Evaluation of beryllium levels around the Brush Ceramics facility by ltq40826

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									  Evaluation of beryllium levels
around the Brush Ceramics facility
         Tucson, Arizona

        Hsin-I Lin, ScD and Don Herrington

          Office of Environmental Health
      Arizona Department of Health Services
                 Phoenix, Arizona
Why are we here?


 • Community leaders wanted to investigate concerns
   about beryllium levels in the environment

 • To gather information for a human health evaluation
   of the levels of beryllium in soil and air

 • Determine, from the information, if there is a health
   threat to children and employees at schools and
   residents
What is beryllium?

                   • Beryllium
                      − Natural occurring metal
                           • Average of 0.52 mg/kg in Arizona soil
                      − Industrial application
                           • Air craft
 Beryllium metal           • Computer
                           • HD TV




  Beryllium ore         Beryllium oxide            Beryllium alloys
How can beryllium affect my health?
• Breathing
    − Non-cancer:
        • Acute beryllium disease: > 1,000 µg/m3
        • Chronic beryllium disease (CBD): > 0.2 µg/m3
              − Exposure  sensitization  CBD
        • Ambient air level: 0.0002 — 0.00003 µg/m3
    − Cancer: lung cancer

• Ingestion
    − No adverse health effects were reported in humans
    − Not easy to be absorbed by the body

• Skin contact
    − Only when the skin is scraped or cut
    − Rash
                                                          — ATSDR 2002
     Concerns from the communities and
     government agencies


                                                             • Brush Ceramic Products, Inc.
                                    Esperanza
                                    Ele mentary                          houses
                                                             • ExistingNinos
                                                                     Los
                                                                     Ele mentary
                                                             • 6 schools
                 Ocotillo       Los Amigos
               Ele mentary      Ele mentary
                                                             • 900 future houses
                                        50
Sierra Middle School
                                       lots


        Sunnyside             595 Houses
          High          60
                                              200 lots
         School        lots

                    Los Ranchitos                  Brush
                     Ele mentary                  Ceramics
               How was the Health Consultation
               conducted?
                                                                      Toxicological  Health-based
                                                                       information comparison values




                         Site visit


                                            Data analysis             Health effect evaluation


                       Data review

Receive data




                   Community involvement                                      Draw public health
                                                                              conclusions

               Based on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
               Registry (ATSDR) Public Health Assessment Guidance
What did we find?
How much beryllium is released
from Brush Ceramic Products?
                                       10
                                                                          The amount of
                                        9                              beryllium released
                                                                       from stacks did not
 Average amount of beryllium (g/day)




                                        8
                                                                      exceed the regulatory
                                        7                                    permit
                                        6

                                        5

                                        4

                                        3

                                        2

                                        1

                                        0
                                             National   2001   2002      2003       2004
                                            Emission
                                            Standard
                      Average beryllium levels in Soil
                                          160


                                                          U.S EPA Region 9                             The soil measurements
                                          140
                                                          Residential                                    are about 100 times
Average beryllium concentration (mg/kg)




                                                          Preliminary                                  lower than the health-
                                          120             Remediation Goal                                based comparison
                                                                                                                values
                                          100


                                                             ATSDR’s Child
                                           80
                                                             Comparison Value

                                           60

                                                                                                           Soil
                                           40                                                          background
                                                             Arizona Residential                          levels
                                                             Soil Remediation
                                           20
                                                             Level

                                            0
                                                Health-based comparison values     1999 soil samples           2000 soil samples
  Two soil measurements exceeded the
  Arizona SRL for residential area
  ATSDR’s      ATSDR’s     U.S. EPA Region 9       Arizona
   Child        Adult         Residential      Residential Soil       Soil
Comparison   Comparison       Preliminary       Remediation       measurements
   Value        Value      Remediation Goal         Level
                                                                   1.9 mg/kg
100 mg/kg    1,000 mg/kg      150 mg/kg          1.4 mg/kg
                                                                   3.0 mg/kg

  • Why the Arizona SRL is much lower?

      U.S. EPA: beryllium causes      U.S. EPA: Beryllium does not
      cancer through ingestion        cause cancer through ingestion


                            1997 1998
                           Arizona
                             SRL
  • The two soil measurements do not cause health concern
                                          Beryllium levels in the ambient air
                                                      Arizona Ambient
                                          0.00045     Air Quality Guideline
                                                                                                  The air measurements
                                                                                                   are at least 10 times
Average beryllium concentration (ug/m3)




                                          0.00040

                                                         ATSDR’s Cancer Risk                      lower than the health-
                                          0.00035
                                                         Evaluation Guide                           based comparison
                                          0.00030                                                          values

                                          0.00025


                                          0.00020


                                          0.00015


                                          0.00010
                                                         Ambient air level
                                                         (ATSDR 2002)
                                          0.00005


                                          0.00000
                                                    Health-based   Sample blank Transporation    Los Ninos   Los Amingo     Ocotillo
                                                     comparison                    building     elementary   elementary   elementary
                                                       values                                     school       school       school
Surface wipe samples

  U.S. DOE house keeping limit     Range of surface wipe results

         0.002 µg/cm2               0.00002 — 0.01052 µg/cm2


• Three surface wipe measurements exceeded the U.S. DOE
  house keeping standard (10 CFR 850.31)

• U.S. DOE house keeping standard:
    − Limit the spread of beryllium contamination
    − Assess the adequacy of house keeping measures

• Concerns from the communities
    − School kinds and employees could breathe in the beryllium
      particles that may be resuspended from the surfaces
 Are the surface wipe sampling results
 good enough for health effects
 evaluation?
• Caplan (1993)
    − Increasingly misused the surface wipe procedure as an indicator of
      health hazard from particulate aerosols

• Lack of precision for regulatory purposes (McArthur 1992, Klingner
   1994, and Lichtenwalner 1992)

    − Low reproducibility
    − Low efficiency in removing material
    − Recoveries are dependent on the surfaces

• Wipe samples are not representative of what people
  breathe
 How can we address the concerns
 from the communities?

• Evaluate the results from the soil, ambient air and stack
  emission

• Evaluate the chances for school students and employees
  to breathe in the beryllium particles that may be
  resuspended from surfaces

• Combine results from above to draw a public health
  conclusion
   What are the chances?
                                            Accessibility    Accessibility
 Sample ID         Location       History
                                            for students    for employees

SSHS/ADM      Attic space above
                                    NA      None            Limited
              the hallway

Warehouse     Dirt and grime       17
                                            None            None
ductwork      from a vacuum       years

Custodial     Above a lighting     19       Under
                                                            Limited
supply closet fixture             years     supervision

                                                     (Mr. Gene Repola, 2005)


    • The school students and employees are not likely to
      breathe in beryllium particles from these locations

    • The surface wipe samples do not cause health concern
 Conclusion


• Some beryllium is present in the environment

• Exposure to both site related and naturally occurring
  beryllium are not at levels likely to cause adverse health
  effects, even to children

• The site does not pose a public health hazard
 Where can I get more information?


• Health Consultation “Brush Ceramic Products”
   − http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/oeh/atsdr_reports.htm

• Pima County Department of Environmental Quality
   − 520-740-3340

• Arizona Department of Health Services
   − 602-364-3118
   − 1-800-367-6412
    Acknowledgement
• Pima County Supervisors Valadez and Elias
• Ms. Eva Gong and Mr. Gene Repola from Sunnyside High School District
• Mr. Ruben Reyes from Congressman Grijalva’s Office
• Dr. Eric Betterton from University of Arizona
• City of Tucson Environmental Services Department
• City of Tucson Development Services
• Pima County Department of Environmental Quality
• Pima County Department of Health
• Pima County Public Works Deputy County Administrator’s Office
• Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
• U.S. EPA Region 9
• Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

								
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