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					100 WAYS
IT SHAPES OUR LIVES

INTERNATIONAL LAW:

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

100 WAYS
IT SHAPES OUR LIVES
Contents

INTERNATIONAL LAW:

Introduction�����������������������������������������������������������������������������i Acknowledgments������������������������������������������������������������������ iii 100Ways:TheProcessandtheFuture ������������������������������������ v � TheASILCentennial��������������������������������������������������������������� vi TheWays�������������������������������������������������������������������������������1 � INDAILYLIFE������������������������������������������������������������������1 ATLEISUREANDINTHEWORLD���������������������������������������7 AWAYFROMHOME�������������������������������������������������������13 � LIBERTY�����������������������������������������������������������������������19 PUBLICHEALTHANDTHEENVIRONMENT �����������������������23 � PUBLICSAFETY�������������������������������������������������������������29 INCOMMERCIALLIFE����������������������������������������������������35 AboutASIL ���������������������������������������������������������������������������43 �

Introduction
Manypeoplefindinternationallawabstractordiffuse�Topicssuch aswarandpeaceorrelationshipsbetweencountriesareconsidered bysometobenotsomuchquestionsoflaw,butofpowerand influence�Somegosofarastoarguethatthereisnosuchthingas internationallaw� International Law: 100 Ways It Shapes Our Liveswasconceived fromthepropositionthatinternationallawnotonlyexists,butalso penetratesmuchmoredeeplyandbroadlyintoeverydaylifethan thepeopleitaffectsmaygenerallyappreciate�Wethereforedecided itwouldbeeducationalandusefultoidentifysomeofthosevery concreteandspecificways,particularlyrelevanttoaU�S�-based audience,anddisseminatethem� Theprojectwasoccasionedbythisyear’scelebrationofthe100th anniversaryoftheAmericanSocietyofInternationalLaw’sfounding� Acommitteewasformedtotaketheprojectforward,andthe decisiontoidentify100wayswasanoutgrowthofthecentennial� Morethan200wayswereconsideredthroughanextensiveselection andvettingprocessinvolvingbroadoutreachtoSocietymembers andinternationallawexperts(andwhichisdescribedonpagev)� Theresultistheselectionofwaysthatarereprintedhere�These arenotnecessarilythe“best”100waysthatcouldbefound,either todayorinthefuture�Infact,thedynamicnatureofinternationallaw andinstitutionsmakesitinevitablethatnewwayswillbeconstantly emerging�Noris100 Waysmeanttobefullyillustrativeofallthe myriadareaswhereinternationallawandinstitutionsoperate�The project’ssearchforconcreteandspecificwaysofrelevanceto individualsintheUnitedStatesledustofocusonsomeareastothe exclusionorminimizationofothers�Norshouldanythingbereadinto theirorderofpresentationhere� Wedidendeavortoidentifywaysinarangeofcontexts,from dailylife,toleisureandtravel,tocommerce,tohealthandthe environment,personalliberty,andpublicsafetyandsituationsof armedconflict�Somewaysareofrelativelyrecentvintage,while othersarelong-standing�

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Wesoughttoemphasizelessthoseareaswhereinternational law,whileimportant,maybepredominatelyaspirational,orwhere theU�S�connectionismoreattenuated�Wedidnot,however,feel thelistshouldbelimitedtotreatiestowhichtheU�S�isaparty;in fact,becauseoftheindividualdimensionofseveralissues,suchas climatechangeandanti-personnellandmines,relevantwayswere includedwheretheU�S�hasnotjoinedtheprincipalinternational treatyregimetodate� Thereweresurprisesaswewentthroughtheselectionprocess� Welearnedthatsomeprominentfeaturesofdailyandcommercial lifetoday,despitetheirglobalcharacter,arenottheresultofor directlyaffectedbyinternationallaw—anotableexampleofthis beingtheInternet� Readersmaydisagreewithourselections,orfeelthatwehave overlookedimportantareas�Butpartofourgoalistostimulate thinkingandprovokedialogue�Wewelcomesubmissionofadditional proposedways;pleaseseepagevfordetails�

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Acknowledgments
Asthechairofthiscommittee,Iamindebtedtothetalentedgroup thatlaboredtodevelopthislistandfindtherightbalance: EvanBloom,U�S�DepartmentofState HannahBuxbaum,IndianaUniversitySchoolofLaw DorindaDallmeyer,UniversityofGeorgiaSchoolofLaw AllisonDanner,VanderbiltUniversityLawSchool EdisonDick,AmericanBarAssociation RickLaRue,AmericanSocietyofInternationalLaw DavidMartin,UniversityofVirginiaSchoolofLaw ASILmemberswhoassistedtheCommitteeincluded:James Bacchus,DavidBederman,DouglassCassel,Jr�,CharlesHunnicutt, Frederic“Rick”Kirgis,andSeanMurphy�ASIL’sDanielVickers designedboththeprintandelectronicversionsandcreatedthe interactiveversionatwww�asil100�org� IamespeciallygratefultoRickLaRueoftheSocietyforhis intellectual,organizational,andtechnicalcontributionstothis project� Thecommitteeacknowledgeswithappreciationthe39individuals whosesubmissionscomprisethe100wayslistedhere: DavidAnderson,PrateekSumanAwasthi,James Bacchus,JosephBertini,DavidBederman,Violanda Botet,RosaBrooks,HannahBuxbaum,JamesCarter, ChehrazadeChemcham,DorindaDallmeyer,Allison Danner,EdisonDick,DavidFidler,NatashaGiuffre, JosephGuttentag,AdamJaffe,JohnKipp,GeneKim, TakashiKokubo,RickLaRue,DavidAlexanderGower Lewis,CharlesLevy,RossLiemer,LucindaLow,Daniel Magraw,KatherineMagraw,DavidMartin,Stephen McCreary,MarkoMilanovic,SeanMurphy,Jordan Paust,StephenSchwebel,Anne-MarieSlaughter, AndrewSolomon,MichaelVanAlstine,GermánAndrés CalderónVelásquez,MarkWojcik,andLiyanYang�
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Asinsomanythings,Iamgratefultomyspouse,DanielMagraw, notonlyforsupportingmyinvolvementinthisprojectgenerally,but alsoforhisdirectcontributionstothelistofways,drawingonhis owndeepknowledgeofinternationallawintheareasofhealth, safety,andtheenvironment�ThanksarealsoduetoDavidFidler who,withoutpressurefromanyspouseofwhichthiscommittee isaware,distinguishedhimselfwiththequalityandquantityof submissionsandearnedthecommittee’sprizeforhisefforts,which hequicklydonatedbacktotheSociety� LucindaLow,Esq� Steptoe&Johnson,LLP Chair,ASIL100WaysCommittee

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100 Ways: The Process and the Future
AttheSpring2004ExecutiveCouncilmeeting,outgoingASIL PresidentandCentennialCommitteeChairAnne-MarieSlaughter calledforideasofwaystheSocietycouldobserveits2006 Centennial�LucindaLowsuggestedthatthereshouldbe100of them–ways,thatis,intheformofalistthatwoulddemonstrate justhowmuchofanimpactinternationallawhasonpeopleintheir dailylives� InNovember2004,Lowformedthe100WaysCommitteeto developsuchalist�Inadditiontoproducingthelistforpublic educationpurposes,thecommitteesoughttoinvolvetheSociety membershipintheprojectasmuchaspossible�Thelistwascreated usingcommitteemembersuggestions,expertrepliestoinquiries, andsuggestionsfromASILmemberssolicitedatthe99thAnnual Meeting,ontheASILwebsite,throughtheASIL Newsletter,andvia e-mailrequests�ASILstaffandinternsalsoprovidedorresearched suggestions�Some80peopleprovidedmorethan200suggestions forthecommittee’sconsideration;anextensivereviewprocess yieldedthe100Wayspresentedhere� Inadditiontotheindividualexpertsandmemberswhosuggested ways,sourcesusedtofindorconfirmwaysincluded:EISIL,the Society’sElectronicInformationSystemforInternationalLaw(www� eisil�org);theEncyclopedia of Public International Law,bytheMax PlanckInstituteforComparativePublicLawandInternationalLaw, underthedirectionofRudolfBernhardt;theUNpublication,“Sixty WaystheUnitedNationsMakesaDifference,”andtherespective UN,international,orgovernmentinstitutionswithresponsibilityfor theinternationallaw,agreement,oractivitydescribed� 100 Waysisadynamicproject,andweinvitereaderstosuggest new,better,oralternativewaystobeincludedinfutureversions ofthelist,whichwillbeupdatedperiodicallyontheASILwebsite and,aswarranted,inprint�Ifyouhaverecommendationsfornew ways,orquestionsorcommentsaboutanyoftheexistingways,we encourageyourinput�Pleasegotothe100 WayspageontheASIL website–www�asil100�org/ways�html–whereyoucansubmityour ideasorreactions�
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The ASIL Centennial
In2006,theAmericanSocietyofInternationalLawcelebrates100 yearsofservicetothefieldandsubjectofinternationallaw�The ASILCentennialtheme—AJustWorldUnderLaw—unitesthe year’smanyobservancesthatlooktothefuture,highlightingthe transformationaswellasthecontinuityoftheorganizationandits work� “The increase of popular control over national conduct, which marks the political development of our time, makes it constantly more important that the great body of the people in each country should have a just conception of their international rights and duties.” ThesewerethefirstwordsevertoappearintheSociety’s flagshippublication,theAmerican Journal of International Law�ASIL PresidentElihuRoot’sappealin1907foreducatingademocratic publicaboutinternationallawcapturestheraisond’êtreforthe organizationthatisasvalidtodayasitwaswhentheSociety wasformed�Despite100yearsofdramaticchange–whetherin internationallawitself(e�g�,theincreasedfocusontheindividualas aninternationallawsubject),intheworldatlarge(e�g�,technology orcommunications),orinthemembershipoftheSociety(e�g�,from arelativelysmallgroupofwhiteAmericanmalesto4,000diverse peoplefromnearly100nations)–theSocietyhasremainedtrueto itsfoundingpremise� Althoughitishardtoarguewiththecentennialthemeof“ajust worldunderlaw”asanobjective,thereissuretobemuchless agreementonwhatthisidealworldwouldlooklike,howitwouldbe bestachieved,orwhetheritcanbeachieved�Yetthatisinmany waysthepoint,astheSocietymeetstheneedforaleadingforumto shareandlearnfromdivergentviewsaboutpursuingifnotachieving people’s“rightsandduties”inaglobalenvironment� LookingtotheSociety’snext100years,theeducational imperativeforASILscholarshipandeducationalprogramswill continuetoincreaseasinternationallawbecomesagreatercivic forceinpeoples’lives�
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The Ways

INDAILYLIFE
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Always knowing what date and time it is anywhere on the planet. Byuniversalrecognitionoftheprimemeridianand GreenwichMeanTime(viainternationalagreementat theInternationalMeridianConferencein1884)�The latterwasupdatedto“universaltime”in1928,and subsequenttechnicalagreementshaverefinedthe definitionfurther� Mailing a letter reliably and easily to anyone in the world. Byensuringatrulyuniversalpostalnetworkand recognizingthatspecifiedpostalratesinonecountry wouldsatisfydeliveryrequirementsinallcountries (theConstitutionoftheUniversalPostalUnion,1964)� Driving cars with improved safety standards. Byadoptingglobalsafetystandardsforautomobiles, notablytheAgreementConcerningtheEstablishingof GlobalTechnicalRegulationsforWheeledVehicles, Equipment,andPartsWhichCanBeFittedand/or UsedonWheeledVehicles(1998)� Being able to call Arkansas, Missouri, or most of Montana home. Astheresultofthebilateraltreatyknownasthe LouisianaPurchase(1803)� Placing and receiving telephone calls worldwide. Bycreatinganinternationalcommunicationnetwork andbyreachinganinternationalagreementpreventing nationalclaimstothegeostationaryorbit�See the1865Constitutionofwhatisnowcalledthe InternationalTelecommunicationsUnion,theoldest intergovernmentalorganization,andtheTreatyon PrinciplesGoverningtheActivitiesofStatesinthe ExplorationandUseofOuterSpace,Includingthe MoonandOtherCelestialBodies(UNSpaceTreaty, 1967)�

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INDAILYLIFE
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Knowing that a second is the same length of time everywhere in the world. Bysettinginternationallyrecognizedstandards, particularlytheDecisionofthe13thGeneral ConferenceonWeightsandMeasures(1967),under theauspicesoftheInternationalOfficeofWeightsand Measures(est�1875)� Using the same software on computers worldwide. Byprovidingrightsofdistribution,copyright,and rentaltoauthorsofcomputerprogramsviatheWorld IntellectualPropertyOrganizationCopyrightTreaty (1996)� Getting an up-to-date weather forecast about your destination before you travel. Bybenefitingfrominternationalrulesforthe collectionanddisseminationofworldwideweather data,asprovidedforbytheConventionofthe WorldMeteorologicalOrganization(1947)andthe InternationalTelecommunicationConvention(1932)� Watching news and events from around the world on television. Asaresultoftheinternationalconvention providingequalaccesstotheinternationalsatellite communicationsnetwork,asstatedinResolution 1721(XVI)oftheGeneralAssemblyoftheUnited Nations(1961)� Listening to a BBC program on your radio. Byfollowingregulations,implementedbythe InternationalTelecommunicationUnion,thatprovide forshareduseoftheradiospectrumandassign positionsforcommunicationsatellites,buildingfrom theInternationalTelegraphConvention(1865)�

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Having a wider variety of fresh fruits and vegetables to choose from during the winter. Byrecognizingvariousinternationalandfreetrade agreements,notablythe1994Marrakesh(orUruguay Round)AgreementEstablishingtheWorldTrade Organization� Knowing that the Feta cheese you buy is from Greece or that the Tequila you buy comes from Mexico. Byusingandrecognizingageographicalindication (GI),whichisasignusedongoodswithaspecific geographicaloriginpossessingqualitiesora reputationstemmingfromthatplaceoforigin�The 1883ParisConventionfortheProtectionofIndustrial Propertyhastraditionallyprovidedprotectionfor GIs,followedbytheMadridArrangementConcerning thePreventionofFalseorMisleadingIndicationof Source(1891)�Later,theGeneralAgreementon TariffsandTradeof1947expresslylaiddownrules fortheprotectionofAppellationsofOrigin,followed in1958bytheLisbonAgreementfortheProtection ofAppellationsofOriginandtheirInternational Registrations(asrevisedin1967andamendedin 1979)� Being able to buy more affordable clothing or goods, such as flowers from Colombia on Valentine’s Day. Astheresultofinternationaltermspermitting increasesintradeoftextilesandclothing,flowers, andothergoods,ascontainedintheAgreement EstablishingtheWorldTradeOrganization(1994,also knownastheMarrakeshAgreement;theWTOcame intoexistencein1995),theAndeanTradePromotion andDrugEnforcementAct(2002,updatingthe1991 AndeanTradePreferenceAct),andothers�

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INDAILYLIFE
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Knowing that your tuna sandwich was made from fish caught without killing dolphins. BybenefitingfromtheAgreementontheInternational DolphinConservationProgram(1999)tolimitharmto dolphinsduringtunafishing� Being able to choose from a greater variety of wines from Australia, Chile, and other countries. AstheresultoftheAgreementonMutualAcceptance ofOenologicalPractices(2001),whichlimits wine-importingconstraintstohealthandsafety considerations� Making it easier, at airports and other points of entry to the country, to bring home imported goods. Byusingarules-basedautomatedsystemforcustoms dataincustomsoffices,asestablishedbytheUN CommissionforTradeandDevelopment� Experiencing less risk of inflation or of wide fluctuations in currency valuations. ByrecognizingtheBrettonWoodsAgreements(1944), whichcontributedtothedevelopmentofamore stableinternationalmonetarysystem� Writing a will, knowing that your testimonial wishes will be followed in more than 100 countries.  Byauthenticatingthedocument(andanyother document)withacertificationrecognizedworldwide –anapostille�Allcountriesthatarepartytothe ConventionAbolishingtheRequirementofLegalization forForeignPublicDocuments(HagueConvention, 1961)willrecognizethedocumentaslegal�

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Avoiding double taxation on your estate. Byfollowingvariousandnumerousbilateraltax treaties,suchasthe1951Conventionbetweenthe SwissConfederationandtheUnitedStatesofAmerica fortheavoidanceofdoubletaxationwithrespectto taxesonestatesandinheritances�

INDAILYLIFE
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ATLEISUREAND INTHEWORLD
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Seeing water go over Niagara Falls. AstheresultoftheNiagaraDiversionTreaty(1950), whichrestrictsthediversionofwaterfromtheNiagara Riverforhydroelectricpower�(Theinfrastructureexists toalmostfullystopthefalls�) Going on a whale watch . . . and being confident that you will see a whale. BecauseoftheInternationalConventionforthe RegulationofWhaling(1946),andthecreationof marinesanctuariesunderavarietyoftreaties,which havecontrolledwhalehuntingandhelpedtoprevent theextinctionofthespecies� Attending a Rolling Stones concert on the band’s U.S. tours. Byenablingathletesandentertainerstoperform outsidetheirowncountrieswithouttheincomethey earnonsuchtripsbeingtaxedbyboththeirhomeand thevisitedcountries�Therearemorethan1,500such bilateralormultilateraldoubletaxationagreements worldwide;theUnitedStateshassuchagreements coveringmorethan60foreignjurisdictions� Watching, attending, or participating in fairer Olympic Games. ByhavingconfidenceintheeffortsoftheInternational OlympicCommitteetohonortheOlympicCharter; enforceeligibilityrequirements;regulatethegames; eliminateadvantagessoughtbyathleteswhotake performance-enhancingdrugs(throughtheeffortsof theWorldAnti-DopingAgencyandinaccordancewith thefinaldraftoftheUNESCOtreaty,theInternational ConventionagainstDopinginSport),andresolve disputesabouteligibility,doping,orresultsthrough theCourtofArbitrationforSport�

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ATLEISUREANDINTHEWORLD
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Being able to enjoy books and movies about Harry Potter or James Bond even if you reside outside the United Kingdom. BygivingauthorsJ�K�RowlingandIanFlemingthe sameprotectionfortheirliteraryworksinother countriesastheyreceiveathome,asprovidedforin theBerneConventionfortheProtectionofLiteraryand ArtisticWorks(1971)� Being able to watch birds during their annual migrations. Byobservingthe1916MigratoryBirdConvention withCanada,whichistheoldestinternationalwildlife conservationpact�(TheUnitedStatesandMexico signedasimilartreatyin1936�)Thetreatiesprovide protectionforallspeciesofmigratorybirdsinNorth Americaandregulatehuntingseasonsforgame birds�Bybarringallmigratorybirdhuntingbetween March10andSeptember1,theoriginaltreaties deniedtraditionalharvestsofmigratorybirdsby northernindigenouspeoplesduringthespringand summermonths�Suchharvestswerepermittedin amendmentsratifiedbytheU�S�Senatein1997� Being more confident in the mechanical safety of your Alaskan or Caribbean cruise vessel. Astheresultofinternationalagreements–thefirst versionofwhichwaspassedinresponsetothe Titanicdisaster–mandatingsafershipsandsafety procedures,withregardtoconstruction,equipment, seaworthiness,theuseofsignals,andthe maintenanceofcommunications�Suchagreements grewoutofcustomaryinternationallawandhave cometoincludetheGenevaConventionontheHigh Seas(1958),theInternationalConventionforthe SafetyofLifeatSea(1974),andtheUNConvention ontheLawoftheSea(1982)�

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Being able to visit cultural heritage sites, such as Angkor Wat or Machu Picchu. Byfollowinginternationalagreementspreserving natural,cultural,andheritagesitesforeducational, travel,andsocialbenefit(e�g�,throughmultiple protectionregisterssettingstandardsforpreserving andsafeguardingimmovableandmovablecultural heritageorobjects,includingduringarmedconflict)� Amongsuchagreementsare:theUNESCOConvention ConcerningtheProtectionoftheWorldCulturaland NaturalHeritage(theWorldHeritageConvention, 1972);TheHagueConventionfortheProtection ofCulturalPropertyintheEventofArmedConflict (1954);theFirstHagueProtocol(1954);theSecond HagueProtocol(1999);andtheAdditionalProtocol tothe1949GenevaConventionsrelatingtothe ProtectionofVictimsofInternationalArmedConflicts (Protocol1,1977,Article53)�UNESCOhashelped 137countriesprotectsuchmonumentsandsites� Seeing elephants in their natural habitat on a camera safari, enjoying rare orchids on special traveling display, or observing rare Giant Pandas from China at the zoo. Astheresultofrequirementsgoverningthe internationaltransferofendangeredspecies containedintheConventiononInternationalTradein EndangeredSpeciesofWildFaunaandFlora(CITES, 1973)�ThefourzoosintheUnitedStatesthathave borrowedpandas(inAtlanta,Memphis,SanDiego, andWashington,DC)followaninternationalloan policyinaccordwithCITESthatwasestablishedin 1998betweentheU�S�FishandWildlifeService andtherelevantChinesebodies,theMinistryof Construction(responsibleforzoos),andtheChinese StateForestryAdministration�

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ATLEISUREANDINTHEWORLD
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Seeing a touring exhibit of art from the Louvre museum. Astheresultofbilateralculturalexchangeagreements ortheinternationalConventionontheMeansof ProhibitingandPreventingtheIllicitImport,Exportand TransferofOwnershipofCulturalProperty(1970)� Being able to see giant sea turtles come ashore to lay their eggs, having increased chances of seeing wildlife in the Everglades, and seeing other rare species, such as polar bears. Byfollowingsuchinternationalconservation agreementsastheInter-AmericanConventionforthe ProtectionandConservationofSeaTurtles(2001), theConventiononWetlands(TheRamsarConvention, 1971),andtheAgreementontheConservationof PolarBears(1973)� Increasing the likelihood that the movie “The March of the Penguins” could be filmed again decades from now. Asaresultofthepreservationembodiedin theAntarcticTreaty(1959)andtheProtocolon EnvironmentalProtectiontotheTreaty(1991)�

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AWAYFROMHOME
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Flying shorter, more direct routes to international destinations. AstheresultoftheInternationalAirServicesTransit Agreement(1944,inconjunctionwithbilateral agreementsandtheConventiononInternationalCivil Aviation,theChicagoConvention),whichpermits aircrafttoflyacrossmemberstates’territoriesorland inthemfornon-trafficpurposes,withouthavingto obtainpermission� Being able to travel with relative ease, simply by having a passport. Byusingastandardizeddocument–your passport–thatvirtuallyallcountriesacceptand thatnormallyassuresspeedyentry�Passports werefirststandardizedundertheLeagueof Nations(InternationalConferenceonPassports, CustomsFormalitiesandThroughTickets,1920)� StandardizationnowoccursthroughtheInternational CivilAviationOrganization,with188contracting states�TheICAOwasestablishedin1947uponthe entryintoforceoftheConventiononInternationalCivil Aviation� Being less concerned about which airline you use because of international safety standards. Byadheringtointernationallymandatedsafety standardsandrecommendedpracticesand procedures,asadministeredbytheInternationalCivil AviationOrganization,establishedin1947� Knowing that the train you are on can keep going when you cross a border onto the tracks in another nation. Byprovidingfortechnicaluniformityofrailways, particularlywithrespecttogauge,constructionand maintenanceofrollingstock,andloadingofwagons (the1886ConventiononTechnicalUniformity)�

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AWAYFROMHOME
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Knowing your international air travel is reasonably safe from international crime or terrorism. Bypassingandimplementingvariousinternational criminallawsconcerningaircraftsafety,hijacking, sabotage,andairportsecurity:theConventionon OffensesandCertainOtherActsCommittedonBoard Aircraft(1963);theConventionfortheSuppression ofUnlawfulSeizureofAircraft(1970);theConvention fortheSuppressionofUnlawfulActsAgainstthe SafetyofCivilAviation(1971);andtheProtocolforthe SuppressionofUnlawfulActsofViolenceatAirports ServingInternationalCivilAviation(1988)� Traveling and spending money more easily throughout Europe now that it has a common currency. ByreplacingtheindividualcurrenciesoftheEuropean countrieswiththeeuro,thuseliminatingtheneed forU�S�touriststochangemoneyandmasternew exchangeratesmultipletimes(amongotherbenefits)� Theprocessstartedin1991withthepassageof theMaastrichtTreatycreatingtheEuropeanUnion (includingtheEuropeanMonetaryUnion)and culminatinginthenewcurrency’sintroductionin 1999�1

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TheeaseandattractivenessoftravelinginEuropehavebeenaidedby: 1)additionalinternationallaw,suchasthatenablingtravelwithoutthe needtoclearcustomsorimmigrationinspectionateachborder(under the1985SchengenConvention,implementedinitiallyby5statesin 1995�Fifteencountrieshaveimplementedtheagreementasof2005, andanother11havejoinedthetreatyandwillachievefullimplementation withinthenextfewyears�);and2)Europeanfederallawharmonizingthe lawsoftheMemberStates,suchasthe13thCouncilDirective86/560/ EECoftheEuropeanUnion(1986),whichenablesnon-EUcitizens(e�g�, U�S�tourists)toclaimvalueaddedtaxrefundswhentheyshopinEurope�

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Being able to travel, for business or for pleasure, to and from U.S. destinations on the Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence Seaway. Byadministeringwaterlevelsandrelatedcooperative orcommonusesoftheriverthroughtheInternational JointCommission,createdbythe1909Boundary WatersTreaty�Priortreaties–theTreatyofGhent (1814),theWebster-AshburtonTreaty(1842),andthe TreatyofWashington(1871)–offeredgeneralrespect fortherightsofaccesstotheriver�Tollsandpilotage aredeterminedandsharedbyagreementbetweenthe UnitedStatesandCanada� Driving freely and legally in another country. Byensuringthat,withavaliddriver’slicense,youcan applyforandreceiveaninternationaldriver’spermit, inaccordancewiththe1949UNConventionon InternationalRoadTraffic,thatisrecognizedbymost countriesaroundtheworld(whilesomecountries, suchasFrance,recognizeaU�S�driver’slicense, manydonot)� Being able to recognize road signs in more and more countries around the world. Byincreaseduseofthestandardizedroadtraffic rules,signs,andsignals,ascontainedinthe1968 UNConventiononRoadTraffic,thatfacilitatetheuse ofuniversalstandardsaroundtheworld� Knowing that, if the boat you are on is in trouble, others in the area must come to your aid. Duetowidespreadrecognitionandexpandinguse oftermsregulatingtheresponsibilityofvessels whenothersareindanger,asprovidedina2004 AmendmenttotheInternationalConventionforthe SafetyofLifeatSea(1974)�

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AWAYFROMHOME
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Knowing you will be compensated, in part, if Air Canada loses your luggage on a flight. AsaresultoftheConventionfortheUnification ofCertainRulesforInternationalCarriagebyAir (MontrealProtocol,1999,totheWarsawConvention, 1929)� Being able to sue a non-U.S. airline in the United States in the event of an injury or the loss of a loved one due to an accident. Bystandardizingandinternationalizingthevarious liabilityregimesunderwhichcarriersoperate,through theConventionfortheUnificationofCertainRulesfor InternationalCarriagebyAir(MontrealProtocol,1999, totheWarsawConvention,1929)�

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LIBERTY
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Helping to protect persons from being prosecuted for speaking freely. Byexcludingprosecutionsofpoliticaloffensesfrom states’obligationstohonoranextraditionrequest fromanothercountry�Virtuallyallbilateraland multilateralextraditiontreatiescontainanexception forpersonswhoarebeingchargedwithan“offenseof apoliticalcharacter�” Being protected from torture and other forms of ill treatment at the hands of law enforcement personnel. Byprohibitingtortureandotherformsofinhumane anddegradingtreatmentorpunishment�See theEuropeanConventiononHumanRightsand FundamentalFreedoms(1950),theInternational CovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights(1966),the AmericanConventiononHumanRights(1969),and theUNConventionAgainstTortureandOtherCruel, Inhuman,andDegradingTreatmentorPunishment (1984)�

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LIBERTY
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Promoting the equal protection, treatment, and dignity of children. Bypassingandpromotinganinternationalagreement, theUNConventionontheRightsoftheChild(1989), whichguaranteeschildrendignityofhumanlife andprotectionfromtheindecenciesofabuseand exploitation�Twooptionalprotocols–theOptional ProtocolontheInvolvementofChildreninArmed Conflict,andtheOptionalProtocolontheSaleof Children,ChildProstitutionandChildPornography –havebeenjoinedbytheUnitedStates�Thefirst barscompulsoryrecruitmentofchildrenunderthe ageof18formilitaryservice(andrequiresstates thatvoluntarilyrecruitchildrenundertheageof 18todescribethestepstheywilltaketoensure theprotectionofsuchenlistees,suchasshowing parentalconsentandreliableproofofage)�The seconddefinesascriminalactsthe“saleofchildren,” “childprostitution,”and“childpornography”; establishesgroundsforjurisdictionover,and extraditionof,criminaloffenders;andprovidesfor internationalcooperationinpursuingoffenders� Adopting foreign-born children safely and fairly. ByfollowingtheConventiononProtectionofChildren andCo-operationinRespectofIntercountryAdoption (1993,HagueAdoptionConvention)� Resolving more easily and consistently child custody disputes and abduction cases. Bycreatingalegalinfrastructureforintercountry adoptions(theConventiononProtectionofChildren andCooperationinRespectofIntercountryAdoption, 1993)andrequiringinternationalrecognitionof domesticchildcustodyrights(theConventiononthe CivilAspectsofInternationalChildAbduction,1980)�

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Having access to a U.S. consulate or embassy if you are arrested abroad. Byrequiringthatyoubeinformed,ifyouarearrested inanothercountry,thatyouhavearighttocontact yourconsulateandthatyourconsulatehasarightto visityou(theViennaConventiononConsularRelations andOptionalProtocols,1963)�

LIBERTY
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PUBLICHEALTHAND THEENVIRONMENT
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Preserving natural sources of medicine that may one day save your life. AsaresultoftheConventiononInternationalTrade inEndangeredSpeciesofWildFaunaandFlora (1973)andtheConventiononBiologicalDiversity (1992),whichseektoprotectspeciesfromextinction andrecognizesthatwildfaunaandfloraarean irreplaceablepartofthenaturalsystemsoftheearth andmayyieldmedicinesthatcantreathumanillness anddisease� Buying products that are safer to use and not harmful to human health. Byrecognizingtheabilityofstatestorestricttrade intheinterestsofprotectinghumanhealththrough theGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade(1994), theWorldTradeOrganizationAgreementonthe ApplicationofSanitaryandPhytosanitaryMeasures (1994),andtheWTOAgreementonTechnicalBarriers toTrade(1994)� Gaining access to lower-priced, patented pharmaceuticals. Asaresultofstatesbeingabletoengageinparallel importing(legallypurchasingproprietarydrugsfrom athirdparty)andcompulsorylicensing(permitting genericdrugstobemanufacturedwithoutthe agreementofthepatentholder;i�e�,effectively reducingpatentprotectionperiodsthatcanbeaslong as20years)throughtheWorldTradeOrganization AgreementonTrade-RelatedAspectsofIntellectual PropertyRights(1994)�

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Protecting the Great Lakes from water pollution and invasive species such as Zebra Mussels and Sea Lampreys.  Bymonitoringandrespondingtowaterqualitytrends identifiedthroughimplementationoftheGreat LakesWaterQualityAgreementof1972(renewed in1978andupdatedbyprotocolin1987)�The agreementbetweentheUnitedStatesandCanada aims“torestoreandmaintainthechemical, physicalandbiologicalintegrityoftheGreatLakes BasinEcosystem�”Furthermore,regulationsofthe InternationalMaritimeOrganization,aUNspecialized agencyestablishedin1958,governvesseloperations topreventaccidentalorintentionalreleasesofinvasive species� Increasing worldwide access to life-saving vaccines. Byengaginginresearchondiseasesthat predominantlyaffectdevelopingcountries,viathe UNDevelopmentProgramme,createdin1966when theGeneralAssemblyapprovedthemergerofthe TechnicalAssistanceBoardandtheUNSpecialFund (Resolution2029(XX))� Having a safer food supply. Byestablishinginternationalfoodsafetystandards throughtheCodexAlimentariusCommission,ajoint ventureoftheUnitedNations’FoodandAgriculture OrganizationandWorldHealthOrganization�For example,standardshavebeenestablishedforover 200foodcommodities,andsafetylimitshavebeen establishedformorethan3,000foodcontainers� AlsoapplicablearetheInternationalPlantProtection Convention(1951)andtheWorldTradeOrganization AgreementontheApplicationofSanitaryand PhytosanitaryMeasures(1994)�

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Being protected from the harmful effects of tobacco consumption. Byestablishingacomprehensiveframeworkfor tobaccocontrolnationallyandinternationallythrough theFrameworkConventionforTobaccoControl (2003)� Knowing that the spread of diseases (e.g., avian flu strain H5N1) is being fought internationally. Byestablishing,throughtheInternationalHealth Regulations(2005)oftheUnitedNations’World HealthOrganization,aglobalsystemofsurveillance andresponseagainstpublichealthemergenciesof internationalconcern� Protecting individuals from being the subjects of medical experiments without their consent. Bybanningmedicalexperimentswithouttheinformed consentoftheindividualsinvolved,asaffirmedinthe InternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights (1966)� Reducing exposure to hazardous chemicals and pesticides, thereby preventing birth defects, cancer, and other diseases. Byfollowinginternationalagreementsthatprotect againsttoxicchemicals(suchasDDT,PCBs, anddioxin)contaminatingourfoodsupply�See theStockholmConventiononPersistentOrganic Pollutants(2001)andtheRotterdamConventionon thePriorInformedConsentProcedureforCertain HazardousChemicalsandPesticidesinInternational Trade(1998)�

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Reducing the chance you will be exposed to hazardous wastes. Byobservinginternationalconventionspreventing illegaltransportanddisposalofhazardouswaste acrossborders�SeetheBaselConventiononthe ControlofTransboundaryMovementsofHazardous WastesandTheirDisposal(1989)andtheBamako ConventionontheBanoftheImportintoAfrica andtheControlofTransboundaryMovementand ManagementofHazardousWasteswithinAfrica (1991)� Reducing the risks of accidents at and weapons proliferation from nuclear power plants. Byobservingtheinternationalsafeguards administeredbytheUNInternationalAtomicEnergy Agency(1956)� Being better protected from harm in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Bycoordinatinginternationalassistanceincasesof nuclearaccidentorradiologicalemergency�Seethe ConventiononAssistanceintheCaseofaNuclear AccidentorRadiologicalEmergency(1986),the ConventiononEarlyNotificationofaNuclearAccident (1986),theConventiononNuclearSafety(1994),and theStatuteoftheInternationalAtomicEnergyAgency (1956)� Protecting the water supply for drinking, irrigation, and other uses. Astheresultofhundredsofinternational agreementsseekingtoimprovewaterquality,such astheConventionontheProtectionandUseof TransboundaryWatercoursesandInternational Lakes(1992);theUNConventionontheLawof Non-NavigationalUsesofInternationalWatercourses (1997);and,forEurope,theProtocolonWaterand Health(1999)�

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Enjoying cleaner ocean water and beaches, and swimming with less fear of contamination from human waste. Byreducingland-basedmarinepollutionharmfultohealth andtheenvironmentandbyregulatingresponsibilityfor vesselsatsea,includingrestrictionsonoceandumping� SeetheConventiononthePreventionofMarinePollution fromLand-BasedSources(1974),theUNConvention ontheLawoftheSea(1982),andtheInternational ConventionforthePreventionofPollutionfromShips (1973)� Reducing the harmful health effects of transboundary air pollution (e.g., acid rain). Byreducingtheemissionsofpollutantsthatmakeup transboundaryairpollution,throughtheobservance oftheConventiononLong-RangeTransboundaryAir Pollution(1979)� Reducing your risk of cancer and cataracts from ultraviolet light. Byobservinginternationalagreementsprotectingthe atmosphericozonelayerandphasingoutchemicals thathavedepletedtheozonelayer�SeetheVienna ConventionfortheProtectionoftheOzoneLayer(1985), theMontrealProtocolonSubstancesthatDeplete theOzoneLayer(1987),andcorrespondingprograms oftheUNEnvironmentProgrammeandtheWorld MeteorologicalOrganization� Being able to work in a safe and healthy work environment. Byregulatinghealthandsafetystandardsinthework placethroughobservanceoftheOccupationalSafetyand HealthConvention(1981)� Helping keep our world livable by protecting against anthropogenic climate change. ByobservingtheUNFrameworkConventiononClimate Change(1992)andtheKyotoProtocoltotheUN FrameworkConventiononClimateChange(1997)�

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Improving our ability to fight terrorism. Byputtinginplacethelegalframeworktocombat terrorism,whichatpresentconsistsofthirteenglobal legalinstrumentsthathavebeennegotiatedunder UNauspices(asofJune2005,63countrieshad ratifiedall13)�Inadditiontothe4instrumentscited inWay#36concerningairtravel,theseinclude:the ConventiononthePreventionandPunishmentof CrimesAgainstInternationallyProtectedPersons, IncludingDiplomaticAgents(1973);theInternational ConventionAgainsttheTakingofHostages(Hostages Convention,1979);theConventiononthePhysical ProtectionofNuclearMaterial(1980);theConvention fortheSuppressionofUnlawfulActsagainstthe SafetyofMaritimeNavigation(1988);theProtocolfor theSuppressionofUnlawfulActsagainsttheSafety ofFixedPlatformsLocatedontheContinentalShelf (1988);theConventionontheMarkingofPlastic ExplosivesforthePurposeofDetection(1991); theInternationalConventionfortheSuppression ofTerroristBombings(1998);theInternational ConventionfortheSuppressionoftheFinancingof Terrorism(1999);andtheInternationalConventionfor theSuppressionofActsofNuclearTerrorism(2005)� Enabling the humanitarian activities of the Red Cross organization. ByadheringtotheGenevaConventionforthe AmeliorationoftheConditionoftheWoundedin ArmiesintheField(1864)andrelatedinstruments supportingtheestablishmentandoperationof nationalRedCrosssocieties� Reducing the spread and use of illegal drugs and their related criminal activity. Byusinginternationalcriminallawtocombatdrug trafficking,humantrafficking,andmoneylaundering� SeeinparticulartheworkoftheUNOfficeonDrugs andCrimeprograms(someofwhichisbasedon threeUNconventionsondrugcontrol)andtheGlobal ProgrammeAgainstMoneyLaundering(1997)�

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Helping to prosecute criminals, even when they manage to flee to another country. Byobligatingmostcountriestoextraditeanaccused person,oronewhoescapesafterconviction,tothe countrywherethecrimewascommitted�Hundreds ofbilateralandmultilateralextraditiontreaties requirethisformofcooperationinthecriminaljustice process� Protecting national, racial, ethnic, and religious groups from obliteration. BysupportingUNandstateaction,asformulatedin theConventiononthePreventionandPunishment oftheCrimeofGenocide(1948)andtheRome StatuteoftheInternationalCriminalCourt(1998), toprosecutetheperpetratorsofgenocidebefore internationalandnationalcriminalcourts� Protecting members of the armed forces and civilian populations from death or injury from chemical weapons. Byprohibiting,throughtheConventiononthe ProhibitionoftheDevelopment,Production, StockpilingandUseofChemicalWeapons(1992),the useandallpreparationsfortheuseoftoxicchemicals asweaponsandprovidingforextensivemeasuresto verifycompliancewiththeseobligations� Protecting military personnel and civilians from harm from anti-personnel landmines. Bybanningtheuse,stockpiling,production,and transferofanti-personnellandminesthroughthe ConventionfortheProhibitionoftheUse,Stockpiling, Production,andTransferofAnti-PersonnelMinesand onTheirDestruction(1997)�

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Enabling captured military personnel to receive adequate medical care and sanitary, healthy conditions of captivity. Byrequiringstatesengagedinarmedconflictto providewoundedandcapturedenemymilitary personnelwithmedicaltreatmentandhumane livingconditions�SeeGenevaConventionIforthe AmeliorationoftheConditionofWoundedandSick ArmedForcesintheField(1949);GenevaConvention IIfortheAmeliorationoftheConditionofWounded, Sick,andShipwreckedMembersoftheArmedForces atSea(1949);andGenevaConventionIIIRelativeto theTreatmentofPrisonersofWar(1949)� Having only a peaceful, scientific, and cooperative human presence in Antarctica. ByfollowingtheAntarcticTreaty(1959),thefirst post-WorldWarIIarmslimitationagreement,which demilitarizesandprovidesforthecooperative explorationandfutureuseofAntarctica� Keeping outer space safe -- from weapons and other threatening behavior of humans and nations. Byadoptingtheinternationaltreatythatpreserves outerspaceasapeacefulsanctuaryandprohibits deployingnuclearorotherweaponsofmass destructioninorbitoronacelestialbody�Seethe TreatyonPrinciplesGoverningtheActivitiesofStates intheExplorationandUseofOuterSpace,including theMoonandOtherCelestialBodies(1967)�

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Reducing the spread of nuclear weapons. Byimplementinginternationaltreatiesproviding forreductionsinthenumberorspreadofnuclear weapons�SeetheComprehensiveTestBanTreaty (1963),theTreatyontheNon-proliferationofNuclear Weapons(1968),theStrategicOffensiveReduction Treaty(2002),andmultiplebilateraltreatiesbetween theUnitedStatesandtheformerUSSR(e�g�,the treatiesresultingfromtheStrategicArmsLimitation Talks)� Providing lasting peace between Japan and the United States after World War II. ByadoptingthemultilateralTreatyofPeacewith Japan(1951,TreatyofSanFrancisco);theUnited Stateswasoneof48countriessigningthetreaty� OthersuchpeacetreatiestheUnitedStateshas signedwithformerwartimeenemiesincludetheTreaty ofParis(1783),theTreatyofGhent(1814),theTreaty ofGuadalupeHidalgo(1848),andtheTreatyonthe FinalSettlementwithRespecttoGermany(1990)� Reducing the chances that wars will have to be fought in order to resolve disputes among nations. Byprovidingthelegalbasistooutlawwar(viaArticle 2(4)oftheUNCharter);byestablishingglobaland regionalorganizations(suchastheUnitedNations andtheNorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization)designed torespondtothreatstopeaceandsecuritythrough forcibleandnon-forciblemeans;andbycreating orsupportingvariouspolitical,institutional,and legalmeanstosettledisputesthroughnegotiation, mediation,conciliation,arbitration,andadjudication�

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Knowing that international trade statistics – whether read in the paper or used to assess tariffs and track quotas – are based on uniform codes covering 98% of international trade and more than 200,000 commodities.  Byusingtheinternational,uniformclassification forcommoditiesdevelopedbytheWorldCustoms Organizationandinusebymorethan177countries� Experiencing smoother trade and clearer transactions by using standardized trade terms and common definitions. Byusingstandardizedtermsthatreducethe uncertaintiesofcross-bordertransactions(the UnidroitPrinciplesofInternationalCommercial Contracts,2004),andbyusinginternationally recognizeddefinitionsfor13standardtradeterms mostcommonlyusedininternationalsalescontracts –INCOTERMS2000–governedbytheInternational ChamberofCommerceandendorsedbytheUN CommissiononInternationalTradeLaw� Making international business transactions more efficient and more secure, such as by offering a means to reconcile conflicting details in the fine print of standard forms.  ByusingtheUNConventiononContractsfor theInternationalSaleofGoods(1980),the UNConventionontheLimitationPeriodinthe InternationalSaleofGoods(1974),theConvention fortheUnificationofCertainRulesRelatingto InternationalCarriagebyAir(1929),andthe ConventiononInternationalInterestsinMobile Equipment(2001)� Preventing countries from unfairly subsidizing exports and dumping their products in order to gain unfair access to the U.S. market.  Byenforcingthe1994revisionstotheGeneral AgreementonTariffsandTradeandothertrade agreements�

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Being able to get a letter of credit to reduce the risk of nonpayment for goods sold to a foreign buyer. Byusingtheinternationalrules–theUniform CustomsandPracticesforDocumentaryCredits (1993)–thatwerepromulgatedbytheInternational ChamberofCommerceandthatcodifiedcustomary internationallawrecognizingthisneed� Making the transport of goods by sea more efficient and cost-effective. Byfollowingseveralinternationalagreementsthat permitnavigationinthewatersofothercountries; outlawpiracy,enablingforthedefenseoftransport shipsbyanynation’snavy;establishrequirements foraship’screw;andestablishregulationsforcargo transactions�SeetheUNConventionontheCarriage ofGoodsbySea(TheHamburgRules,1978)andthe UNConventionontheLawoftheSea(1982)� Resolving international disputes between private parties more efficiently.  Bycreatingalegalinfrastructuretoensurerecognition andenforcementofinternationalarbitralawards, andmeasuresfortheserviceofprocessandtaking ofevidenceabroad�SeetheUNConventiononthe RecognitionandEnforcementofForeignArbitral Awards(1958),theConventionontheServiceAbroad ofJudicialandExtrajudicialDocumentsinCivilor CommercialMatters(1965),andtheConventionon theTakingofEvidenceAbroadinCivilorCommercial Matters(1970)� Enforcing an arbitral award without a local court having to hear the dispute anew. ByusingtheUNConventionontheRecognitionand EnforcementofForeignArbitralAwards(1958)�

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Earning the same workers’ compensation as that granted to nationals if you are injured at work in another country. ThroughtheConventionConcerningEqualityof TreatmentforNationalandForeignWorkers(1925)� Preventing your income, should you earn any in another country, from being taxed twice. Byinternationalorbilateralagreementeliminating doubletaxationofincome,enablingincomeearned onforeignsoiltobetaxedonlyonce�Therearemore than1,500doubletaxationagreementsworldwide, andtheUnitedStateshassuchbilateralagreements coveringmorethan60foreignjurisdictions� Preserving your U.S. Social Security and other retirement benefits if you are transferred to work for a company abroad. BytheUnitedStates’adoptionofbilateral “TotalizationAgreements”with21mostlyWesternor developedcountries� Receiving or delivering documents and evidence in a more timely and reliable fashion if you and/ or your business end up in court overseas, or if you require evidence located overseas to resolve your U.S. dispute. Byusingtheinternationalconventionsexpeditingthe proceduresandensuringthereceiptordeliveryof evidenceanddocumentsinjudicialorextrajudicial matters�SeeTheHagueConventionontheService AbroadofJudicialandExtrajudicialDocumentsin CivilorCommercialMatters(1965),TheHague ConventionontheTakingofEvidenceAbroadinCivil orCommercialMatters(1970),theInter-American ConventiononLettersRogatoryandAdditional Protocol(1975and1979),andtheInter-American ConventionontheTakingofEvidenceAbroad(1975)�

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Being able to make a claim against the host government if your property in a foreign country is expropriated.  ByusingtheConventionontheSettlementof InvestmentDisputesbetweenStatesandNationals ofOtherStates(commonlycalledthe“Washington Convention”ortheICSIDConvention,1965)and relatedbilateralinvestmenttreaties� Reducing the likelihood of others in foreign countries copying your writings or creative expressions. ByrelyingontheBerneConventionfortheProtection ofLiteraryandArtisticWorks(1971)� Protecting your trade name or trade dress – such as the shape of a Coca Cola bottle or the look of Campbell’s soup label – from imitators. Asaresultoftheinternationalconvention,the ProtocolRelatingtotheMadridAgreementConcerning theInternationalRegistrationofMarks(1989)� Protecting your patented invention or product, whether the latest software or “Post-it” notes, around the world. BybenefitingfromtheworkoftheWorldIntellectual PropertyOrganizationandtheuseof:theParis ConventionfortheProtectionofIndustrialProperty (1883,mostrecentlyamendedin1979);theProtocol RelatingtotheMadridAgreementConcerningthe InternationalRegistrationofMarks(1989);theVienna AgreementEstablishinganInternationalClassification oftheFigurativeElementsofMarks(1973,as amendedin1985);theNiceAgreementConcerning theInternationalClassificationofGoodsandServices forthePurposesoftheRegistrationofMarks(1957, asamendedin1979);andtheConventiononthe GrantsofEuropeanPatents(1973)�

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Having extra time, if you are an inventor, to see if you need to spend money or effort filing foreign patents. ByusingthePatentCooperationTreaty(1970,as amendedin1979andmodifiedin1984andin2001), whichamendstheParisConventionfortheProtection ofIndustrialProperty(1883,mostrecentlyamended in1979)andgrantsthepatentapplicant30months todecidewhethertospendthemoneyandtimefor foreignpatentfilings,asopposedto12monthsunder theParisConvention� Making business competition fairer by reducing the practice of bribes being paid to get business. ThroughtheuseoftheOrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentConventiononCombating BriberyofForeignPublicOfficialsinInternational BusinessTransactions(1997),theUNConvention AgainstCorruption(2003),theInter-American ConventionAgainstCorruption(1996),andothers�

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100 Simplifying the process of transferring property through the use of a standardized authentication
procedure that substitutes for the cumbersome and expensive chain authentication of documents. Throughuseofasimplifiedprocedureandformknown astheapostille,whichauthenticatesadocument withacertificationthatisrecognizedworldwide andismadepossiblebytheConventionAbolishing theRequirementofLegalizationforForeignPublic Documents(HagueConvention,1961)�

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About ASIL
TheAmericanSocietyofInternational Lawisanonprofit,nonpartisan, educationalmembershiporganization foundedin1906�Itsmissionisto fosterthestudyofinternationallaw andtopromotetheestablishment andmaintenanceofinternationalrelationsonthebasisoflawand justice�CharteredbyCongressin1950,ASILholdsCategoryII ConsultativeStatustotheEconomicandSocialCounciloftheUnited NationsandisaconstituentsocietyoftheAmericanCouncilof LearnedSocieties� TheSocietyisheadquarteredatTillarHouseinWashington, D�C�Its4,000membersfromnearly100nationsinclude attorneys,academics,corporatecounsel,judges,representatives ofgovernmentsandnongovernmentalorganizations,international civilservants,students,andothersinterestedininternational law�Throughmeetings,publications,informationservices,and outreachprograms,ASILadvancesinternationallawscholarship andeducationforinternationallawprofessionalsaswellas forbroaderpolicy-makingaudiencesandthepublic�Whilethe Society’seducationalmissionremainsascentraltodayaswhenthe organizationwasfounded,itsprogramshaveadaptedtodramatic changesininternationallaw,asbothanexpansivetopicandan evolvingprofessionaldiscipline� Pleasevisitwww�asil�orgforadditionalinformationaboutASILand itsprograms�

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