City of Los Angeles' City of Los Angeles

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City of Los Angeles’
Road to Zero Waste

   Reina Pereira, P.E.
   R i   P   i    PE
City Collection Services
            City f L A       l
            Cit of Los Angeles:
            • 470 square miles
            • 4 million residents
            • 6 residential collection
            • Almost 10 million tons of
              waste is generated/year
              citywide – 65% is

             Refuse   Recyclables      Yard
           Zero Waste Plan - Phase 1
        Stakeholder Guiding Principles

1. Education to decrease   6. Consumer responsibility
   consumption             7. Convenience
                           7 C        i
2. City leadership as a
   model for zero waste    8. Incentives
   practices               9 New safe, technology
                           9. New, safe
3. Education to increase   10.Protect public health
   recycling                  and the environment
4. City leadership to      11.Equity
   increase recycling
                           12.Economic efficiency
5. Manufacturer
        Phase 2, Year 1 - Facility Plan

•   Policy and program analysis
•   Facility analysis
•   Waste flow model
•   Scenario evaluation
•   Policy, program and facility phasing
Policy and Program Scenarios

  Scenario 1       No New Programs

  Scenario 2   New Policies and Programs

  Scenario 3   Mandatory Requirements
                added to Scenario 2

  Scenario 4       Upstream Policies
                  added to Scenario 2
  Scenario 5       Upstream Policies
                  added to Scenario 3
         Policies and Programs
Scenario 2 New Policies and Programs
• Pay as you throw/rate structure incentives
                y    g
• Increase Recycling Ambassador (     (education and technical
• Multi-family recycling (rollout to all buildings)
• Multi-family green bin (phase in as appropriate)
• Bulky item reuse
• Add textiles to blue bin
• Add food scraps to green bin
• Large scale media/social marketing/education
• Commercial haulers to rollout recycling services to all of their
• All businesses to provide recycling within their businesses
• Provide more public area recycling containers (streets and parks)
• Require all C&D loads to be processed
• Market development
• Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Policy
• Los Angeles Unified School District Zero Waste curriculum
• Community Beautification Grants for Zero Waste Projects
       Policies and Programs
Scenario 3 Mandatory Programs
• Mandatory recycling separation
• Mandatory organics separation
• Ordinance requiring resource recovery centers at
  transfer stations
• Implement diversion requirements at C&D facilities
• Increased code enforcement

Scenario 4 and 5 Upstream Programs
• Advocate for Extended Producer Responsibility for toxics
• Advocate for Extended Producer Responsibility for
  difficult to recycle materials
• Advocate for state packaging legislation
• Single use bag ban
                Waste Flow Model

                  Are reduced or
                redirected by new                         Where they
                      li i    d
                   policies and                           are di   t d
   Generated                          To new facilities
                     programs                                  to

Generator       New Policies         New Facilities          Markets
Sectors           d Programs
                and P                MRF
                Add food scraps to   Composting
Single family   green bin
                                     C&D processing
Multi-family    Require businesses
                to have recycling
Commercial                           technology
                services                                  Residual waste
C&D site                             Etc.
    Diversion Rate by Scenario and Generator1

Policy Scenario       Single Family     Multi-family
                                        Multi family    Commercial            C&D            Citywide
Scenario 1
Baseline2                       50%               2%             59%                94%             62%
Scenario 2
New Policies                    62%              24%             70%                97%             72%
Scenario 3
Add Mandatory                   72%              47%             79%                99%             80%
Scenario 4
Add EPR+2                       64%              29%             70%                97%             73%
Scenario 5
Add EPR+3                       74%              51%             79%                99%             81%

1Phase   2 Waste Flow Model estimates, based on Phase 2 Policy and Program Analysis and Phase 2
Facility Analysis
2Baseline diversion based on 2006 diversion rates (used in Waste Flow Model). 2009 diversion rate is 65%!
    “Blue Bin” and “Green Bin” Facilities
•   Clean Material Recovery Facility
•   Composting
•   Resource recovery center
•   C&D processing

     Griffith Park Composting Facility   Curbside Processing
      “Black Bin” Processing Facilities

•   Mixed materials processing/composting
•   Anaerobic digestion
•   Gasification, pyrolysis, plasma arc
•   Advanced Thermal Recycling (waste-to-energy)

        Refuse to Energy Facility,   MRV Waste to Energy
           City of Commerce          Hamburg, Germany
                         Disposal Facilities
                                        Mesquite Regional Landfill, Imperial County
  • Local landfill
  • Remote landfill

Sunshine Canyon Landfill, Los Angeles
                                   Facility Costs
“Blue Bin and Green Bin” Facilities
“Bl   Bi    dG      Bi ” F iliti                               C t per ton
                                                               Cost     t    $/household
                                                                  (net)       per month
Clean Material Recovery Facility (MRF)                         Pays $10-30       --
Composting                                                        $40-60        $1-3
Resource recovery center                                         $50-100        NA
C&D processing                                                    $30-40
                                                                  $30 40        NA
“Black Bin” Processing Facilities
Preprocessing/MSW composting                                      $50-80        $2-5
Anaerobic digestion                                              $100-130      $7-10
Gasification, pyrolysis, plasma arc                              $120-200      $9-18
Advanced Thermal Recycling (waste-to-energy)
                           (waste to energy)                     $120 200
                                                                 $120-200      $9-18
Disposal Facilities
Local landfill                                                    $35-50        $0-2
Remote landfill                                                  $80-100        $5-7

1Phase   2 Facility Analysis   2Current   monthly household rate is $36.32
       Community Feedback on
 Policy Program and Facility Analysis
• Education, education, education
• More education, education, education
• Try voluntary programs before imposingg
  mandatory requirements
• Proceed slowly and carefully on black bin
• Ensure that new green jobs benefit host
     Policy, Program and Facility Phasing
      2013                    2020                 2025               2030

Initial               Additional Voluntary Continue              Continue
Voluntary             plus                 voluntary and         voluntary and
Programs              Mandatory Programs mandatory               mandatory
                                           programs              programs
Upstream              Resource Recovery       --                 --
Advocacy              Center

Compost facilities    Compost facilities      --                 --
(residential)         (commercial)

1st black bin         2 more black bin        2 more black bin   2 more black bin
processing facility   processing facilities   processing         processing
(residential)         (residential and        facilities for     facilities for
                      commercial)  )          commercial         commercial

       70%                    87%                   90%                93%
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction and
       Green Jobs by Scenario
 Scenario                 Greenhouse Gas            Equivalent number         Number of Green
                          Emissions                 of passenger              Jobs Created2
                          Reduction                 vehicles removed
                                                    from the road1
                                                    f    th     d
 Scenario 1                          --                        --                        --
 Scenario 2                    2.3 million                 423,000                     2,500
 New Programs
 Scenario 3                    1.7 million                 308,000                     2,000
 Add Mandatory
 Scenario 4                    0.4 million                  80,000                      500
 Scenario 5
 Add Upstream
 Total                         4.4 million                 811,000                     5,000

 1 Calculated  based on US EPA Waste Reduction Model (August 2008 version) in metric tons of carbon
 dioxide equivalent
 2Source: Institute of Local Self-Reliance
                  Phase 2 Schedule
      2008-2009            2010-2011             2012-2013
Tasks                Tasks                 Tasks
     y,    g
Policy, Programs     Environmental         Financial Plan
and Facility Plan    Impact Report
                     Public hearings on
Events               draft and final EIR
Regional workshops                         Events
                     Regional workshop     Regional workshops
4th Citywide
     f               5th
                       Cit id              6th Citywide
                     conference            conference
Solid Waste Integrated Resources Plan

              Reina Pereira

     All of us together can make