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					DIESEL PARTICULATES AND NOx EMISSIONS Monday 21 – Friday 25 May 2007 Provisional Programme
MONDAY 21 MAY 2007 DIESEL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS 08.00 08.30 Registration and coffee Diesel emissions – introduction to the environmental problems and legislation Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Transport emissions, relative importance of diesel emissions, comparison with SI engine emissions, impact on CO2, soiling of buildings. Review and comparison of emissions legislation. Coffee Diesel combustion and emissions Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Fundamentals of diesel combustion, ignition delay and emissions formation. NOx formation and control in diesel engines Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of diesel engine NOx formation and reduction techniques. Discussion of the link between reducing NOx and increasing particulates, including pre-mixed combustion and emulsified fuels Lunch Use of EGR for NOx control Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Tea Engine exhaust particles in the atmosphere Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA A description of measurements of the character of engine exhaust particles as we actually breathe them, on and near roadways. Past measurements will be reviewed highlighting the CRC E-43 program and ongoing work including on-road aftertreatment evaluations will be described. End of day one Welcome Reception in Bar area

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TUESDAY 22 MAY 2007 ENGINE DESIGN AND LUBE OIL INFLUENCES ON NOx AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS 08.15 08.30 Registration and coffee Diesel engine processes that influence particulate formation Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds The nature of diesel particulates. Combustion processes and engine design factors that influence particulate emissions. Instruments for particle size measurements Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA An overview of the operating principles and performance of instruments used for particle sizing with emphasis on instruments suitable for engine exhaust particle sizing. Coffee Factors influencing carbon formation in diesel engines Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of diesel engine carbon formation and reduction techniques. UHC, particulate fuel fraction and PAH emissions Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Sources of PAH and UHC emissions in diesel engines. The importance of unburnt fuel PAH in the particulate composition. Reduction of nozzle sac volume for reduced UHC, SOF and PAH. Lunch The role of lubricating oil in diesel particulate emissions Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of the recent literature: carbon from lube oil, unburnt lube oil, lube oil consumption, lube oil emissions during hot motoring, soot accumulation in used oil and impact on emissions. Tea

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Tuesday Cont… 15.45 The lubricant contribution to future low emission engine design Peter Brett, Castrol International Key areas addressed are fuel economy, exhaust gas recirculation, piston cleanliness and soot, in conjunction with the requirement to extend oil drain intervals and use exhaust aftertreatment devices. Ultrafine and nanoparticle formation by engines Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA A description of current concerns about tiny particles generated by engines, sampling problems, and representative measurements. End of day two COURSE DINNER

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WEDNESDAY 23 MAY 2007 INFLUENCE OF DIESEL FUELS AND ADDITIVES ON EMISSIONS 08.15 08.30 Registration and coffee Sources of variability in exhaust particle emission measurements Professor David Kittelson, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA Measurements of particle emissions from engines are subject to many errors, many associated with particle sampling dynamics, that are not predicted by traditional methods of error analysis. Many of these errors are likely to become more severe as with very clean engines. Coffee Fuel property influences on diesel emissions Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of engine test data on fuel effects on particulate, SOF, UHC and NO x emissions. Diesel Fuel Quality and Manufacturing Challenges Professor Frank Palmer, University of Leeds, Technical Director, IFQC, Automotive Fuels, Emissions, Refinery and Regulatory Affairs Environmental pressures and changes in vehicle technology are increasing demands on cleaner diesel fuel quality. Diesel fuel is a complex mix of hydrocarbons whose chemical and physical characteristics are intrinsically inter-linked and inter-correlated. Changes in one fuel parameter to improve emissions can adversely affect others. Bio components are also being used adding further complexity to fuel formulations. Refiners are facing increasing challenges in the production and blending of diesel cleaner fuel components with considerable variations quality levels worldwide. Lunch Fuel borne catalysts for DPF regeneration Dr Paul Richards, Innospec Limited The effect of a DPF on regulated and unregulated emissions (PAH and NPAH). Dioxin production and metal emissions, additive performance criteria, light-off temperature, regeneration rate, exotherm produced and additive treat rate. Emulsified diesel fuels Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Tea Additives and oxygenates for particulate reduction Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Biodiesel for low CO2: emissions impacts Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds Water injection for Nox reduction Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds End of day three

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THURSDAY 24 MAY 2007 PARTICULATE AND NOx AFTER TREATMENT 08.15 08.30 Registration and coffee An introduction to diesel exhaust after-treatment technology with special reference to the control of particulates David Lemon, Consultant Diesel catalyst technology with special reference to the control of particulates. Oxydation Catalysts I – HC & sulphate issues Dr Dennis Webster, Consultant, formerly Johnson Matthey plc This lecture will give a brief overview of the principles of catalysis, then will consider the requirement to remove, by catalytic oxidation, gaseous components in the exhaust gas from diesel engines. The effects of the presence of sulphur components in the gas stream on the performance of the catalyst will be discussed. Coffee Oxydation Catalysts II – Particulate Volatile Fraction Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of the influence of oxidation catalyst on the volatile fraction of particulates including the separate influence on the lube oil and fuel fractions. Evidence of higher SOF oxidation efficiency than for gaseous hydrocarbons, at low catalyst temperatures for high boiling point fuel fractions such as PAH and for lube oil. Evidence of carbon hang up on the catalyst. Diesel Particle Traps – overview Dr Marty Murtagh, Corning Inc Substrate materials, surface filtration, influence on particle size, overheating and thermal shock problems, limiting storage capacity in g/litre to avoid thermal problems during regeneration. Back pressure influences. Volume storage fibre type traps. Lunch Continuously Regenerating Traps (CRT) Dr Dennis Webster, Consultant, formerly Johnson Matthey plc Diesel particulates collected onto a DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) need to be removed by oxidation, otherwise an unacceptable backpressure will build up. The principles, and some operating experience, of the Johnson Matthey CRT (Continuously Regenerating Trap) will be described. This system allows the regeneration temperature of carbonaceous particulates to be significantly reduced compared to direct thermal oxidation. SCR I - Principles Dr Dennis Webster, Consultant, formerly Johnson Matthey plc One technology for the reduction of NOx from diesel engines is by the reaction of the NOx with ammonia. This reaction is well established in stationary power generating applications, but can also be adapted for use for the control of NOx in lean burning engine exhaust gas. The principles of this technology will be discussed in this lecture, and its practical application in the following lecture. Tea SCR II - Practice Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds A review of published data on the use on SCR systems in vehicles. Open loop and closed loop control of urea addition in transient cycles. Use of non-optimum Urea/NOx ratios in transient cycles to avoid ammonia slippage. Inclusion of Urea decomposition catalysts and ammonia oxidation catalyst, after the SCR, for a system with optimum efficiency. NOx storage Dr Dennis Webster, Consultant, formerly Johnson Matthey plc An alternative technology for the control of NOx requires the catalyst to store the exhaust gas NOx under lean operating conditions, then by the introduction of a spike of fuel, making the system temporarily rich, the NOx is released again and reduced to nitrogen. This system was originally developed for GDI applications, where high conversions of NOx are obtained, but is more difficult to adapt to diesel due to the need for the rich spike. Fuel-sulphur levels are also critically important in this technology. HC lean NOx Dr Dennis Webster, Consultant, formerly Johnson Matthey plc Use of the fuel used by the engine as a reductant for NOx would be the best solution, but a major limitation is the size of the temperature operating window of the catalysts that have been investigated for this system. This lecture summarises the work that has been done, and which continues to be done, and some of the problems encountered. End of day four

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FRIDAY 25 MAY 2007 DIESEL FUEL INJECTION AND ENGINE DESIGN TRENDS FOR LOW EMISSIONS 08.15 08.30 Registration and coffee Unit injection and Common Rail fuel injection systems Mark Smith, Principal Development Engineer, Delphi Diesel Systems Different Fuel Injection Systems as currently in use will be presented: high pressure rotary pumps, unit injectors and pump-line-nozzle systems. Their advantages and drawbacks will be discussed with regard to future requirements within their specific applications. Different Common Rail Fuel Injections Systems will be explained and their specific advantages to conventional systems highlighted. The usage of control strategies to enhance the performance of the fuel injection equipment will be discussed. Future requirements for common rail systems will be presented and compared to next generation common rail system specifications. Toyota’s clean diesel technology Tom Berghmans, Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA, Powertrain Engineering Division Coffee Modern turbocharger systems Henry Tennant, Cummins Turbo Technologies Ltd A review of current turbocharger technology and the interaction of the turbocharger with heavy duty diesel engine emissions reducing strategies. Heavy Duty Engine Strategies for Euro 4 and beyond Meinrad Signer, IVECO Motorenforschung AG European engine strategies for Euro 4 and beyond. Lunch Homogeneous charge and partially premixed diesel engines for low NOx and low soot emissions Professor Gordon Andrews, Energy and Resources Research Institute University of Leeds Port fuel injected diesels with main fuel injection, 100% post injection, early in-cylinder injection. Problems of fuel economy and hydrocarbon emissions. Tea and end of course

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