exceeded. Because an assessment level outside of more than 45 dB(A) will
effect sleep disorders.
1.3 Noise sources
Two thirds of the german population feel annoyed by street traffic. It is far outstanding com-
pared to other noise sources.
Nuisance of the population by noise
Old federal states
Industry New federal states
Fig. 1: Nuisance of population by noise
The diagram in Fig. 1 is divided in old and new federal states, in the old federal states 46 %
of the population is disturbed by noise caused by air traffic, and 20 % by rail traffic, industry
und neighbours and 8 % by sport events.
Also in Stuttgart and in the project area traffic is the main reason for noise nuisance.
The following map shows the main roads of the project area.
Fig. 2: Noise from road traffic (during the day)
Our project area is especially effected by the Mercedesstraße, the König-Karl-Straße and the
Daimlerstraße. The medium assessment level of these streets are:
Mercedesstr. 75-80 70-75
König-Karl-Str. 70-75 65-70
Daimlerstr. 70-75 65-70
These noise levels come from our traffic noise mapping from 1998 (Stuttgarter Straßenlärm-
kartierung), which based on noise measurements along every road in Stuttgart. Within the
scope of the communal noise abatement planning in Stuttgart we have started to update the
Along the Mercedesstraße, the König-Karl-Straße and the Daimlerstraße the benchmarks for
a center zone are exceeded. As mentioned active noise abatment measures are not practi-
cable. Only measures, like traffic reduction or noise protection windows are possible.
Conflicts between industrial and residential uses arised above all in overlap areas in which
both uses have intertwined within the past decades like in our project area.
Fig. 3: Different kinds of buildings in the PROSIDE project area
In Fig. 3 the residential buildings are blue, the industrial buildings are grey marked. The office
buildings are also blue, but by the dimension of the buildings, you can recognize the residen-
tial buildings, for example along the Veielbrunnenweg.
The area has a dense building structure and in some places there are disturbing uses in in-
ner courtyards of residential buildings.
For the recording and the assessment of industrial noise in Germany the Technical Instructi-
ons on Noise (TA Lärm) is consulted. The noise limit values correspond for the most parts to
the benchmarks of the DIN 18005.
Within the scope of the communal noise abatement planning the noise nuisance caused by
industry in Bad Cannstatt is as well an important factor as noise nuisance caused by sports
and leisure facilities.
Near by the project area the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadion and other sport fields and halls are
Fig. 4: Sports and leisure facilities
Sport facilities have to be assessed according to the 18. Federal Immission Control Ordinan-
ce (Sportanlagenlärmschutzverordnung) and its noise limit values. The assessment of the
noise nuisance in the project area caused by the sport facilities shows where habitation can
Our project area borders directly on the Cannstatter Wasen. Once a year in autumn there is
one of the biggest folk festival of germany, the so called Cannstatter Volksfest, and also in
spring and during the whole year there are great festivals and exhibitions. To reccord and
assess the noise nuisance caused by leisure activities in Germany the Freizeitlärmrichtlinie is
consulted. According to this guide line noise nuisance caused by leisure facilities has to be
avoided as far as possible. Nuisance which cannot be avoided has to be reduced to the mi-
Also the attitude of the neighbourhood towards the noise source can be important. New resi-
dential areas or even new neighbours could be potential complainents against such facilities.
The municipality must try to prevent such conflicts in the scope of urban planning.
1.4 Noise abatement planning
To face all these mentioned noise problems, the municipalities in Germany are obliged to
develope a noise abatement plan according to §§ 47 a-f of the Federal Immission Control
The next figures show the typical steps of the noise abatement planning.
Recording of the noise pollution and the conflict areas
by noise emission and conflict maps
Analysis of the conflict areas
Analysis of people and utilizations Analysis of noise sources: traffic
affected: number of population, kind volume, kinds of vehicles, kinds of
of sensitive utilizations etc. factories etc.
• Where are measures particularly • Where must noise reduction
urgent because of the high nu m- measures be taken to obtain the
ber of persons affected or the greatest possible e ffect?
high noise pollution?
Fig. 5: Noise abatement plan -step one
Noise abatement plan
Concept of measures (technical, structural, planning, de-
signing, organizational measures) with statement of the effect,
the time period of realization and the expected costs
Implementation of the measures
Control of the results
Fig. 6: Noise abatement plan – step two
For example the following figure shows the noise emission map of Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen.
Fig. 7: Noise emission map (night) – road traffic
Street traffic is the main source. There are high noise levels along all main streets, over 60
dB(A), over 65 dB(A) and even over 70 dB(A) (orange, red and pink areas).
Fig. 8: Noise conflict map (night) – all sources
Fig. 8 shows the resulting conflicts at night caused by traffic (violet), industry and sport and
leisure facilities (orange). It is the comparison of the existing noise levels with the different
The city council of Stuttgart has decided in 1996 to set up a noise abatement plan first for the
city district of Vaihingen, then for Zuffenhausen and the latest one is the plan for Bad Cann-
statt and the Proside project area.
Fig. 9: State of noise abatement planning in Stuttgart
1.5 Noise abatement measures
Which noise abatement measures are possible? In principle the following measures have to
1. distance control (a sufficient distance between disturbing and sensitive uses without any
special measures according to § 50 BImSchG, the principle of spatial separation)
2. measures at the noise source
3. measures on the way of transmission (for example noise protections walls)
4. measures at the acceptor (for example noise protection windows, arrangement of
bedrooms far from the noise source or the last possibility is
5. deconcentration (displacement of one of the uses).
Fig. 10 shows an abstract with the main noise sources in the project area:
Fig. 10: Sources of noise pollution
The noise situation in the project area is especially effected by
• the federal road B 14 which runs along the opposite site of the Neckar
• the main roads and the tracks.
For most of the residents rail noise is less disturbing than road traffic noise with the same
assessment level. An expertise in the scope of a decontamination program of the German
National Railways was ordered for the project area. If the decontamination value of 70 dB(A)
is exceeded, the affected residential buildings would be furnished with noise protection win-
• In Order to lay foundations for a mixed used urbanistic area the concerns of immission
control have to be considered.
• To be at odds with other planning aims in individual cases it can be necessary to exceed
the noise benchmarks. However, the planning must not cause the limitation or even the
unintentional movement of enterprises and facilities of the Neckar valley.
• Conflict areas have to be recorded and analysed. New conflicts must not be created. On
the basis of the noise abatement plan for Bad Cannstatt we have to decide, where habi-
tation can be recommended in the Proside project area.
• In spite of the individuality of the conflicts a lot of planning cases are comparable and it
makes sense to arrange the way of solution within the scope of Proside.
In the project area road and rail traffic is the main reason for noise nuisance. The area has a
dense building structure. Conflicts between industrial and residential uses arised, because in
some zones both uses have intertwined within the past decades. There are disturbing uses
in inner courtyards of residential buildings. Also the noise nuisance caused by sports and
leisure facilities is an important factor. Near by the project area the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadion
and other sport fields and halls are situated. A large fairground, the Cannstatter Wasen, bor-
ders directly on the area. Big folk festivals and great exhibitions take place there during seve-
ral weeks. The aim of the new development plan should be the avoidance of new conflicts
and the mitigation of existing conflicts, so that long-term uses could be established without
The following noise emission maps abstract the results of the noise appraisals.
Fig. 11: Noise emission map (night) – overall traffic
Fig. 12: Noise emission map (day) – overall traffic
Fig. 13: Noise emission map (night) – road traffic
Fig. 14: Noise emission map (day) – road traffic
The maps (Fig. 11-14) show that the noise immissions which effect the project area are con-
siderable. But in spite of the high noise nuisance habitation would be realisable all over the
project area. The arrangements of the buildings have to assure that there are protected out-
door zones like inner courtyards. Nevertheless the consequences for the property values will
be significant. In some of the conflict areas, for example along the Neckar or in immediate
vicinity to the Cannstatter Wasen, only special kinds of habitation could be realized. For e-
xample the resident area could be interesting for people who feel up to pay a lot of money for
living in the center of events. This demands a high-quality equipment and optimal passive
noise abatement measures.
Otherwise because of the existing noise nuisance and addicted to the new planning szena-
rio, concepts for a better active noise protection can be developed, but in our area it only
could be realized limitedly.
3 Measures and costs, discussion and recommendations
The costs for the noise abatement planning amount to 2 to 4 € per resident. They are com-
posed of the costs for recording the noise situation (1 to 1,50 € per resistant) and for measu-
re planning (2 to 3 € per resistant). For Bad Cannstatt 3 € per resident are arranged. The
costs for the noise abatement measures will vary from a couple of thousand Euros for traffic
calming measures to several million Euros for noise barriers. Tab. 2 shows the noise abate-
ment measures which were discussed during the test planning (No. 1-4) and other recom-
mended measures for an optimised approach (No. 5-8).
No. Description Noise Time re- Respon- costs external effects (ad-
abatement quired for sible insti- vantages / disadvan-
implemen- tution tages)
1 Noise protection Inside the short- Municipa- high + very effective inside
windows in resi- buildings medium lity the buildings
dential and office very high - no abatement in gar-
buildings dens and on balconies
2 Covering of the high long Federation very high - urbanistic problems
3 traffic calming medium short Municipa- medium - traffic displacement
measures along lity towards side roads
4 Release of the medium mittel Municipa- medium - traffic displacement
König-Karl- lity towards side roads
5 Traffic calming medium short- Municipa- medium - traffic displacement
measures along medium lity towards side roads
6 Construction of a high medium Deutsche high - urbanistic problems
noise abatement Bahn AG
wall along the
7 Noise abatement high medium Municipa- high - urbanistic problems
wall along the lity
8 Massive dense high for the long Municipa- high + potect the buildings
buildings along buildings lity behind
the Mercedes- behind
Tab. 2: Appraisal of the noise abatement measures