The purpose of the OSI model by lzg15357

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									Module 9
TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP
Addressing
TCP/IP reference model- REVIEW

  the ___________________________
     standardized in September of 1981
  Provides communications among
  different computing environments
  Almost all networks support TCP/IP
     A protocol suite – __________________
      ______________________________
Layers of the TCP/IP model- REVIEW
  What are the four layers of the TCP/IP
  model?
  Four layers:
    ________________

    _________________

    _________________

    _________________
Application Layer
  Application layer handles all high-level
  protocols issues of _______________
  _______________________________
     Includes the functions of the OSI
      ______________________________
     Ensures data is properly packaged for the
      next layer
Application Layer
   Provides a _____________________
  ________________________________
  ________________________________
     Handles general network access
  Ex. Application Layer interfaces:
     __________________
TCP/IP Protocols at the
Application Layer
  Application layer protocols:
     FTP: File Transfer Protocol
     HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
     SMTP: Simple Mail Transport Protocol
     DNS: Domain Name Service
     TFTP: Trivial File Transport Protocol
     NFS: Network File System
     Telnet: Terminal emulation
     SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
Telnet
  Used for _______________________
  ____________________________
  The connection is maintained ________
  ______________________________
  Telnet _________________________
  ______________________________
FTP
 Reliable, _______________________
 ________________________________
 _______________________________
     Uploading or downloading files
     Uses ______________________________
 ________________________________
 _______________________________
Domain Name System
 DNS server keeps a list of system’s
 ________________________________
 _______________________________
     Services of DNS are ________________
      ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
     Imagine if we all had to type in IP
      addresses (of the server) to access web
      pages on the Internet!
     Ex.: www.yahoo.com ‘s IP address:
      64.58.76.223
Transport Layer
  Sends data packets from the sending source
  to the receiving destination through the
  Internet cloud
  Uses ______ (transmission control protocol)
     ________________________________________
     Packages application layer data into segments
  Uses ___________ (user datagram protocol)
     _______________________
     Also involved in sending segments from one end
      device to another end device
Internet Layer
 Internet Protocol (IP) operates here
     ______________________________________
     Transfers data between the Internet layer and
      network access layers
     _______________________________________
      ______________________________________
 Other protocols operating here:
     ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
                   ICMP
used to send ___________________
_____________________________
_____________ we used in class sends
an ICMP packet to the specified host
   Response
     the ping successful, or unsuccessful
                ARP
Used to ___________________________
________________________________
If a host knows the IP address, but not
the MAC address, of a destination
computer.
   _________________________________.
   The _______________________________
    ___________________________________
IP communication between the two hosts
can proceed
ARP continued…
 Without both MAC address and IP
 address info (of both source and
 destination hosts), communication can
 not take place
 An ARP request is an example of a
 __________________, destined for all
 computers on the segment
ARP Table
  Each computer on a network ________
  ______________________________
  Routers contain ARP tables- __________
  _________________________________
     Contain _______________________________
      _____________________________________
        Host ARP tables contain MAC and IP addresses from
         ________________________________
     Keeps track of ___________________________
      _______________________________________
        Necessary for proper path selection and switching
ARP Details
 When a source communicates with a
 destination on another segment, the
 source uses ______________________
 ____________________________
 Which IP address, router or actual
 destination, is used in forming the
 packet?
 Can anyone guess what Reverse ARP
 (RARP) is?
ARP Details cont…
  If the ARP request is for a device on a
  different segment…
     Recall: routers do not forward broadcast
      packets.
  A router performs a _______________
     ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
      ___________________________________
Network Access Layer
  Deals with issues that an ___________
  _____________________________________
  ____________________________________
     Interface with network hardware
  Includes LAN & WAN technology
  Includes all the OSI ___________________
  _________________________________
  ____________________________________
  ___________________________________
The big picture
IP Addressing
IP Addressing
  Network layer (________________)
  addressing scheme (most popular)
  Format referred to as dotted decimal
  notation
  ________________________________
  _______________________________
  IP addresses can be assigned _______
  ________________________________
  (dynamically.)
IP Addressing cont..
  Example using dotted decimal notation:
     220.14.17.0
  Recall how to convert to binary?
  Please convert this IP address to
  binary…
IP Addressing cont..
  Each packet contains ______________
  _______________________________
  When the packet arrives at a router
  connected to the destination network,
  the router uses the IP address to locate
  the particular computer connected to
  that network
The IP address has two components:
                             ________________
 _________________              Assigned by a
     Assigned by _______        _________________
      (Internet Assigned         _______________.
      Numbers Authority)        Identifies the ______
     __________________         _________________
      __________________         _________________
      _________________         May be identified by
     May be identified by       the _____________
      the ______________         _________________
      __________________         ________ (depends)
      __________________
IP Addresses
32 bit address represented as 8 bit dotted decimals.
Different class addresses reserve different amounts of
bits for the Network and Host portions of the address.

             8 BITS    8 BITS   8 BITS    8 BITS

 Class A        N         H         H         H

 Class B        N         N         H         H

 Class C        N         N         N         H
           ---------- 32 BITS TOTAL -------------
Classes
 How do you know what class an IP
 address is in?
 If the first octet is between:
    ___________________________________
     ___________________________________
     _________________________________
    _________________________________
      multicast address
      ______________________________________
       ______________________________________
       _____________________________________
Number of Hosts
  Maximum number of hosts vary for each
  class.
     Class A has 16,777,214 available hosts ________
     Class B has 65,534 available hosts ____________
     Class C has 254 available hosts _____________


  The first address in each network is _______
  _____________________________________
  _____________________________________
Recognizing Class in Binary
Format
             128s       64s       32s
             place     place     place

 Class A       0
                                                Initial bit
                                                pattern in
 Class B       1         0                      first octet
                                                   of IP
                                                 address.
 Class C       1         1         0

Ex. 1100 0000. 1010 1111. 1010 1100. 0110 0001
First 110 indicates a class C network address
Reserved Addresses
 _____________________________________
 ____________________________________
   Used to identify the network itself

 Class A Network Address example:
     113.0.0.0
 Hosts on a network can only communicate
 directly with other hosts if they have the same
 network ID. If they don’t, they will not be
 able to communicate unless there is another
 device connecting the networks.
Reserved Addresses
  _____________________________________
  ____________________________________
  Broadcast IP addresses end with _________
  ____________________________________
  Class B Broadcast Address example:
     176.10.255.255

 (Remember decimal 255 = binary 11111111)
Reserved Address examples
  For a class A address 99.0.0.0 would be a
  reserved network number and
  99.255.255.255 would be a broadcast
  number.

  For a class B address 156.1.0.0 would be a
  reserved network "wire" number and
  156.1.255.255 would be a broadcast number.
Public vs Private IP addressing
 ______________________________________
 __________________________________
    Assigned by an ISP or regulatory agency
 Private IP addresses
    _________________________________________
     _________________________________________
     _____________________________________
    IP addresses set aside for private addressing:
Network Address Translation
(NAT)

  Performs the ____________________
  _____________________________
Basics of Subnetworks
  ________________________________
  ______________________________
  They provide addressing flexibility.
  A.K.A. ________________________
  Subnet addresses are assigned _______
  _______________________________
  Subnets reduce a _________________.
Advantages of subnetworks
  ____________________ through better
  use of host addressing
  Can control the number of hosts on a
  subnetted network
  ________________________________
  ________________________________
  ________________________________
  ________________________________
    Subnet Addresses
         ________________________________
         ______________________________
         Bits are borrowed from the host field
         and are designated as the subnet field.


         Network         Subnet   Host


Original Host portion (field)
IPv4 vs. IPv6
 IPv4
    ______________________________________________
     ______________________________________________
     ______________________________________________
     _____________________________________________
 IPv6
    ______________________________________________
     ______________________________________________
     ______________________________________________
     __________________________________________
Obtaining IP addresses



  Important note about IP addresses
     ___________________________________
      ______________________
     Could create a conflict that might cause
      both of the hosts involved _____________
      _________________
Static IP addressing
  ________________________________
  ______________________________
     Works best in infrequently changing
      networks
     Or with ___________________________
      ________________________________
RARP IP addressing
  What is RARP?
  RARP requests are broadcast onto the
  LAN and are responded to by the RARP
  server (could be a router)
BOOT IP addressing
 BOOTP packets includes
    ________________________
    _______________________
    _______________________
 Network admin must ___________________
 ________________________________ that
 specifies the parameters for each device
 Device uses BOOTP to send a broadcast IP
 packet requesting IP and additional info
    ______________________________
 Old technology not common anymore
DHCP IP addressing
  ______________________________
  (DHCP) is the successor to BOOTP
  Allows a host to obtain an IP address
  ________________________________
  ________________________________
  _______________________________
     hosts come online, they contact the DHCP
      server and request an address

								
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