; COM515 Communication Theory (DOC)
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

COM515 Communication Theory (DOC)

VIEWS: 83 PAGES: 29

  • pg 1
									com515 communication theory
the complete class notes box set

Communication Theory The Public Sphere The Sociological Tradition Durkheim Tradition Media Effects Structuralism Information Theory Systems Theory Networks & Diffusion Space, Time & Communication Limited Effects of Mass Media

08.31.04 09.07.04 09.14.04 09.21.04 09.28.04 10.05.04 10.12.04 10.19.04 10.26.04 11.02.04 11.09.04

course taught by dr. alex halavais study notes by kevin lim updated 11/14/04

QuickT ime™ and a T IF F (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Page 2 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Communication Theory 8/31/04

A syllabus for the class is available at: http://alex.halavais.net/files/TheoryClass One of the readings is a short article on communication theory in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theories_of_communication The other two may be found in Adobe PDF format here: http://schoolof.info/courses/ To-do:            

Get syllabus Buy books from Amazon: Severin & Tanker / Theories of Comm. Speed reading techniques Google readings Mark highlights in notes / Find passion Summarize / Find core argument Find connecting readings / concepts Bring knowledge to class Challenge the argument Response Papers due each Friday before class (Blog / 800 words) Cite reading to provide evidence White’s Writing Style Guide (online)

Communication is…  Resistance to change over time  Information shared between Systems  Creating mutual understanding  Noise to Meaningful  Reduction of Uncertainty  Increase utility / Shape Behavior
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 3 of 29



The Divides: o Intentional or Unintentional interaction o Non-human or human (preferred); has to be heard o Process (Transmission/Laswell) or Ritual (Context/History/Ethnography/Humanistic*/Qualitative) o

*What is Humanistic? Cyclic Process: Theory -> Hypothesis -> Testing -> Abstraction/Induction -> Theory explains why there is a causal relationship between two or more things.  Prediction is not so important in social sciences  Explanatory power is more important  Falsifiability: possibility for other way (Freudian)  Validity: Degree to which results lines up with real-world (whether it makes sense)  Parsimony: simplest explanation  Appropriateness: Does the theory makes sense to what you’re    studying, with relevant process and assumptions Theoretical Scope: Generalizability (Structuration), Mutual uncertainty reduction between two strangers (Berger) Openness (compatibility): Good theories do not invalidate other theories as much Heuristic Value (expandibility): easy to turn into ideas for hypotheses

Epistomology - How to we know things? Study of Knowledge. Language. Ontological - Nature of Being/Material World. Saphire Worf/Language Axiological - Rules/Values, Habermaas (what’s the reason behind it?), Critical Studies Covering Law (Berger): Always the case Rules: Norms/Regularities/not a law/negotiable over time (rules can change)

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 4 of 29

Alex’s Oral Exam Questions (Littlejohn's definitions):  What is communication? Skill is key!  How do you determine a good theory?  What if your criteria? Explain your criteria.  Define Theory.  How social science differs from natural sciences?  How information plays in Communication?  Transmission vs Ritual model? Upcoming Themes:  Public vs Private (Habermas Public Sphere, Penny Press)  Rise of the Mass  General idea on Dewey  Read Mills (skip last chapter), then Parsons (only needed)  Get Broad Ideas

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 5 of 29

Public Sphere Habermas for mediation, legitimating function of social policy Mutual Understanding Dewey enables and facilitates inquiry Mutual Growth

Social Inquiry Habermas Theory of communicative action Achievement of goals (strategic action) require inquiry Different from reason for the goals (communication action) - validity claims rather than common definition Dewey Successful resolution of situation more important than legitimacy If validity of norms and shared values in dispute, there is no common starting point for argument.

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 6 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
The Public Sphere 9/7/04

Keep a public academic journal (Mills)  PhdBlogs, CANA, Mathmagenic (KM) Public Sphere  Four sociological theories     Birth of Sociology? Dewey said environment shaped the individual Question of Agency: Do we have power over our social system? Consequence of individual Decisions / Causes? o Concentrate on consequences rather than causes o Look for something observable (consequences easier than causes; humans are erratic) o Method Dewey: American Pragmatism, deductive nominalism How do humans organize? No clear difference b/w Private & Public Talcott Parsons: grandfather of cybernetics (focus on system over individual) o For the individual: motivational forces and mechanisms o Reproduction: culture Human societies are different because of Self-Consciousness o Human individuals examines own behavior and adjusts it o Dewey on Friendship (1927, p. 26) Grounded Theory: Facts don’t reveal theory to you. You have to start with your own theory. Theory then strongly influences how you look at the world. The kinds of things you look for. o Observe consequences not causes (prevent poisoning) o Dewey’s Theory of the State (p. 18, 35) o A way of looking at the world, design theory to benefit from facts o Rather than looking at motivations (Parsons) What is structure?
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

  







Page 7 of 29



o It is the difference o Natural difference b/w man / woman is who works and who stays home o Desires may be decided by structure, not individual Talcott Parsons o Doesn’t like history (Unlike Spencer) o Marx: dialectic (Hagel)  The process in Hegelian and Marxist thought, in which two apparently opposed ideas, become combined in a unified whole, the synthesis     Marx thinks that material/technology determines our consciousness For Parsons, History doesn’t matter as much as Structure Talking about relations with each other, whether to society or other things Institutions are functional in societies:  Situational  Instrumental  Integrative Don’t need to understand behavior (brain as blackbox), to draw structure, and if drawn correctly, we will get a theory Theory’s Appropriateness, Generalizability, (No dynamics of society) Model vs Theory: Model social behavior to tell how elements relate. It is theory which you formulate which predict, model helps at a basic level.



 

  o Mills  

Parson’s theory seems more like a model Parsons knows that his theory isn’t really predictive (Closer to Dewey than Parsons) We cannot blackbox individuals If individuals fail to comply with system, there might be something wrong with the system  Individual differences  Systems approach too general
compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

Page 8 of 29

Argues that small elite controls society (bad boy) Out of four schools, he is in conflict school (by himself) Wants to take in history Want something in the middle (b/w grand theory vs. little theory) Hard to get that distinction  Thus sociological imagination, though it is hard in practice o Habermas  Ultimately what we want is agreement, through rational discussion         Bourgeois owned their own tools of production Marxist – Frankfurt School (effort to unite Freudian with Marxist) Enlightenment Self-motivated educated individuals lead to ordered rational discussion rather than simply emotional argument Pre-conditions: Open to anyone rational Power is important to Mills, absent from Parsons

 

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 9 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
The Sociological Tradition 9/14/04

Communication with a toy Two school of symbolic interactionist  Empiricalism  Phenonelogical 20 Statement Test (TST) 1. I am a human being 2. I am a lover 3. I am a mac fan 4. I am caring 5. I am evil 6. I am cool 7. I am not who I am 8. I am me Role vs Characteristics 80% characteristics Pierce’s theory of meaning  Sophisticated three-pointed structure Humans have local rationality, depends on local interactions. One might get irrational in other environments. Theory of history or time, and the “Generalized Others” Chicken and Egg question is where does it all start? Symbol and Responses Structuration: fractal in nature

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 10 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Durkheim Tradition 9/21/04

In simplest terms, why was the press the way it is today?  The Press always takes the form and coloration of the society today.  The readers take it more critically than in the early days, more rational.     Conglomerates buying over presses, less room for comments/opinions Same for smaller radio stations Fox = conservative, good because we have another point of view Network news = no clear liberal slant, report as they see

Is the thesis on the press related to the Durkheim’s theory?  Which comes first, Liberalism the cause or the consequence?  Power? Durkheim = idea to structure           Colins: How are structures formed? Durkheim: Structure through collective consciousness Cause and Consequence Last week, Blumer & Mead = Individual focused This week, Durkheim = groups & masses Durkheim “scientific theory of religion” (pg. 149) Social density vs Connectivity; which leads to more suicides? Perhaps the quality of connectivity? City vs. Countryside? Division of Labor leads to interdependence on people Dependence on oneself maybe less if you can be replaced (i.e. city)

Search for the Truth  Structure defines the people  Structure vs. Individual  Milton was confident that Truth was definite and demonstrable and that it had unique power of survival when permitted to assert itself in a “free and open encounter.” (Pg 44)
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 11 of 29

 

Belief shapes people, societies Libertarian is more like a religion (Pg 50)

Lasswell: Structure & Function of Communication  Models, mechanical, something we can work from (pg.90)  Other readings about ideological sense  Groups and Publics (pg. 98)  Politics vs. commercial conglomerates Blogs: Personal Media   Social Network media Voices of big boys vs small boys

Equivalent Enlightenment  Emergent  Enough information to make a decision  To get on with their life, e.g. likelihood of war

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 12 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Media Effects 9/28/04

Media Effects & Propaganda http://www.bloglines.com/public/halavais Laswell’s Function of the Media  Surveillance of environment     Correlations to part of society Transmission of generations Murthen added: Entertainment as a function (to be dysfunctional from society instead of being part of it) Also added Mobilization

Movies and Children  Hooking up things to children’s bed to measure if kids were sleeping well  Kids would treat it as a stimulus, or bad dreams could be due to something else; only movies harm kids?

Suggestibility  Naïve children = children reference from real-life, they know things  Both articles refer to suggestibility  Idea of Critical Faculty  Polarizing effect of reality TV o some people taken in, some see it totally fake o highly educated or not see to have different effects depending on culture Stimulus: war makes people nervous, religious people believe more Critical Thinking & Suggestibility can work differently o I can be critical yet be suggestible (four levels) Involvement also a factor Involvement and Media? Radio vs. TV: which is more involving? Video game influence violence: Motivation and Appeal
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

    

Page 13 of 29

  

         

Like Barbie dolls damages girls bodies What kind of movies are violent? Some violent war movies may not influence violence. Selective Perceptions. Media effects timeline (taken that effect is at same level) o Magic Bullet o Uses and Gratifications: take what meanings you want o Media has no effect at all o Limited effects model Generalizing Violence What’s unique about new technology? o More typing Mass Media as a social structure (Durkheim) o Media as Social Input Video Games are deviant so we can’t test if they have positive influence The Sims Games Does the medium have anything to do with involvement? Define Sleeper effects? Shows up after stronger 6 months later? o People forget where they heard it and they just use it Classic Propaganda films: Why We Fight? o Convince Americans why Germans and Japanese were evil Environmental issues for violence instead of just media? o Education and Values o What aspect of it made it particularly influential? Why did this broadcast frighten some people and not others? Who funded the Payne Studies? Haha! How does individual “knowledge” play a role in influence?

  

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 14 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Structuralism 10/05/04

Structuralism  Saussure only meant his idea for language  Some signifier are based on other signified o Symbols built on other symbols  Conceptual chains evolve over Time   Arbitrary nature of signs Mutability o Language cannot change in a single point of time, yet language as a whole changes over time (paradox) o In playing chess, we learn the rules first o In understanding society, we play it first Covering Law vs Rules-based system o Natural Sciences has general rules o Social Sciences cannot, even with covering laws o Holy Grail of finding Laws of Human Behavior o Karl Popper’s ideas (read it!) Levi-Strauss was trying to construct differences o What are the differences that make the difference? o Mutability of sign over time immutability of sign in a system o Axis of most important differences?  E.g. Rule vs Law based systems  System of Differences: Major themes that divide books  Extract the differences and structures will be apparent Essential polar differences, some things don’t fit in Casablanca + Photograph Movies draw on myths Every story have strong connotations Helps re-inform us about ourselves No choice but to choose within existing Photos/Movie archetype (theme) Bourdieu: Social Space o Eco: o o o o
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com









Page 15 of 29



Habitus: born into it, choices limited to such (unobserved) False consciousness, how do you argue against it? Not falsifiable, but not invalid though, might explain Where do tastes come from? Why are there so many left-ist democrats in academia? How much is it your choice? Cultural capital points can shift  artists look good then bad, changing + cultural capital Summary o The arbitrary nature of the sign o o o o o o o o o o o o Mon – Plural Mutability/immutability Qns: Boudieu, epistemology Heuristics, Parsimony etc Who is eco and what are his ideas? Etc…

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 16 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Information Theory 10/12/04

Natural systems vs. Engineered systems  Info theory is unique because it deals with abstract ideas based on statistical theory. Discreet. What is entrophy?  Degree of uncertainty in a theory

Compare and contrast entrophy as used in statistical mechanics and information theory.  Info Theory: Less uncertainty in info theory more organized  Mechanical: You can have no entrophy. Remove the cap and there will be less order which is irreversible.  Mr. Info: Creating order out of disordered system What is ergotic?

How related to entrophy? Why wasn’t the first telegraph wire buried?  Impudence (Ground) How many signals can you send over the wire at one time?    Bandwidth How do you decide how much” information” you can pass down? Phase Shift: Delay in the wave form

Harry Nyquist (1917)  Measure of entrophy in a system (formula) Norbert Wiener: Cybernetics
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 17 of 29

Measuring systems with noise, without control over source, so he dealt with noise by learning process Shannon: Info Theory  Focused on source and improving clarity of information  Predict no. of words in text (e.g. the, E)  System has characteristics Zipf Law  A distribution curve which shows how some words/letters occur a lot while some occur only once in a while ALL THE TIME.      Importance is that this turns up in lots of places (e.g. distribution of cities, distribution of wealth) Power Laws So what? Preferential attachments: the rich get richer, top bloggers Anomalies are interesting to study (suddenly rise to the top)



First and second order approximation of words/letter  P(u) = 0.03   What is     P(q(u)) = 0.99 (conditional probability) In as little space (compress) for encoding Finite state machine? Pg. 55 (See figure) Scissors Paper Stone (3rd order) Stochastic machine: Freq. doesn’t change over time Finite State machine

Shannon:  Ergotic source: at any position at any time, chance is the same  Assume symbolic system is a finite state stochastic machine  But humans are not exactly stochastic  More complex structure, less stochastic, less predictable  DICE coefficient: to find out who wrote Shakespeare’s plays by looking at word count/frequency
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 18 of 29

How is it that DNA shapes itself into a protein?  You can figure out Protein folding and predict it  Binary 010011 = 19 (0/1)  Octave = 8 (numbers), Hexadecimal = 16 (use letters), ASCII 255 places to fit into 8 bits (1 byte) 26 uppercase, 26 lowercase. Unicode = 16 bits Norbert  Ontogenetic: development of individual animal or human  Phylogenetic: evolution, survival of the fittest (insects)  Finite Machine: Tit-for-Tat, Tit-for-twoTats,

Binary Code for finite machines: Tit for Two Tats 10100 00110 00100 Tit for Tat 10100 00100

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 19 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Systems Theory 10/19/04

General     

Systems Theory Wordcount.org – frequency of words Chaotic Pendulum – sensitive to initial change General Theory – have to be precise (car get older, more chaotic) Laplas Demon – If you can predict how every molecule moves, you can predict the future Flocking behavior between insects and bird, and in people brainstorming, music jamming.

What is General System Theory?  How Individuals interrelate, not individual behavior  Social Networks, looks not at what individuals do, more on how they relate and how structures change  Ecosystem  “The o o o o whole is more than the sum of it parts” Systems Relations Whole Isomorphisms (equivalence. Identical structural traits? e.g. info theory in DNA. Is light a particle or wave?) o Homologies (Common roots. Two systems are similar. Development of telephone and Internet is homologous) o Dynamics (some systems seek equifinality – common ending,

 

open systems reach equifinality, close systems don’t) o Teleological (goal oriented systems) o Homeostasis (Self balancing systems, pursuit of life: open system + information maximizing = more complex/more order) o Most of above dynamics involves Self-Regulation Traditional Science is about reducing things into pieces System theory is looking at the relations of the parts
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 20 of 29



  

Attributes: o Relations o Objects o Environment (outside world) o Information (measurement) o Hierarchy (Black-boxing: nothing beyond the skin, blackbox people and their inner workings, frame of reference) Autopoesis – recreating / self replicating system (Nicolas Neuman) Self organized systems (open source software) 2nd Order Cybernetics: o 1st Order Cybernetics died as a popular trend in the 60s o Wasn’t good for human communication o Feedback system o Started to include the observer in the system (2nd order) Deviance in a System o Schizophrenia (relies on relationship to others, cannot see it on individual alone) Frame of Reference o Method of Inquiry to get to theory A study: o A dean come to see you, Dane Hannigan, from School of Informatics. Collapse the departments, what problems will you have and what recommendations can you make? o Economic efficiencies  General System Theory  LIS, Comm, Informatics - multidisciplinary  Overarching structure similar in three systems  Optimize  Similarity: Collapse faculty, computer labs same use  Similarity as a problem: ownership, group identity  Interaction between departments, students, faculty  Merging cultures  Dynamics Twain Bee o Life in rural vs life in city (gurmineshaft vs gursomething) o Precursors of systems theory
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com



 



Page 21 of 29

 

Heigle o Pre systems theory Which of these people are together?

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 22 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Networks & Diffusion 10/26/04

Georg Simmel: The Web of Groups-Affiliation  Difference between Family & Social Group o Social group is based on individual interest o Family is natural, social group is man-made o Pg 128: Propinquity & Interest a quo: group based on geographical/ physiological factors  terminus a quo: based on purpose, individual interests Simmel writes after gerzalshaft/germindshaft The boon, tribes, gangs (across physical space, associated) We choose relationships based on interest Rural vs. City life:  Juxtaposed / Overlapped systems on a person  Rural = same people   City = different people (easier to be individual, choice) Definition by Society; where is individual? Park (Chicago School) talks about agency (self-determined self-will) Habatus (Structure defines us! No individualism!), can intersect Pg 139 “treating individual as a member of a group rather than as individual” Pg 130

o o o o

o o o o o

o Pg 141 “causal determination of, and purposive actions by, the individual appear as two sides of the same coin”. o Pg 160 o Online vs. Physical friends o Research: International people with friends who overlap or spread out? o *Dec 1st: Social Networking conference (abstract submission)
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 23 of 29

Iowa Study of Hybrid Seed Corn  Diffusion of Innovation (Everett Rogers)  Sociological phenomenon  Salemen and neighbors had more influence over farmers than mass media  How do you define opinion leaders?  S-shaped curve Elihu Katz: Two Step Flow of Communication  Mass media -> Opinion Leaders -> rest of population    Decantur study of decision making in marketing, etc (Ohio new city) Flow of personal influence Role of the influence leader across the board for all studies o More exposed to mass media o More visible (conferences, etc) Flow forward and backward, they found Pg 68: Who are opinion leaders? Time series analysis to determine flow of information Panels of people over time method Pg 73: three factors defining opinion leaders o personification of certain values (who you are) o competence (what you know) o social placement (whom you know) Opinion leaders and mass media (connected) Hamophonous – someone like you Buzz Agent: opinion leaders marketing

    

  

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 24 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Space, Time & Communication 11/02/04

Communication as Culture Space, Time and Communication (Chpt 6) by James Carey  Limits of technology  Oral vs. Written  Bias = Tendency (not political, natural)                       For Innus, history occurs because of communication Innus = hard technology determinist In empire, particular kinds of technology leads to different kinds of empires Egyptians inscribed in rocks, hard to transport, but lasts very long time (longer than anyone) Versus an empire writing in paper, mobile, but short life span (British empire, worldwide, but short-lived) Bible Printing press shipped to central America Envelum (last longer) vs. paper; CDs ruin in 10 years TV & Radio is more spatial and short-lived Romans communication under the lens of Jewish Prudence (laws) Meant to stay, non-changing, applies equally to everyone But it concentrates power in interesting ways There will be people not willing to be part of the monopoly, they will fight back, blowing things up to communicate Centers of production out of the U.S., outsourcing 3% of Americans involved in agriculture Service & Knowledge oriented jobs go up Decentralization Export programmers, robot builders Creative industries are left To be creative, you have to import a wide varieties of ideas Immigration to US aids US to grab ideas Great book called “Guns, Germs and Steel”
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 25 of 29

                          

o Certain geographical resources define a society German and Japan had cultural drive Chinese in Singapore encourage hard work Bad placement might make it inescapable to get out of bad structure Printing Press, Gutenburg, movabletype 16th Century o Also, perfecting ink that didn’t gum up Elisabeth Izenstein within 50yrs of printing press, opera shared For the first time, fashion, music hits exists The enlightening comes about because of printing press First time scholars used citations because same books were available everywhere, could build on argument Late 8th century, the Song Dynasty developed the movabletype for Buddhist text, not for commercial reasons Korea, iron industry, 12th century, built it. Why didn’t China and Korea have continuing innovation, why only in US? In China, language was something meant for elitist ruling class Economy structure different Chinese characters harder than English Woo wrote about why printing didn’t catch on in those countries Works with radio and TV TV – 15th century Conrad Zeus presented computer to Nazis, didn’t need it Context… which one? Tech, Culture, Social Easy to find counter examples to determinism Innus has an explanation to parts of communication people don’t pay attention to. (McLuhan made Innus famous) See Media Ecology Conference Some technologies inherently leads to concentration of power, while some, like radio, many to many, tend to be democratic in nature Technologies have variety of uses, depends on social and political forces Valence; soft determinism Vigotsky - Speech is the first tool we use Technology = tool = method (extension of man)
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 26 of 29

   

Writing –ve aspect = cannot be abstract thinking No new thinking (google), externalize a lot of ourselves into technology Written word is Personalized, Oral is Emergent Literacy

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 27 of 29

COM515 Communication Theory
Limited Effects of Mass Media 11/09/04

Sunbelt Social Networking (INSNA) Abstract due 15th December 2004 February 2005 Media Ecology Association New York (June 2004) Book Review for Journal RCCS University of Washington (David) In research, Significance = Inferential About election polls:    In news coverage, reporters try to give “Balance” (not neutrality) Perhaps news wants to be right by prediction Competitive nature of people

Mass Media theory  From Direct Effect (magic bullet theory)  To Zero Effect  To some limited effect (agenda-setting, priming) Agenda-setting is important because it changed the paradigm. Agenda-Setting has issues  Sample size too small (100 people)  People media consumption then (TV) is different from now (Web)  5% undecided voters  Conclusion do not apply themselves well
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 28 of 29

Politician interested in this, but comm researchers interested in media effects PEW Internet Report found that instead of self-selection of news, people actually read on opinions opposite of their own. They could articulate the alternative views well. Do people find out about news when they are watching TV or surfing the web? (Interactivity driving involvement) Difference between Agenda-setting and Priming:  Agenda-setting treated more as a test  Priming treated more as a stimulus  Priming also is more about “framing” Laboratory already acts as a primer On the flipside, Ethnographical approach: See “Media in Use”, but can be difficult as there is a lot of data Framing = Selection of Representations

Living with Television by George Gerbner and Larry Gross  TV says violence is okay  Element of fear, easy to manipulate Social Learning: Imitation Bandura & “BoBo the Clown” We imitate what we see Uses & Gratification: Especially in high school (dating) Cultivation by Gerbner Cultivation vs. Social Learning
com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04 compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com

Page 29 of 29

Symbolic violence vs. raw violence Mean World Syndrome = How many murders were there in Buffalo

com 515 class notes updated 11/14/04

compiled by kevin lim http://theory.isthereason.com


								
To top