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09 Getting Familiar with the PC

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09 Getting Familiar with the PC Powered By Docstoc
					                               Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Getting Familiar with the PC
                                                                                                                                                                      Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Basics

                                                                                       •       A personal computer is made
                                                                                               up of many separate items
                                                                                               such as monitor, keyboard,
                                                                                               mouse and the CPU cabinet
                                                                                               as shown.
                                                                                       •       5.25 inch bays are normally
                                                                                               used for devices like CD-
                                                                                               ROM's etc. in the front panel
                                                                                               of the cabinet.
                                                                                       •       3.5 inch bay is normally used
                                                                                               for the floppy drive.
                                                                                       •       A small window is also
                                                                                               provided for USB,
                                                                                               Microphone and Earphone/
                                                                                               Speakers.

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Basics (contd.)

                                                                                          •        The backpanel of the
                                                                                                   Cabinet is as shown with all
                                                                                                   the connectors.
                                                                                          •        All the connectors fit into
                                                                                                   one of the seven major
                                                                                                   types: DB, DIN, Centronics,
                                                                                                   RJ, BNC, audio, and USB.
                                                                                          •        At the top right is a socket
                                                                                                   for the power cord as well as
                                                                                                   a voltage selector switch
                                                                                                   which is used to select the
                                                                                                   voltage standard followed.
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Basics (contd.)

•   Towards the top left are the two mini DIN connectors for the
    mouse and the keyboard.
•   Below it are the two USB ports used to connect the USB
    devices.
•   First DB connector is for the serial port which is a 9-pin male
    connector used to connect devices like mouse, modem etc.
•   Then a 15-pin female VGA connector used to connect to the
    monitor.
•   A parallel port or the centronics port used to connect to the
    printer.
•   Additional USB ports and RJ-45 connectors are used to
    connect the patched cord to the LAN card.
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Basics (contd.)

•   Three audio connectors which include one microphone jack
    used to connect the microphone, line out jack used to connect
    the speaker and line-in jack used to connect any other input or
    MIDI devices.
•   An internal modem is also present which has two RJ-11
    sockets one for phone jack i.e. for the phone instrument and
    line-in jack used to connect to the phone line coming in.
•   Internally, power supply is positioned at the rear right hand
    side, diskette drives are of course readily identifiable such as
    hard disk, floppy disk etc. and finally system board or the
    motherboard.
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Basics (contd.)


•   Motherboard contains the CPU, the main memory, serial and

    parallel I/O ports, disk controller and video display adapter

    circuitry.

•   Some PC designs have a passive backplane, which is

    essentially just a board containing expansion slots.




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                                                                                                                                                                         Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Board Components

•   The black, square or rectangular components mounted on the
    motherboard and expansion cards are integrated circuits (ICs).
•   The small, oblong ICs with eight or more metal legs along each
    of the long sides, are known as dual-inline (DIL) or dual-inline-
    package (DIP) ICs.
•   Most Motherboard designs many small components soldered
    directly to the board. These are known as surface-mounted
    devices (SMDs)
•   Microprocessor used in the latest high-performance PC
    compatibles is the VLSI technology and Pentium III and
    Pentium IV are all state-of-the-art examples of VLSI
    technology.

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                                                                                                                                                                         Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Processors (CPU)

•   Term central processing unit originated in the days of
    mainframes, when it described a very large box containing a
    lot of complex circuitry.
•   In microcomputer, CPU is a single integrated circuit chip
    containing a lot of complex circuitry called Microprocessor.
•   In the original PC and XT, and the cheapest, slowest
    compatibles, the microprocessor used was the Intel 8088 or
    8086.
•   Later, more powerful microprocessors from Intel such as
    80286, 80386sx, 80486dx, Pentium, Pentium II etc. were used
    which are now being replaced by the Pentium IV and AMD’s
    Athlon processors.

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Memory Storage

•   Memory is arranged as a linear array of 8-bit bytes.
•   Each byte of memory has a unique address by which it may be
    accessed at random, and it is consequently known as random
    access memory, or RAM.
•   Two bytes together - known as a word - can be used to hold a
    positive integer in the range 0 to 65535, or a signed integer in
    the range -32768 to +32767.
•   There is no differentiation between memory used for storing
    program instructions and that used to hold data.


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Memory Storage (contd.)

•   Programmer should ensure that a program does not overwrite
    parts of program with data, and that the CPU will never find
    itself trying to interpret bytes of data as program instructions.
•   Early microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80
    used a 16-bit address bus, which allowed them to access up
    to 64k (65,536) bytes of memory.
•   8086 introduced 16-bit instructions and access to more
    memory, for the benefit of more sophisticated software which
    would be developed later.


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General Types Of Memory

                                                                                       •       RAM most commonly used in
                                                                                               PCs and in almost all modern
                                                                                               computers is DRAM.
                                                                                                  – e.g. Dynamic RAM (DRAM),
                                                                                                    SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM),
                                                                                                    DDR-RAM(Double Data Rate
                                                                                                    RAM), RDRAM (Rambus
                                                                                                    DRAM) etc...
                                                                                       •       Static RAM (SRAM) is a chip
                                                                                               which would retain the data
                                                                                               stored for as long as power
                                                                                               was applied to the chip.

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Control Buses

•   System bus is the PC's main transportation system, that
    connects its main components - CPU, Memory, Control logic
    and Input-Output (I/O ports).
•   System bus can be view as three distinct parts: The address
    bus, the data bus and the control bus.
•   Most common type of memory access is to transfer data to and
    from the CPU.
•   For obtaining a byte of data from memory, the address of the
    memory location required is placed on the address bus and a
    signal is then sent on the MEMR line of the control bus.

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Control Buses (contd.)




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Control Buses (contd.)

•   I/O ports are a little like memory addresses which can be read
    from or written to not only by the CPU, but also by devices
    which interface with outside world.
•   I/O ports are also used to set up and control parts of the
    hardware, and get information about its status.
•   A common support problem occurs when two expansion cards
    in a PC are configured to use the same I/O port addresses.
•   Control bus is a collection of signals, each of which is a
    message from one part of the hardware to another.


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                                                                                                                                                                         Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Interrupts

•   Interrupt requests (IRQs) are signals generated by devices on
    the bus to request service.
•   Interrupts are handled by a chip called the programmable
    interrupt controller (PIC).
•   When the CPU receives an interrupt, it responds by saving
    information about what it is currently doing, and jumping to a
    special interrupt service routine (ISR).
•   After the ISR has been completed, CPU uses the saved
    information to resume what it was doing before the interrupt
    occurred.

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                                                                                                                                                                         Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Components of a Computer

•   Input Device:Keyboard




•   It is primary input device used to input information.


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Input Device (contd.)

•   Mouse




•   It is used to point and select objects on the monitor.


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Input Device (contd.)

•   Scanner




•   It converts printed information to digital information


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Input Device (contd.)

•   Microphone




•   It allows input of voice or music which is converted to Digital
    information.

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Processing Unit (Processor)

•   Processor




•   It does all the processing in a PC
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Storage Devices

•   Memory




•   It is used to store temporary information.


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Output Devices

•   Printer




•   It generates a hard copy of the information
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Output Devices (contd.)

•   Monitor




•   It displays text and graphics.
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Exercise

•   Exercise 9.1 Identification of Back panel Connectors




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