Next Generation Marine Vessels Fuel Cells and Gas Turbines by mgb63241

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									Next Generation Marine Vessels
  Fuel Cells and Gas Turbines

                        Presented at
                       Workshop on
            Maritime Energy and Clean Emissions

                      Washington, DC
                      30 January, 2002

                 Diane Hooie, Senior Advisor


    Strategic Center for Natural Gas
  Navy Recognizes Benefit of Electric Drive



“The key design element of
  integrated power and
  electric drive is a single
  source generator for the
  requirements of all ship's
  power needs, including
  propulsion.”




                               Strategic Center for Natural Gas
             Roadmapping Participants

• Government
   − DOE/NETL
   − ONR
   − NAVSEA
   − NAVAIR
   − TACOM
   − USCG


• Industry
   − NNS
   − Bath Iron Works
   − Ingalls


                               Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                   Goals

• Optimize programs


• Leverage research dollars


• Identify role of each agency and participant.




                                Strategic Center for Natural Gas
            Ships by Type

              Military
               2%
                            Container
                              2%
         Utility
         12%




Tug
23%                                         Fishing
                                             50%




  Transport
     8%

  Roll-on/Roll-off
      (RoRo)
                         Passenger
        2%
                            1%




                                        Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                                           Emissions by Type
                               185
                               175
                               165
                               155
                               145
                               135
                               125
Emissions (10^3 Metric Tons)




                                                                                      Container
                               115                                                    Fishing
                               105                                                    Passenger

                               95                                                     RoRo
                                                                                      Transport
                               85
                                                                                      Tug
                               75
                                                                                      Utility
                               65
                                                                                      Military
                               55
                               45
                               35
                               25
                               15
                                5
                                -5
                                     Nox    PM               HC            CO
                                                 Pollutant


                                                                                        Source: EPA


                                                                  Strategic Center for Natural Gas
         Key Power Plant Sizes Identified


propulsion/all elec

     ships service

        aux power


                      0   5   10   15     20      25      30
                          Power Requirement, MW




                                    Strategic Center for Natural Gas
           Technologies of the Future




Turbines

                                         Fuel Cells


                    Fuels


 Engines                                      Hybrids
                              Strategic Center for Natural Gas
      Turbines for Marine Applications

• Inland Waterways(600-3760kW)
     • Microturbines, IC Engines, Hybrids

• Inland and Coastal(2255-9022kW)
     • Industrial GT, Engines, Hybrids

• Ocean Going Ships(6015-67,669kW)
    • Aeroderivatives, Industrial GT, Hybrids

• Fast Container Ship(150,000-375,000kW)
    • Large Aeroderivatives




                                      Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                    DER “Prime Movers”
                        Examples




                      Reciprocating Engines           Photovoltaics
Advanced Turbines




    Fuel Cells                 Wind                   Microturbines

                                         Strategic Center for Natural Gas
            Advanced Microturbines

      2000
17-30% Efficiency*




                            2007
                        40% Efficiency*
                                            * Lower Heating Value

                             Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                Reciprocating Engines


       2000
25 - 40% Efficiency




                          2007
                      50% Efficiency

                                Strategic Center for Natural Gas
             Industrial Gas Turbines


       1992
Double digit ppm NOx




                         2010
                       <5 ppm NOx
                               Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                DOE/NETL Products Availability
                                       Turbine Technologies

Year       Merc 50          Aero-gas               Aero-gas         Micro-turbine       Ram-jet

2000   $400, 4 MW       $500, 25 MW            $500, 42 MW        $700, <100 kW     $250, 5 MW
now    41%, Demo test   42%, Commercial        42%, Commercial    30%, Commercial   50%, Tested

2001   Commercial

2002

                                                                                    15 MW, 50%
2003
                                                                                    Prototype
                        30+ MW, 50%
2004
                        Demo/Test
                                                                  100 kW to 1 MW    15 MW
2005
                                                                  40%, Demo/Test    Commercial

2006

                                                                                    5–15 MW
2007                                                              Commercial        60%, Test


2008




                                                                 Strategic Center for Natural Gas
R&D Activities: First Generation Fuel Cell – Turbine
                      Hybrids

2000
  • 60% Efficiency (LHV)
  • <1 ppm NOx



- Advanced
 systems
 integration                 2007
-Improved                    • >70% Efficiency (LHV)
 control systems             • <<1 ppm NOx

                                Strategic Center for Natural Gas
Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                DOE/NETL Products Availability
                                            Fuel Cells and Hybrids

Year         PAFC               MCFC                SOFC                 SSFC              Hybrids

       $4,250               R&D Prototype     R&D Prototype                          R&D Prototype
2000   200 kW (modular      250 kW, 47%       100 kW, 45%                            25 kW, 57%
now    to approx. 1.2 MW)   Demo/Test         Demo/Test                              Demo/Test
       40%, Commercial
2001
2002
                            Est. $3,000       Est. $3,000        $1,000              $3,000
2003                        250 kW to 1 MW    250 kW to 1 MW     5 kW Module         250 kW to 1 MW, 60%
                            47%, Prototype    47%, Prototype     Prototype           Demo/Test
2004
                                                                 $800
2005                                                             Truck APU Unit
                                                                 Commercial
2006
2007
                            Est. $1,500       Est. $1,500        $400                $1,300
2008                        < 3 MW            < 3 MW             Lux. Vehicle APU,   3 MW, 74%
                            Commercial        Commercial         Commercial          Commercial




                                                                     Strategic Center for Natural Gas
         Emission Reduction Key

 (emission     Fuel Cells     Gas          Hybrids             2007
   goals)      (45-55%)     Turbines      (50-85%)*         Regulations
                            (45-55%)                          (2030)


                                                                   <11
NOx, ppm       Negligible    <5 ppm      Negligible-            g/kW-hr
                                          < 5 ppm                (-24%)


 SOx, ppm      Negligible   Negligible   Negligible         (<15 ppm)



Particulates   Negligible   Negligible   Negligible                <0.5
                                                                g/kW-hr
                                                                 (-12%)


    CO          <5 ppm      <10 ppm       Negligible          5 g/kW-hr
                                         to < 10 ppm

                                             Hybrids are dependent upon configuration
                                                                                        Negligible = < 1 ppm


                                             Strategic Center for Natural Gas
             Technologies Match Needs


propulsion/all elec       Turbines/hybrids



     ships service                 Engines/MicroTurbines/Fuel Cells



        aux power          Fuel Cells/SECA



                      0        5         10          15         20    25      30
                                   Power Requirement, MW




                                                        Strategic Center for Natural Gas
Panamax: First Fuel Cell Powered Ship?




                         Strategic Center for Natural Gas
Cruising Italian-American Style




                     Strategic Center for Natural Gas
                    Marine Vessel Initiative Budget Estimate
Cumulative Budget
Needs, $Millions


400


350


 300


 250


 200


 150


  100


      50


       0
       2001
                       2002
                                         2003
                                  Year               2004

                                                                          2005
                                                Strategic Center for Natural Gas
 DOE: Opening New Frontiers in
Propulsion and Ships Service Power




                       Strategic Center for Natural Gas

								
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