What is Periodization by jackshepherd

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									              What is

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                       What it is…
              Periodization is the most important
               concept in training and planning to
              The term originates from the word
               ‘period’, which means a portion of
               time split into easy-to-manage
               segments called phases.
              It was first used in a simple form by
               the Greek Olympians – so it’s been
               around a little while. (Bompa,T)
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    Macro, Meso and Micro
 There are three main sections to each phase and these are
  called the macro cycle, meso cycle and micro cycle.
 The macro cycle – this is a period of considerable length
  aimed at achieving peak performance, culminating in
 The meso cycle – is a subdivision of a macro cycle, the
  duration of this is usually 2-6 weeks
 The micro cycle – is a training period of around 7 days.
  They contain detail regarding intensity, volume and
  sequence of training sessions (NCF)
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        The Phases
 Anatomical Adaptation: The goal of this phase is to prepare
  the body after weeks of no strength training for the demands
  of strength training and more intense training in weeks to
 Preparation Phase: The goal of this phase is to develop
  muscle strength, muscle endurance, and improve flexibility.
 Competition Phase: The goal of this phase is to convert the
  muscle strength and endurance into power and reactive
 Transition Phase: This is a bodybuilding phase for those
  athletes who want to beef up or slim down. During this
  phase athletes are encouraged to do sports other than
  swimming to give them a mental and physical break without
  losing their physical prowess
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           Training Phases
Early Season Training (anatomical adaptation):
 Improve VO2MAX and anaerobic threshold.
 Improve muscular power, endurance and joint
  flexibility, with both land and water drills.
 Establish the seasons goals and performer specific
  targets – these will help keep the swimmer

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       Training phases
Preparation phase
 Outline technical deficiency and work on that, as
  well as perfecting strengths
 Improve stroke mechanics
 Work on start/turns
 Improve max speed
 Improve ATP-CP systems for sprint swimmers
 Some aerobic training to improve payback of
  oxygen debt.
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                 Training phases
Competition Phase
 Maintain VO2MAX and anaerobic threshold developed in
  early season
 Race Pace training – streamlining and maintaining
  optimum speed
 Tactics of races – planning how to use strengths to nullify
  the weaknesses
 Train to keep stroke mechanics even when fatigued
 Mental/psychological rehearsal of competition (this can be
  done in early season races that are not too important)

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     Training Phases
Taper/transitional period
 Final 2/4 weeks of season coming into major
 May have minor tapers in a season (for qualifiers
  and after hard training sessions)
 Taper periods allow the swimmer time to
  ‘supercompensate’ enabling them to peak at the
  major competition
 Training is still done but intensity and frequency
  is lessened

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        Principles of Training
   There are four main principles of training and they are specify,
    overload, progression and reversibility
   Specificity – Every exercise has a specific effect on your body.
    This means that you must first decide what you want to improve
    and then choose the right exercises and drills that will improve
    this specifically. A training programme must be designed to suit
   Overload – To improve an area of your body i.e. fitness you need
    to overload it. That means that you work it harder than it is used
    to. Over time it increases to meet that demand and therefore you
    get fitter. There are three ways to overload you body, by
    increasing the frequency of exercise, by increasing the intensity of
    the exercise or by increasing the time you spend on exercise.
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             Principles of Training
Progression – The body takes time to adjust to the
  increased demands on it. So you have to build up
  the exercise gradually or PROGRESSIVLEY.
Reversibility – You must exercise regularly or the
  muscle will lose the strength, endurance,
  flexibility or speed and start to go back to the
  stage you were at before and reverse the effects.
  This happens after only three to four weeks.

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   Bompa, T., Periodization:Theory and Methodology of
    Training, 1999, Human Kinetics, 4th Edition
   Colwin, C., Swimming into the 21st Centaury, 1992,
    Human Kinetics
   Galvin,B., A Guide to Planning Coaching Programmes,
    1998, NCF
   WSCA., Swimming Coach’s Bible, 2001, Human Kinetics
   www.asa.co.uk

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