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					Indroduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Adzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Archaic Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Archaic Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Archaic Gorgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Archaic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Atl-atl Stones/Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Bannerstones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Bar Amulets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Birdstones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Boatstones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Bone, Antler & Shell Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Celts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Cones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Copper Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Discoidals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Fluted Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Gorgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 Hematite Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Lanceolate Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302 Lost Lake Blades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 Mississippian Points & Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Paleo Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Plummets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Pottery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Woodland Points & Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Other Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Summary of Traits by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451

See page 148 for more information.

See page 147 for more infor-

Woodland Pendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388

mation.

Of the countless millions of artifacts made in the prehistoric Midwest, only a small percentage is considerably above average in one or more ways. This percentage number is open to debate, depending on what rarity factors are used and even how such factors are subjectively viewed. Less than 2% of all intact examples of field-found artifacts are in this category of excellence. Half a dozen degree-of-rarity factors can be considered. Class — This category is very important. Birdstones are far fewer in number than, say, hammerstones, and much more valuable. Size — In general, and based on an average size, larger artifacts are in a minority. At least insofar as artifacts are concerned, bigger is better. Material — Higher-quality material in any artifact class adds to desirability. This is because such material is usually uncommon, or is out of the ordinary for a class, such as a plummet made of chert rather than the often-seen hematite. Better material is sometimes dense or compact, difficult to work, or more colorful. Workstyle — How, and how carefully, an artifact was made is key to how it is considered today. A carefully knapped and symmetrical Archaic point or blade is much more admired than any field-grade artifacts of the same size and form. Finish — This means several things, depending on the artifact class. For slate and hardstone, finish includes the smoothness and regularity of grinding plus the amount and degree of polish. Finish for chipped artifacts would mainly include basal grinding (for notched Archaic blades) and surface grinding and polish (for some Mississippian adzes). Finish can be considered as the final or near-final step(s) taken to complete an artifact, including drilling when appropriate. Condition — This means how an artifact compares to what it was like when first made and used. It does not include normal resharpening or rechipping of flint or regrinding of stone tool edges. Breakage and major damage from prehistoric times (anything non-normal) is part of present condition; so also is any damage done in more modern or recent times. The artifacts pictured and described in this book tend to be better examples, in one or more ways, of the qualities just described. A select few artifacts, such as a large ferruginous quartzite bannerstone in as-made condition, can be superior in every way. The artifacts shown give a good overview of high-grade artifacts produced in the ancient Midwest, when prehistoric craftspeople made full use of their knowledge and skill. Their work has not only survived, but has withstood the stern and demanding tests of time.

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Ridged adz, Archaic period, flattened on reverse. Made of brown stone with surface deposits, the adz is in a minority style. It is 6³⁄₈" long, from Butler County, Missouri. Collection of and photograph by Ron Smith, Kentucky. $275.00.

Archaic grooved adz, flat on one face, 5¹⁄₈" long. Made of graybrown hardstone, it was found in an area that has produced some fine adzes, southern Illinois. Collection of and photograph by Ron Smith, Kentucky. $175.00.

Adz, Woodland period, 2" x 3¹⁄₄". This attractive adz was fashioned from green and cream hardstone, and was found by the owner in the early 1970s. Parke County, Indiana. Elmer Guerri photograph. Mac Costello collection, Indiana. $100.00.

Adz, Woodland period, 2¹⁄₂" x 6". It is made of unknown stone that features alternating layers of black and deep red with creamy inclusions. The blade is gouge like, slightly cupped. This adz was found by R. Bridges in southern Indiana. Elmer Guerri photograph. Mac Costello collection, Indiana. Museum grade.

Adz, Woodland period, 3³⁄₄" long. The material is a pale blue and black stone with medium polish, and the adz came from Logan County, Ohio. Private collection. $150.00.

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Archaic blade,	 probably	 a	 Stanfield,	 1³⁄₄"	 x	 4³⁄₄".	 Resharpened	 mainly	 on	one	edge,	the	flint	or	chert	has	several	colors	and	much	patina.	The	 owner	found	this	knife	in	Maries	County,	Missouri.	Mary	Jane	Wieberg	 photograph.	James McKinney collection, Missouri. $165.00 – 180.00.

Pine Tree blade, Early	 Archaic	 ca.	 6000	 BC,	 2⁷⁄₈"	 long.	 This	 example	with	needle	tip	is	made	 of	mixed	chert	and	has	comparatively	large	serrations.	It	is	from	 the	 Bowling	 Green	 area,	 Kentucky.	 Dale Smith collection, West Virginia.	$450.00.

Pine Tree blade, Early	 Archaic	 ca.	 6000	 BC,	 2⁷⁄₈"	 long.	 The	 blade	has	bold	serrations	and	is	 made	from	white	flint	or	chert.	 Ex-collection	 Noel,	 the	 Pine	 Tree	 is	 from	 Pulaski	 County,	 Kentucky.	 Dale Smith collection, West Virginia.	$360.00.

Dovetail or St. Charles blade,	Early	 Archaic,	2"	x	4³⁄₁₆".	Brown	flint	was	 used	 for	 this	 artifact,	 found	 by	 K.	 Webb	 and	 ex-collections	 Spaulding	and	Marko	Watkins.	Montcalm	 County,	 Michigan.	 Bob Rantz collection, Indiana.	$265.00.

Maples-like blade,	Late	Archaic,	2⁵⁄₁₆"	x	5⁵⁄₈".	 Made	 of	 Bayport	 chert,	 it	 was	 found	 by	 K.	 Webb	 and	 is	 ex-collections	 Spaulding	 and	 Marko	 Watkins.	 It	 has	 a	 Dickey	 COA	 (#020473)	 and	 was	 found	 in	 Montcalm	 County,	 Michigan.	 Bob Rantz collection, Indiana. $270.00.

Mehlville blade,	Archaic,	smooth	white	 flint.	 This	 artifact	 is	 wide	 at	 3¹⁄₂"	 x	 4"	 and	 thin	 for	 size.	 It	 was	 purchased	 by	 the	 owner	 at	 a	 farm	 sale	 in	 Macon,	 Missouri.	 Mary	 Jane	 Wieberg	 photograph.	 James McKinney collection, Missouri. $300.00 – 350.00.

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Gorget,	 three-hole	 Glacial	 Kame	 type,	 4³⁄₈"	 long.	 While	 termed	 a	 gorget	 because	 of	 the	 number	 of	 holes,	this	may	actually	have	been	 pendant.	 The	 reverse	 is	 scooped	 or	 hollowed,	 and	 the	 gorget	 was	 found	 in	 Hardin	 County,	 Ohio.	 Mike Barron collection, Ohio. $800.00 plus.

Gorget,	 Glacial	 Kame,	 4"	 long,	 near-black	 cannel	 coal.	 With	 cord	 channel	between	the	holes,	it	is	ex-collections	Mel	Wilkins	and	Mike	 Barron.	Adams	County,	Ohio.	Garvin collection, Ohio.	$700.00.

Two-hole gorget, Glacial	Kame	Indians,	 6"	 long.	 Made	 of	 banded	 glacial	 slate,	the	reverse	face	has	a	large	chip.	 It	was	found	in	Richland	County,	Ohio.	 Mike Barron collection, Ohio.	$450.00.

Glacial Kame gorget, Late	 Archaic,	 banded	 slate,	 6³⁄₄"	 long.	 This	 fine	 piece	 has	 a	 long	 collecting	 history,	 having	 been	owned	by	Stan	Copeland,	Dr.	Glass,	 Ron	Evans,	Ron	Helman,	Dave	Root,	and	 Lynn	Brooks.	It	has	been	pictured	in	Ohio Archaeologist	 Vol.	 38	 No.	 1,	 page	 35,	 Prehistoric American	Vol.	26	No.	3,	page	 14,	and	Who’s Who in Indian Relics	#9,	 page	 252.	 Franklin	 County,	 Ohio.	 Pat Mooney collection, Indiana.	$1,500.00.

Glacial Kame gorget,	 Late	 Archaic	 banded	 slate.	 The	 size	is	2¹⁄₈"	x	5¹⁄₈",	and	the	example	is	well	shaped	and	 finished.	 Ex-collections	 Nelson	 and	 Moore,	 it	 is	 from	 Randolph	 County,	 Indiana.	 Pat Mooney collection, Indiana.	$1,500.00 plus.

	

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Axe,	Archaic,	3/4	groove	slant-groove	 type.	 Made	 of	 dark	 diorite,	 the	 axe	 is	 4¹⁄₂"	 high	 and	 ex-collections	 Knoblock	 and	 Patterson.	 Adams	 County,	 Illinois.	Gregory L. Perdun collection, Illinois.	$300.00.

Axe,	 Archaic,	 Trophy-like	 3/4	 groove,	 4³⁄₄"	 high.	 It	 has	 good	 groove	 ridges	 and	 a	 string	 channel	 flute	 on	 the	 1/4	 side.	 The	 hardstone	 is	 quite	 colorful,	 being	 dark	 and	 cream.	 This	 superior	 small	axe	is	from	Pike	County,	Illinois.	 Gregory L. Perdun collection, Illinois.	 $300.00.

Axe, Archaic,	 unusual	 long-poll	 type.	The	groove	ridges	are	raised	 and	 the	 1/4	 side	 is	 channeled.	 Light-colored	 hardstone	 was	 used	for	the	axe,	now	heavily	patinated.	The	axe	is	4³⁄₄"	high,	from	 Greene	 County,	 Illinois.	 Gregory L. Perdun collection, Illinois.	 $425.00 plus.

Axe,	1/2	groove	Keokuk,	Archaic,	 gray	 and	 tan	 hardstone,	 2⁵⁄₁₆"	 x	 4⁷⁄₁₆".	A	well-made	axe	with	good	 polish,	it	was	found	by	W.	Billingsley	and	is	ex-collections	Cuckler	 and	 Filbrandt.	 The	 axe	 is	 shown	 in	 Keokuk Axes,	 page	 37.	 Van	 Buren	 County,	 Iowa.	 Anna	 Blair	 photograph.	 Clarence Blair collection, Illinois.	$1,200.00.

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Bannerstone,	 curved	 pick	 type,	 Archaic,	 banded	 glacial	 slate.	 With	 good	 form	 and	 large	 size	 at	 2¹⁄₄"	 x	 6³⁄₈",	 it	 was	 found	 in	 Hancock	 County,	 Ohio.	 Robert Matthias collection, Beecher, Illinois.	$2,500.00.

Bannerstone,	notched	ovate	type,	2³⁄₄"	x	4".	Made	 of	attractive	banded	slate,	this	example	was	found	 in	 Kankakee	 County,	 Illinois.	 Robert Matthias collection, Beecher, Illinois.	$2,500.00 plus.

Bannerstone,	 crescent	 type,	 Archaic,	 2³⁄₈"	 x	 4¹⁄₄".	 Nicely	 banded	 in	 glacial	 slate,	 it	 was	 found	by	R.	Jerrit,	near	Marion.	Grant	County,	 Indiana.	 Robert Matthias collection, Beecher, Illinois.	$2,000.00 plus.

Bannerstone,	Wisconsin	winged	preform,	2⁷⁄₈"	x	4³⁄₄".	Brown	 porphyry	 was	 used	 for	 this	 piece.	 It	 was	 found	 along	 the	 Kankakee	 River,	 near	 Bradley,	 in	 Kankakee	 County,	 Illinois.	 Robert Matthias collection, Beecher, Illinois.	$350.00.

	

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Timeline: Late Archaic through Middle Woodland
Found	in	much	of	the	Midwest,	boatstones	are	two	to	five	inches	long	and	do	resemble,	in	miniature,	a	double-ended	 upside-down	watercraft.	Some	examples	have	the	flat	bottom	scooped	or	the	interior	hollowed	to	some	extent,	and	a	few	 specimens	were	worked	so	that	the	boatstone	sides	are	quite	thin. Some	 boatstones	 are	 drilled,	 gorget-like,	 front	 and	 back	 along	 the	 centerline.	 Others	 are	 not	 drilled,	 but	 may	 have	 narrow	grooves	along	the	centerline.	These	are	signs	that	boatstones	were	secured	to	another	object,	probably	an	Atl-atl	 shaft.	Some	specimens	have	no	provision	for	attachment,	but	like	most	of	the	type	are	well	shaped	and	highly	polished. Boatstones	are	made	of	various	materials,	and	the	majority	in	the	Midwest	are	crafted	in	glacial	slate.	Compact	and	 colorful	hardstone	of	many	kinds	was	used,	also	quartzite	and	pipestone.	The	rarest	examples,	crafted	by	Hopewell	Indians,	 were	made	of	clear	rock	crystal;	these	Indians	also	made	a	few	copper	boatstones	with	quartzite	pebbles,	perhaps	to	serve	 as	ritual	rattles.

Boatstone, Woodland	 period,	 1¹⁄₄"	 x	 2¹⁄₄".	 Made	 of	 banded	 slate,	 the	 surface	 has	 a	 subtle	 yellow	 patina,	 or	 hue,	 on	 both	 sides.	 The	 boatstone	 is	 cupped	 and	 grooved	 and	 has	 good	 polish.	 T.	 Razmus	 found	 this	 piece	near	Georgetown,	Illinois.	Elmer	Guerri	photograph.	Mac Costello collection, Indiana. $250.00.

Boatstone,	Adena	and	Early	Woodland,	1¹⁄₁₆"	x	6¹⁄₂".	It	is	made	of	green	banded	glacial	slate	and	was	in	Col.	Vietzen’s	(Northern	Ohio)	Indian	Ridge	Museum.	A	good	 example	of	a	rare	type,	the	boatstone	was	found	near	Wellington,	Lorain	County,	 Ohio.	Elmer	Guerri	photograph.	Mac Costello collection, Indiana. Museum grade.

Boatstone or gorget,	 Early	 Woodland	 period,	 2³⁄₄"	 long.	 This	 example	 is	 in	 colorful	 glacial	 banded	 slate	 and	 has	 typical	 Adena	 drilling	 from	 the	 bottom.	 Well-polished,	 the	artifact	is	from	Pike	County,	Ohio.	Back to Earth, Ohio. $450.00 – 475.00.

Boatstone,	 1¹⁄₄"	 x	 5¹⁄₄",	 porous	 gray	 stone	 that	 resembles	steatite,	bottom	not	dished	like	most	 boatstones.	 It	 was	 found	 in	 a	 sand	 quarry	 in	 1955	by	L.	Hendricks	of	Victoria.	Northwestern	 Warren	County,	Illinois. Fred Smith collection, Illinois. $160.00 – 170.00.

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Celt, triangular form, probably Woodland, 1¹⁄₂" x 2¹⁄₂". In mixed hardstone, the lower blade is polished and the edge is undamaged. Illinois. Chris Shepherd photograph. Mike Jilg collection, Illinois. $125.00.

Celt, Woodland period, squared sides, 1³⁄₄" x 4¹⁄₄". It is well polished overall and material is black hardstone with brown inclusions. With an unusual slanted bit, it is ex-collection Seth Watkins and was found near Hicksville, Ohio. Steve Weisser collection, Indiana. $175.00.

Celt, probably Woodland period, 2" x 3¹⁄₂", ¹⁄₂" thick. Made of black hardstone, the celt was found by the owner in Atchison County, Missouri. Collection of and photograph by Jeff Warrick, Illinois. $125.00.

Copena long-poll celt, Mississippian period, light-colored layer slate. This excellent celt is 2³⁄₄" x 10¹⁄₂" and was found by F. Stewart in 1973, with one of the owners present. It came from Henderson County, Kentucky. Terry and Cheryl Crafton collection, Indiana. $1,000.00.

Celt, 5¹⁄₂", gray mottled hardstone with lower-blade polish, 5¹⁄₂". The celt was found in Summit County, Ohio. Private collection. $150.00.

Celt, brown and tan hardstone, good polish, 4⁷⁄₈" high. This Woodland artifact is well-shaped and smoothly finished. Ohio. Private collection. $225.00.

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Dalton blade, medium-brown Bailey chert, 1³⁄₈" x 4¹⁄₄". This sturdy piece was found in Union County, Illinois. Jerry Davis collection, Missouri. $850.00. Dalton blade, Late Paleo ca. 7500 BC, in unidentified brownish mixed chert. This large knife, 6" long, is excollections Arnett and Gibson, and has a Perino COA. Franklin County, Missouri. Jack Slee photograph. Jeff Klues collection, Illinois. $1,100.00 – 1,200.00.

Holland point, Late Paleo ca. 7500 BC, Jefferson County chert. This example, having small shoulders and indented baseline, is 4" long. It has a Berner COA and is from Missouri. Jack Slee photograph. Jeff Klues collection, Illinois. $500.00.

Sloan Dalton point, Late Paleo period, Crescent Quarry chert. This piece is ex-collection Thompson and is 4¹⁄₂" long. It has a Perino COA and came from St. Louis County, Missouri. Jack Slee photograph. Jeff Klues collection, Illinois. $700.00 plus.

Dalton point or blade, Late Paleo period, 4" long. Made of tan Burlington, the piece is excollections Arnett and Greene. With Perino COA, the Dalton was found in Boone County, Missouri. Jack Slee photograph. Jeff Klues collection, Illinois. $500.00 plus.

Agate Basin point, Late Paleo period ca. 8300 BC, gray hornstone. The point is ³⁄₄" x 3³⁄₁₆" and was found near Owensboro. Well chipped and with a partial lower median ridge, it has a Davis COA. Daviess County, Kentucky. Tom Davis photograph. George and Elizabeth Williamson collection, Kentucky. $400.00.

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