BIOS Upgrade by ratzbiswas

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UPGRADING SYSTEM BIOS

CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Considering the Upgrade
Recognizing BIOS problems Gathering information Determining BIOS IC type Reprogramming EPROMS Updating a flash BIOS The keyboard controller

BIOS Upgrade Troubleshooting Performing the Upgrade
Patching a faulty function Replacing ICs

Further Study

s you saw in Chapter 6, the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) forms an interface between non-standardized PC hardware produced by a variety of manufacturers and the standard software used as an Operating System (OS). BIOS is typically implemented on a Read-Only Memory (ROM) IC and installed on the motherboard. The BIOS gives an operating system access to disk drives, memory, and other crucial system functions that are so transparent in everyday operation. This chapter shows you the reasons for upgrading a BIOS and gives you the procedures to make the process as painless as possible.

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Considering an Upgrade
You might wonder why it would even be necessary to bother with an upgrade. Ideally, a BIOS ROM should be viable for the “life” of a PC. Although this is true in a majority of situations, there are two compelling reasons to undertake a BIOS upgrade. First, a newer BIOS can add support for drives and devices that are not currently supported, or require device drivers or TSRs. Two recent examples of this are the addition of bootable CDROM drives (using the El Torito standard), and the addition of bootable LS-120 drives. Placing support on a BIOS ROM means that one less device driver demands space in your conventional memory. This factor used to be considered most important for older systems (i386 and slower i486-based PCs), but with the addition of so many new hardware devices, even new PCs are prime candidates for BIOS upgrades. Second (and maybe even more important), BIOS ROM is fundamentally a piece of software. Like all software, sometimes defects or oversights (bugs) cause problems with system operations. This is especially true when the same core BIOS code is “OEMed” into a variety of motherboards. For example, some motherboards might require a BIOS upgrade to better support the main chipset in use or to properly identify non-Intel CPUs. Bugs and compatibility problems virtually demand a BIOS upgrade.

RECOGNIZING BIOS PROBLEMS
Unfortunately, diagnosing a BIOS bug is not a simple task. No diagnostics check BIOS operations. BIOS manufacturers rarely publicize their errors, so you can’t refer to a centralized index of symptoms to suggest a faulty BIOS or incompatibility. However, BIOS problems tend to fall into several categories that might alert you to the possibility of BIOS trouble. You can then address the symptoms with the system or motherboard manufacturer directly:
s Trouble occurs with Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 This problem is typically found on

older systems that appeared before the broad introduction of Windows 3.x and is usually related to drive access or keyboard operation problems. Some versions of BIOS intended to enhance Windows can cause certain older motherboard designs to crash or hang up intermittently. When the drives and keyboard check properly (and work just fine under DOS), a BIOS upgrade might be in order. You might also have to replace the keyboard-controller IC. Notice that BIOS upgrades might no longer be available for older systems. When this occurs, you’ll need to upgrade the motherboard outright. s Trouble occurs with floppy-disk support Random disk errors might occur when a 720KB diskette is used in a 1.44MB drive, or the 1.44MB drive might be unable to format 1.44MB diskettes. Once again, this symptom is seen most frequently on older PCs (1988 to 1991), when 1.44MB floppy drives were becoming commonplace in PCs. Floppy-drive problems might be coupled to the mouse configuration. s Trouble occurs with ATA (IDE) support The ATA drive interface standard (also known as Integrated Drive Electronics, IDE) came to prominence in late 1989 and early 1990. Because of their unique timing requirements, early IDE devices were susceptible to such errors as data corruption, failure to boot, etc. By Q2 of 1990, most BIOS versions

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had streamlined their IDE support. When you encounter difficulties installing an ordinary IDE drive in an older PC, check its BIOS date. If the date is 1989 or earlier, consider a BIOS upgrade. s There is no ATA-2 (EIDE) or Ultra-ATA (Ultra-DMA/33) support The mid 1990s saw hard drives move beyond 528MB, and use advanced data-transfer modes. The use of large, fast hard drives using the ATA-2 interface standard (called Enhanced IDE, EIDE) required a BIOS that could “translate” more than 1024 cylinders and use Logical Block Addressing when accessing the hard drive. Systems sold prior to the Pentium 133MHz processor (prior to 1995) will need a BIOS upgrade to support EIDE hard drives, although new drive controllers will often provide their own on-board BIOS to overcome this problem. It is also possible to use “overlay software,” such as Disk Manager or EZ-Drive to correct this issue. Current PCs provide support for Ultra-ATA hard drives that can support data transfer modes up to 33MB/s. Both the hard drive, drive controller, and BIOS must be capable of supporting Ultra-ATA to wring the highest performance from the drive. Otherwise, performance will “fall back” to ATA-2 speeds. If your current system does not support Ultra-ATA, you might be able to use a BIOS upgrade to support an Ultra-ATA hard drive or upgrade the drive controller to one with a suitable on-board BIOS.
s You can’t successfully support hard-drive partitions over 2GB or 4GB This symptom

is indirectly related to ATA-2 support. Even though ATA-2 supports hard drives beyond 8GB in size using Logical Block Addressing, many BIOS makers have cut corners—limiting their BIOS to supporting only far smaller hard drives. There seem to be two distinct generations of this problem. The first seems to “kick in” around 2GB and the second seems to occur around the 4GB mark. In many cases, the drive will seem to partition properly, but the system will hang up during the reboot after using FDISK. You will need a BIOS upgrade to correct this problem. s Trouble is occurring with network support In some circumstances, the PC will not work properly when integrated into a Novell Netware system (or other network). This is often caused by the inability of older Novell versions to work with PC “user-defined” drive types. ROM shadowing usually has to be enabled to allow user-defined drive types. Unfortunately, not all older motherboard chipsets supported ROM shadowing. BIOS versions later than 1990 have generally corrected this problem. s Trouble is occurring with one or both serial ports Older BIOS problems often manifest themselves as COM port difficulties under DOS or Windows (often when a mouse is installed). If the serial-port circuitry checks properly under diagnostics, suspect a BIOS bug. Check with the BIOS manufacturer to find if an upgrade or patch file is available. s The on-board features cannot be disabled to use upgraded expansion devices Recent PC designs typically incorporate a number of key features (such as a video adapter and drive controller) directly on the motherboard. This provides the user with a distinct cost savings. To upgrade that existing controller, you’d need to disable it on the motherboard before installing the upgraded device. Otherwise, a hardware conflict would result. Unfortunately, many motherboards in the marketplace do not properly disable existing controllers. The result is that you cannot upgrade the particular feature. In

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some cases, a BIOS upgrade will be adequate to correct this problem. In other cases, this is a flaw in the design of the motherboard, which will require you to replace the motherboard outright. s The system does not identify the particular CPU or bus speed properly Classic 486 motherboards used a jumper to “select” the installed CPU, but later systems use the “CPUID” feature incorporated into most new CPUs. In many cases, BIOS is released before the motherboard has been tested with non-Intel CPUs (such as AMD or Cyrix chips). When these non-Intel CPUs are used on the motherboard, the BIOS cannot identify them, or identifies them incorrectly as Intel CPUs. When the system does not identify the CPU or bus speed at startup, chances are you need a BIOS upgrade. s Key system features are not supported This often occurs in the very latest motherboard designs when the BIOS does not adequately support the features handled in the chipset. Typical examples of this are USB problems, SDRAM support or performance issues, or Plug-and-Play trouble. A BIOS upgrade should usually correct the problem, but be sure to check with the motherboard or system maker first to verify that a BIOS upgrade will be enough to correct the problem by itself. s BIOS checksum errors occur in the POST Normally, the POST scans all BIOS ICs located in the memory space and calculates a checksum for each one. That unique checksum is then compared against the checksum stored in the BIOS IC itself. If the two checksums match, the BIOS is assumed good, and the boot process can continue. Otherwise, an error is flagged. A BIOS checksum is almost always fatal and a new BIOS IC is required to correct the problem.
There is no need to upgrade a BIOS indiscriminantly—only attempt a BIOS upgrade to correct a specific problem or facilitate features that are not previously supported.

GATHERING INFORMATION
The BIOS upgrade process is not terribly difficult, but success depends on obtaining the correct replacement or upgrade. To ensure that you order (or download) the proper BIOS, it is important to collect some information about the system. In most cases, the following five specifications should help ensure an accurate upgrade:
s s s s s

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PC make and model. Motherboard manufacturer and CPU (motherboard chipset also, if possible). Make and version of existing BIOS (shown on the display during initialization). Part number of the ROM IC itself (you might have to peel back the ROM label). Make, model, and part numbers of main motherboard chipset(s) (if any).

When you consider how closely BIOS is related to PC hardware, you can understand why this information is necessary. Feel free to photocopy the BIOS Upgrade Form in the appendix of this book. Today, most PC BIOS is recorded on “flash” ICs that can be reprogrammed in the field. If you find that you must replace the actual BIOS IC (because of a BIOS failure or corrupted flash process), upgrades can be usually be purchased from a BIOS maker or the original system manufacturer. For your own protection, though, place

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TABLE 64-1 TYPICAL BIOS IC TYPES BY PART NUMBER PART NUMBER 28Fxxx 29Cxxx 29LVxxx 28Cxxx 27Cxxx DESCRIPTION* 12-V flash 5-V flash 3-V flash (these are rare) EEPROM (similar to flash) EPROM (you’ll see a quartz window)

* Anything without a quartz window that doesn’t have a 28 or 29 as the prefix number is most likely a standard ROM.

orders only with firms that offer a reasonable return policy (in the event that the new BIOS does not work as expected).

DETERMINING BIOS IC TYPE
At one point or another, you’ll probably need to determine the type of BIOS IC contained in your PC. Ordinarily, this should be specified in the system or motherboard documentation, but if the documentation isn’t handy, you can tell by looking at the BIOS part number. Table 64-1 lists the descriptions for each major class of part number. Keep in mind that you might need to peel back the sticker on the IC to read its part number.

Performing the Upgrade
You can use several methods to incorporate a BIOS upgrade into your PC. In all cases, the proper solution will rely on an understanding of the options available to you. For the purposes of this book, four solutions are available to a technician: (1) using a BIOS patch, (2) replacing the IC, (3) burning a new EPROM, or (4) reprogramming a flash BIOS. The solution you choose will depend on the age of the particular machine.

PATCHING A FAULTY FUNCTION
As distracting and unsettling as a BIOS problem might be, few BIOS problems are fatal. Because device drivers and TSRs can serve to supplement a BIOS, they can also support shortfalls in BIOS operation. By adding a corrective file to CONFIG.SYS or AUTOEXEC.BAT, many BIOS problems can be at least abated without even opening the PC enclosure. As just one example, an AMI BIOS error concerning a problem with COM2 can be corrected by adding the FIFO-OFF.COM file to AUTOEXEC.BAT. Another example is the use of a driver to enable the cache in a Cyrix CPU to enhance its performance. Although this tactic will not “repair” the problem entirely, a corrective routine can at least allow the system to work until a suitable BIOS upgrade becomes available. To find patches and corrective files for a BIOS, you will need to search the on-line resources for your particular BIOS manufacturer. On-line resources include the manufacturer’s Internet Web site, a BBS, or their forums on such services as AOL.

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REPLACING ICS
Replacing the BIOS IC(s) outright is the classic solution for many older PC designs. Traditional ROMs are 28-pin Dual In-Line (DIP) devices (Fig. 64-1), IBM PC/XT, PC/AT (i286), (i386), and many i486-based motherboards use traditional DIP ROM ICs. Fast i486 and Pentium-based motherboards use a socket-mounted Plastic-Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) IC for BIOS. Although today’s PCs and expansion products make extensive use of surface-mount ICs and other components, BIOS devices are the single remaining element still implemented in DIP or PLCC sockets. PC/XT systems use a single ROM to supply a 32KB BIOS, most PC/AT systems use two ROMs to supply a 64KB BIOS, and newer i486 and Pentium-based systems incorporate a 128KB BIOS on a single ROM. You can obtain updated ROMs from the motherboard’s manufacturer or from one of the BIOS vendors listed at the end of this chapter (in a few cases, you might be able to obtain updates directly from the BIOS manufacturer). Before proceeding with a BIOS upgrade, remove all power from the PC and disconnect the ac line cord. Remove the outer enclosure and locate the BIOS ROM(s) on the motherboard. Remember to make use of your static controls. Pay particular attention to the orientation (or keying) of pin 1. When more than one IC is involved, also note which ROM is “even” and which one is “odd”. Remove DIP ICs carefully. You can use a DIP removal tool, or rock the IC gently from its socket using the wide edge of a regular screwdriver. Be extremely careful when removing DIP ICs—you might have to put them back if things go wrong. Gentle is definitely better here. A specialized tool will be needed to remove PLCC devices. You should be equally cautious when installing new DIP ICs. If those 28 little pins are not inserted evenly and straight, they will bend—and break. PLCCs are a bit more forgiving because there are no leads to bend, but be sure to install ICs completely. Before restoring power, be sure that the ICs are inserted in their proper orientation—if the ICs are installed in an orientation opposite from the one intended, you might damage the ROM. If the system fails to initialize, the IC(s) might not be inserted completely or you might have transposed the “even” and “odd” ROMs. Doublecheck your work, if necessary. Depending on your particular upgrade, you might also find yourself replacing the motherboard’s keyboard controller IC.

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DIP PLCC

FIGURE 64-1

The typical BIOS IC types.

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REPROGRAMMING EPROMS
If you handle a large number of BIOS upgrades and have access to PC-based EPROM programming equipment, you can program (or burn) your own ROMs. The term EPROM represents Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, so given the proper BIOS data, you can translate the contents of a BIOS disk file to a physical IC (BIOS “while-u-wait”). EPROM programming equipment is not terribly expensive, and can be obtained from any full-service electronics catalog store, but a good model with PC compatibility can easily run over $500 (U.S.). As you might expect, this kind of workbench BIOS requires a bit of technical skill and is certainly not a worthwhile endeavor for the occasional PC hobbyist. However, the ability to “burn” your own EPROMs does offer some unique advantages for an enterprising technician. Knowledgeable technicians versed in machine language can actually customize the BIOS (e.g., adding new hard-drive parameters to the hard-drive table). You can also create backup copies of older BIOS for systems that might no longer be in production, as well as other BIOS for video or drive systems. Of course, modifying a BIOS can have unforeseen consequences for a system—mistakes and errors will disable or crash the PC. Fortunately, you are not altering the original BIOS ROM, so you can always restore the original IC. It is a simple matter to back up your BIOS contents to a disk file. All you need is the DOS DEBUG utility. Remember: altering or duplicating BIOS code might breach the copyright of the BIOS manufacturer. A BIOS should only be duplicated or modified for the benefit of your individual customers. The typical DEBUG BIOS backup procedure is illustrated:
C:\> DEBUG - N BIOSBACK.ROM - R BX BX 0000 :1 - M F000:0 FFFF CS:0 - W 0 Writing 10000 bytes - Q ;start the DEBUG utility ;name the backup file ;alter the CPU’s BX register ;from zero ;to one (this indicates a 64KB file) ;move BIOS data in preparation for recording ;write the file from offset 0 ;10000h = 64KB ;quit DEBUG

This procedure will save the entire 64KB data segment from F000:0000h to F000:FFFFh as a disk file. If the BIOS in your particular system is 128KB (usually starting at E000:0000h) replace the starting address in the Move command. You can also backup other ROMs to disk, but you must know the starting address and size of the ROM. For example, a ROM that starts at D400:0000h and is 16KB long can be backed up with a procedure, such as:
C:\> DEBUG - N TEST.ROM - R CX CX 0000 :4000 - M D400:0 3FFF CS:0 - W 0 Writing 04000 bytes - Q ;start the DEBUG utility ;choose a name for the file ;alter the CPU’s CX register (for short transfers) ;from zero ;to 4000h (16KB) ;move BIOS data in preparation of recording ;write the file from offset 0 ;4000h = 16KB ;quit DEBUG

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UPDATING A FLASH BIOS
Flash BIOS represents the newest class of BIOS ROM ICs, which are typically found in fast i486 and virtually all Pentium-based PCs. A flash BIOS is essentially an Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM). That is, the IC can be erased and reprogrammed right on the motherboard. Rather than worry about warehousing and shipping new BIOS ICs, a BIOS or motherboard manufacturer can provide updated BIOS code as a downloadable file. The name of the file is typically coupled to only a particular motherboard. For example, updating the flash BIOS on an AMI Atlas ISA/PCI Pentium motherboard requires a file named S721P.ROM. If this file name is not used, the BIOS will not be reprogrammed. The AMI Excalibur PCI-II ISA/PCI Pentium motherboard requires the filename S722P.ROM. When attempting a flash procedure, follow these points:
s First, you must have a flash BIOS IC in the computer. If the IC does not use “flash”

technology, you won’t be able to reprogram it.
s Make a complete backup of your system hard drive(s) in the event of drive problems af-

ter the flash process is complete.
s Make a complete record of all CMOS setup settings before flashing the BIOS. In many

cases, you’ll need to restore or tweak the CMOS Setup again after performing the flash upgrade. Pay particular attention to the hard-drive geometry settings. s Record the current BIOS version number and/or release date and verify that you do not already have this version running on your system. s When downloading the flash file (usually several BIOS data files, a flashing utility, and brief documentation all compressed into a single .ZIP file), be certain to only download the flash package for your exact PC make and model.
Downloading and flashing the incorrect BIOS upgrade can render your computer unbootable—forcing you to replace the physical BIOS IC. s Create a “clean”, bootable floppy disk with any version of DOS or as a Windows 95

Startup Disk.
s Copy the downloaded .ZIP file containing your flash package to the diskette and de-

compress the .ZIP file into its constituent files (usually an .EXE file as the flashing utility, a .BIN or .ROM file as the new BIOS data file, and one or more .TXT files as the documentation).
Never attempt to flash a BIOS by running the flash utility from a hard drive. Proceed from the floppy drive only. s You might need to set the “flash enable” jumper on the motherboard. If so, turn off the

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PC, locate this jumper (refer to the documentation for your system), and set it.
s Reboot the PC and start your CMOS setup to verify that the PC will boot from the

floppy drive first. This is usually indicated as a “boot order” or “boot sequence” of A:/C:.

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s Once the PC boots “clean” from the bootable diskette, start the flashing utility, such as:
A:\> awdflash <Enter>

s When the flash program starts, it might ask you for the name of the .BIN or .ROM file

that you wish to use as an upgrade. Please type the exact name of this file in when prompted to do so. In some cases, the flash utility will automatically use the only available source file. s Many flash utilities will query you to backup your current BIOS. If you have this opportunity, make a backup copy of the current BIOS before proceeding. Enter the file name to save and proceed. In some cases, the flash program will assign a backup file name automatically (e.g., BACKUP.BIN). s You will then be asked if you are sure you wish to continue, answer Yes. s Once the flash process begins, you’ll usually see a progress indicator at the bottom of the display, which will keep track of the flashing process.
It is crucial that you do not power down or reset the PC while the flash process is proceeding. Doing so will interrupt the flash process and leave your BIOS corrupted and unrecoverable. s When the progress indicator has stopped (or the flash process has otherwise concluded),

you’ll probably see a message, such as: “Please cycle power or reset this machine.”
s Turn your computer completely off. Your new BIOS is installed and is ready to use. s If you had to set a “Flash Enable” jumper on the motherboard, reset it now before

restoring power to the PC.
s Remove the bootable diskette from the system. s Restart the computer now—the new BIOS version will be shown on the display screen.

You’re done with the BIOS upgrade.
s In most cases, you’ll need to restore your CMOS setup parameters before you can uti-

lize the PC. If an error occurs at any point in the reprogramming process, you might hear one or more beeps. Table 64-2 outlines the beeps and descriptions for AMI flash BIOS. These are not
TABLE 64-2 AMI FLASH PROGRAMMING BEEP MESSAGES BEEPS None Continuous single beep Five beeps Seven beeps Six beeps Eight beeps Continuous two beeps Continuous three beeps Continuous four beeps MEANING No error. Successful completion No floppy disk in drive A: Needed .ROM program not present on floppy disk Floppy-read error BIOS file-size error The expected flash EEPROM is not present Problem erasing the flash EEPROM Problem programming the flash EEPROM BIOS is not able to reset the CPU

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beep codes (as described in Chapter 15), but flash BIOS procedural errors. Keep in mind that the flash BIOS procedures outlined here might vary for your particular system.

THE KEYBOARD CONTROLLER
The keyboard controller is a remarkably important element of the PC. In addition to handling system interaction with the keyboard, the keyboard controller manages the A20 gate. The A20 gate allows modern CPUs to operate in the “protected mode” and address memory above 1MB. Some keyboard controllers also serve to select CPU clock speed. Because the keyboard controller contains a small amount of on-board ROM, the controller might become outdated or suffer from software defects, just as any other BIOS element. Keyboard-controller problems often manifest themselves under early versions of Windows or OS/2. As a result, it might be necessary to replace the keyboard-controller IC along with BIOS ROM ICs.

BIOS Upgrade Troubleshooting
Ideally, a BIOS upgrade can be accomplished quickly and easily. Upgrades are rarely plagued by problems. However, BIOS upgrade problems can and do occur, and can be quite serious under the right circumstances. This part of the chapter looks at a series of common BIOS-upgrade symptoms and solutions.
Symptom 64-1. The PC does not boot after upgrading the BIOS This is the

classic problem which most frequently haunts technicians. When you’ve replaced the physical BIOS ICs, doublecheck the IC(s) for proper orientation and installation. Be sure that all of the pins are inserted into the socket and that none of the DIP pins have been bent under the IC’s body. If you’re replacing “even and odd” BIOS ICs, be sure that you have not accidentally transposed the even and odd IC locations. If the problem persists, try replacing the original BIOS ICs. If the original IC(s) work, you might have defective or improper replacement IC(s). If you’ve flashed the BIOS, chances are that your problem is a little stickier. You’ve either flashed the wrong BIOS version or the flash process failed for some reason. In either case, there’s nothing you can do, except to replace the BIOS IC. You’ll need to contact the system or motherboard manufacturer for a replacement.
Symptom 64-2. The PC was accidentally reset or powered down during a BIOS flash, and now the PC won’t start The great weakness of flash BIOS is that

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it cannot be interrupted once the flash process is underway—otherwise, the BIOS will be left “partially programmed” and totally corrupted. Your only course of action here is to replace the BIOS IC outright. You’ll need to contact the system or motherboard manufacturer for a replacement.
Symptom 64-3. The BIOS upgrade proceeded properly, but now the system behaves erratically or other errors appear There are several potential

causes here. Most of the time, you’ve either flashed the wrong BIOS version (probably for

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a system using an almost identical motherboard) or the BIOS was corrupted during the flash process. If you made a backup copy of the original BIOS file during the flash process, repeat the process and restore the original BIOS version. If the system works, you can verify that you downloaded the correct flash file (and repeat the upgrade, if possible). If you cannot restore the original BIOS or if the problems persist, replace the BIOS IC. If the problem occurs when replacing physical ICs, chances are that you’ve installed the BIOS for the wrong PC or motherboard, and you’ll need to replace the original BIOS ICs until you get the proper replacements.
Symptom 64-4. The BIOS upgrade proceeded properly, but system performance seems poor This is a frequent (but little-discussed) complaint with BIOS

upgrades. In many cases, a new BIOS will require you to restore or tweak your CMOS setup for proper performance. If you recorded your original CMOS setup contents before attempting your upgrade, you can enter the CMOS setup and compare the current settings to the original ones. Chances are that one or more performance-oriented settings have been disabled. Here are some points for quick tweaking (remember that not all of these features might be available in all BIOS versions). For fastest booting:
s s s s

Set the “Boot Sequence” to: C:/A:. Set the “Boot Up Floppy Drive Seek” to Disabled. Set the “Boot Up System Speed” to High. Set the “Quick Power-on Self Test” to Enabled. For highest overall system performance:

s Enable all shadowing unless you are using an adapter that absolutely requires that shad-

owing be disabled for a specified address. Video shadow will increase the video speed. Set “Auto Configuration” to Disable. Reduce all of the memory timings to their minimum values. Enable the “Turbo Read Lead Off.” Enable the “Speculative Lead Off.” Enable the “Turn Around Insertion.” Increase the ISA speed by setting ISA clock to PCICLK/3. Lower 8- and 16-bit recovery times to: 1 (one) each. Set the “System BIOS cacheable” to Enable. Set the “Video BIOS cacheable” to Enable. L2 cache cacheable size—if you are installing 64MB of RAM or more, set to: 512 MB (64MB is the default). s Pipeline cache timing—set it to Fastest if only 256KB total pipeline cache (faster is the default) is available.
s s s s s s s s s s When tweaking BIOS settings in the CMOS setup, be sure to change only one parameter at a time, then retest the system’s performance each time. Symptom 64-5. A message, such as: “Update ESCD successfully” appears upon boot up This is not really an error, but more of an informational message.

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The ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) is a method that the BIOS uses to store resource information for both PNP and non-PNP devices. The reason it shows this message is because the system has at least one ISA card in it, and it is running Windows 95. The ESCD boot-up sequence arranged by Windows 95 is different from the ESCD bootup sequence arranged by the BIOS. So, on boot up, the system BIOS will attempt to update the ESCD. This will in no way affect system performance.
Symptom 64-6. You just upgraded the BIOS and now can’t boot from the A: drive Otherwise, the A: drive seems to be working normally. In virtually all cases,

the updated BIOS defaulted the CMOS setup to a “boot sequence” of C:/A: instead of A:/C:, so the system isn’t even checking the floppy drive at startup. Start your CMOS setup and tweak the boot sequence to A:/C:, then save your changes and try the system again. Also verify that you actually have a working bootable floppy disk in the drive.
Symptom 64-7. A message appears: “Incompatible BIOS translation detected—unable to load disk overlay” This typically happens when you upgrade a

BIOS to support Logical Block Addressing (LBA), but the hard drive in your system is already using overlay software, such as Disk Manager. Because overlay software and LBA are usually incompatible, you’ll need to either disable LBA in the CMOS setup or remove the overlay software from the hard drive. Because you probably upgraded the BIOS to support LBA anyway, chances are that you’ll want to remove the overlay software:
s s s s

Backup the hard drive before proceeding. Boot the system from a bootable floppy disk. Run FDISK and delete all partitions on the hard drive. Reboot and check with FDISK to be sure that all the partitions on the drive have been removed. s You can repartition and reformat the drive, then restore your files from a backup. If you cannot remove all partitions from the hard drive with FDISK, you can use the following procedure to erase the Master Boot Record (MBR) on the hard drive. You’ll need the DEBUG utility on your bootable diskette before proceeding:
A:\> debug <Enter> F 200 L200 0 a 100 mov ax,301 mov bx,200 mov cx,1 mov dx,0080 ;Note: use 0081 for second fixed disk int 13 int 3 (enter a blank line here) G=100 q

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The drive should now have no partitions on it. Reboot and use FDISK to partition the drive and FORMAT to reformat each partition. You can then restore the operating system, and recover files from your backup.

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Further Study
That wraps up Chapter 64. Be sure to review the glossary and chapter questions on the accompanying CD. If you have access to the Internet, take some time to review these BIOSupgrade resources: American Megatrends: http://www.megatrends.com Award: http://www.award.com Microid Research: http://www.mrbios.com Micro Firmware: http://www.firmware.com Unicore: http://www.unicore.com Wim’s BIOS page: http://www.ping.be/bios/bios.shtml


								
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