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									Characteristics

Chapter 5
This chapter is designed to provide the student with information about main changes when it comes to system characteristics. Functions like restart, reload and In-Service Performance (ISP) will be handled.

OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of this chapter the student will be able to: • • • • • describe the new functions in APZ 11.0 describe the improvements when it comes to backup and reload in the new APZ supporting IPN briefly account for the improvements in IN-Service Performance, ISP. briefly describe the improvements for Function Changes in APZ 11.0. briefly describe the upgrade paths available for earlier versions of APZ to the new APZ 212 33 and APZ 11.0 software.

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5 Characteristics
Table of Contents
Topic Page

A NEW APZ ...........................................................................................1
THE APZ 11.X ................................................................................................................1 BACKUP AND RELOAD.................................................................................................2 IN SERVICE PERFORMANCE ......................................................................................4 FUNCTION CHANGES ..................................................................................................5

UPGRADE PATH FOR APZ..................................................................7
FROM APZ 212 11 .........................................................................................................7 FROM APZ 212 20 .........................................................................................................7 FROM APZ 212 25 .........................................................................................................7 FROM APZ 212 30 .........................................................................................................7

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A NEW APZ
THE APZ 11.X
The operating system of AXE, the APZ, has since a number of years been released in versions. The time has come to release APZ 11.0 during Q1 2001. The focus of this release is to: • • • • improve system capacity improve In Service Performance (ISP) introduce the new Inter-Platform Network (IPN), and reduce manufacturing costs.

Improved Capacity
The new high-capacity CP APZ 212 33 was released in Q4 2000. It has more than 1.7 times the capacity of APZ 212 30. The first issue of 212 33 will be based on APZ 10.1 but the second release will be based on APZ 11.0. The new Adjunct Processor Group, APG40, with increased capacity includes the new Adjunct Processor Platform, APM 3.0. A new, open and cost efficient I/O application (APIO 2.0), will also be released at the same time. The first version of APG40 will have a 333 MHz processor. A second version, based upon a 500 MHz processor will be released later. A capacity enhanced APG 30, with estimated twice the capacity as APG 30, will be also be available. The new version is called APG 33. The Inter-Platform Network (IPN) is introduced in APZ 11.0 for APZ 212 30 and APZ 212 33 connected to APG 40. This will give the CP-APG communication a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet for faster backups and reloads. Both the RPI and the RPG3 have been improved regarding capacity as described in Chapter 3.

Improved ISP
A number of steps have been taken in AXE to improve ISP. Several steps have been made since APZ 8.x and the work continues in APZ 11.x. The main improvements have to do with System Down Time in connection with restart, function changes and reloads. The main improvements are:
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• • • •

reduced restart times for regional devices gradual upgrade of regional software improved loading and pre-loading of regional software more use of selective restarts.

Easier Handling
With APG 40, the new WinFiol and Tools 6.0 are released. The release includes adaptation of existing tools to the APG 40 and some enhancements of existing tools. Two new tools are OPTool and Hardware inventory tool. In APZ 11.0 the next generation Element Manager (EMA 2.0) is released. It is GUI based and can be used to manage AXE and APG 40.

Supported CP Configurations
APZ 11.x will support APZ 212 20, APZ 212 25, APZ 212 30, and APZ 212 33. Note that the support for APZ 212 11 was dropped already in APZ 10.1 due to limited call handling capacity and memory capacity.

Phase Out
Older types of RPs and EMRPs will be phased out in APZ 11.0. The following processors will be phased out: • • • • RPs not supporting long RP signals (RP1) STC/STR and RPBC in P83 version first issues of STR/STC/RPBC in P86 version EMRP1,2,3 and first issue of EMRP4

BACKUP AND RELOAD
Backup and reload are two critical events in many ways: During the backup, the system is restricted from data changes. The operator cannot change data and subscribers cannot modify their service. This means that the time for the backup should be as short as possible. Reload is done due to severe software problems. During the reload, the system is not able to execute any traffic. This means that the reload should be done as quickly as possible.
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The main improvements for backup and reload comes with the introduction of the Inter-Platform Network (IPN). This will give the system a “highway” directly between the APG 40 and the CP which can be used for backup and reload. Please study the figure below.
APG 40

RPB-S (10 Mbit/s)
Backup Reload

RPH Central Processor APZ 11.x APZ 212 30 or APZ 212 33

IPN (100 Mbit/s)

Figure 5- 1 The Inter-Platform Network

The reload speed is not only dependent of the speed of the bus interconnecting the CP and the APG 40. Also the capacity of the processors are important. The reload speed will be at least in the range of 5 Mbytes/s (5000 Kbytes/s). The diagram below shows the differences between different system configurations.
6000

APZ 10
5000

APZ 11

5000

4000

K B yte/s

3000

2000

1000

410

180

410

300

500

0

IO G 20B /C /M R P B -S

IO G 20 R P B -P

IO G 20 R P B -S

A P G 30

A P G 40 R P B -S

A P G 40 IP N

Figure 5- 2 System reload performance

It can be seen from the diagram that IPN makes the difference. By upgrading to APZ 212 30 or 33 with APZ 11.0, the IPN network is there and can be used for the reload.

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Also the backup function takes advantage of the IPN network. Also here, the speed is increased significantly. However, the backup is done during normal traffic handling so the total throughput is much lower than the reload (which has 100% of the CP’s capacity). The figure below shows the differences.
6 00

APZ 10
5 00

APZ 11

500

4 00

KByte/s

3 00

2 00

100
1 00

120 80

40

60

0 IO G 2 0 B /C /M IO G 2 0 R P B -P IO G 2 0 R P B -S A P G 3 0 /3 3 A PG 40 R P B -S A PG 40 IP N

Figure 5- 3 System backup performance

IN SERVICE PERFORMANCE
In-service performance is a complicated subject as many different aspects should be considered. The reason for measuring ISP is that you can compare different systems with each other and also follow-up on improvements. Some of the main areas affecting ISP are: • Software quality For example, how often is the system restarted during normal operation? Hardware quality For example, how often is traffic disturbed due to hardware faults? System architecture For example, how are software faults handled and which hardware parts are duplicated? How is software upgrade made and what disturbances do they cause? Handling of the system For example, how many traffic disturbances are caused by misunderstanding in manuals or due to lack of training?

•

•

•

These are some areas that may affect ISP. APT and APZ can in this respect take responsibility for different areas and seen from different angels:
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•

APT Reliable hardware with redundancy for the APT part. Software with few faults per 1000 lines of code. System documentation with clear instruction on how to repair faults and change the system. APZ Reliable hardware with redundancy for the APZ part. System functions for restart, reload, backup, function change, patching, etc., which are easy to use and not disturbing the system more that needed. An easy manmachine interface preventing faults made by the operator.

•

The development of AXE 810 is focusing on ISP from many different angels in both APT and APZ. The figure below gives some indications that APZ 11.x gives significantly better system characteristics regarding ISP.
18 16
C la s s ic H W AX E 1 9 9 9 AX E 8 1 0

M in u te s /e x c h a n g e /y e a r

14 12 A P Z 1 0 im p a c t 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 1999 2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1

A P Z 1 1 im p a c t

2 0 0 1 -2 0 0 2

Measured

Predicted

Figure 5- 4 System Down Time

FUNCTION CHANGES
When the Accumulated Down Time is measured in minutes per year, a total stoppage of 10 minutes is very bad for the statistics. One of the major sources of down time has been during changes of software in AXE, so called Function Changes. The principles of a Function Change can be seen in the figure below.

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CP-A

Working

Working “old SW” Separated

Transfer of data Working Time Test traffic

CP-B

Stand-by

Stand-by Update

New SW loaded into the separated side

New SW is activated. Traffic disturbance

Figure 5- 5 Main principle of function change in AXE

Several improvements have been made in APZ 10.x and in APZ 11.x to create a better support for the function change. Some of the changes are drastic reduction of restart times at function changes and that RPs can be pre-loaded with software. RPP, RPI and RPG3 can all handle pre-loading of software at function change (some other processor types as well). The changes has led to a significant cut for disturbances caused by the function change. Please study the figure below.
Total time (hours) System down time (minutes)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

20 APZ 8 APZ 9 APZ 10 APZ 11 15 10 5 0

Typical data volumes, standard procedure, small system restart

Figure 5- 6 Performance for a Function Change

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UPGRADE PATH FOR APZ
FROM APZ 212 11
This APZ version will not be supported by APZ 11.0. However, there is a processor replacement possible which makes it possible to upgrade it to and APZ 212 20 or directly to and APZ 212 33.

FROM APZ 212 20
APZ 212 20 can be upgraded to APZ 11.0 when it is released. It is also possible to upgrade the hardware to an APZ 212 30 or to an APZ 212 33.

FROM APZ 212 25
APZ 212 25 can be upgraded to APZ 11.0 when it is released.

FROM APZ 212 30
APZ 212 30 can be upgraded to APZ 11.0 when it is released. It is also possible to upgrade the hardware to APZ 212 33. In the first version, the APZ 212 33 will use APZ 10.1 but can be upgraded to APZ 11.0 when released.

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