The project report titled “A STUDY ON ADVERTISERS‟ PERCEPTION ABOUT INDULGE (A WEEKLY SUPPLEMENT)”along with “THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS .” This research is done in order to study the brand image created by indulge, a weekly supplement along with The New Indian Express. In this project report the introduction covers tells about the advertisers‟ perception. The need of the study and scope for the study.
The study was done by personal interview and questionnaire method with a sample of 30 advertising clients of The New Indian Express. The population is chosen on volume of advertisement basis. The total volume of advertisements for four month period is 10287 column centimeter.
INDULGE is a fully passionate lifestyle supplement for the Chennai market. The finding of the study reveals that advertisers perceive the product as an attracting product that depicts the new trend wave of Chennai market. There are few limitations in the study. The suggestion given to the company is to increase the circulation of the product.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE NO 1 ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 OUT LINE OF THE PROJECT 4 1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY 5 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6 1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 7 1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 7 1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 8 1.5.2 DATA COLLECTION METHODS 9 1.5.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS 9 1.5.4 SAMPLING 10 1.5.5 STATISTICAL TOOLS 13 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 14 1.7 CHAPTERIZATION 15 1.8 LITERATURE REVIEW 20 1.8.1 COMPANY PROFILE 34 1.8.2 PRODUCT PROFILE DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 42 2.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS 42 2.1 GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 76 2.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 76 2.2.1 WEIGHTED AVERAGE 79 2.2.2 CHI-SQUARE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 82 3.1 FINDINGS 87 3.2 SUGGESTIONS 88 3.3 CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX 89 REFERENCES 94
CHAPTER – I:INTRODUCTION:
1.1.INTRODUCTION PERCEPTION Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Perception, on the other hand, better describes one's ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input. In practice, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process. Perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory stimulation is translated into organized experience The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that begins with the environment and leads to our perception of a stimulus and an action in response to the stimulus.
History of Advertising
Advertising as a discrete form is generally agreed to have begun with newspapers, in the seventeenth century, which included line or classified advertising. Simple descriptions, plus prices, of products served their purpose until the late nineteenth
century, when technological advances meant that illustrations could be added to advertising, and color was also an option. An early advertising success story is that of Pears Soap. Thomas Barratt married into the famous soap making family and realized that they needed to be more aggressive about pushing their products if they were to survive. He launched the series of ads featuring cherubic children which firmly welded the brand to the values it still holds today. he took images considered as "fine art" and used them to connote his brand's quality, purity (i.e. untainted by commercialism) and simplicity (cherubic children). He is often referred to as the father of modern advertising. World War I saw some important advances in advertising as governments on all sides used ads as propaganda. The British used advertising as propaganda to convince its own citizens to fight, and also to persuade the Americans to join. No less a political commentator than Hitler concluded that Germany lost the war because it lost the propaganda battle: he did not make the same mistake when it was his turn. One of the other consequences of World War I was the increased mechanization of industry - and hence increased costs which had to be paid for somehow: hence the desire to create need in the consumer which begins to dominate advertising from the 1920s onward.
Advertiser Perceptions provides media company executives with essential insight necessary for increasing ad sales, market share and competitive advantage.
DEFINITION - ADVERTISING
Advertising is paid for a way of promoting products, services or information a form of communication (between manufacturer and consumer) a physical commodity an integral part of pop culture
an important economic force a part of our urban landscape Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade
potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
1.2.Need of the study:
News paper industry get major part of their revenue through advertising This study is about advertisers‟ perception on advertising in INDULGE. These studies to know the impact of indulge advertising and the brand image created by the INDULGE among advertisers Findings of the study helps the new Indian express to know whether they will get repeated advertising from their existing advertiser client and to know their satisfaction level.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study undertaken for The New Indian Express aims to study and identify the potential advertisers.
This has been done by preparing a questionnaire which contains questions put forth to the respondents which would help is analyzing the willingness level of advertisers in advertising in INDULGE, a weekly supplement along with The New Indian Express
This study would help in identifying the reason for advertisers advertising in INDULGE, a weekly supplement along with The New Indian Express. . All this would help in giving suggestion to The New Indian Express in improving INDULGE thereby satisfying their corporate and retail clients
1.4 Objective of the study:
To study the brand image created by THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS among advertisers.
To find out the reason for choosing Indulge of THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS
To study on advertiser‟s perception about indulge (a weekly supplement)
along with to THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: INTRODUCTION:
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem is to how research is done scientifically. It consists of the different steps that are
generally adopted by the researcher to the study his research problem along with logic behind them. It is necessary to the researcher to develop certain tests.
1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:
Research design is a plan to answer whom, when, where, and how the subject under investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The type of research design involved in this study is descriptive research studies.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STUDIES:
Descriptive research studies are those studies, which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, where as diagnostic research study determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. The studies concerning whether certain variables are associated are example of diagnostic research studies. As against this, study concerned individual, group or situation are all example of descriptive research studies. Most of the social research studies come under this category from the point of view of the research design.
1.5.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD:
The required data was collected by both the primary and secondary sources.
The data objective are describe from the research objectives and their determination rests mainly on the research to translate what the decision marker wants into specific descriptive of the needed data.
The primary data was collected from the, THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS (MADURAI) LTD., users at Chennai. The Respondents were met personally at their establishments and questionnaire has been given to them and answered questionnaires were collected back. Primary data is the data gathered for the first time by the researcher by using questionnaire.
Secondary data: Secondary data, on the other hand, is those which have already been collected by someone else and which already been passed through the statistical process.
Secondary data pertaining to this study was obtained from company documents,
broachers, departmental information‟s websites etc.
1.5.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS:
Instrument Instrument Design : Questionnaires (personal administered) : Both open end enclose ended Question and used in questionnaires.
A well structured questionnaire was used for this study. The types of questions used in the questionnaire were open-ended, multiple-choice and Dichotomous questions.
1. Open-end questions are questions, which are entitled to give a free response to their choice.
2. Multiple-choice questions are question, which contain a list of answer and permit the subject to select the best answer.
Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population, so that a study of sample and an understanding of its properties or characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population elements.
Sampling technique : Cluster sample Sample size Sample unit : Sample size chosen here for this study was 30 as suggested by the company : Advertisers in Chennai market :period on 26th June 09 to 31st July09
A Sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selection items for the sample. Sample may as well lay down the number of items to be included in the sample namely, the size of the sample.
Make a specific mention of it in the thesis. So that the conclusions would be evaluated accordingly. probability sampling refers to the sampling process in which the samples are selected for a specific purpose with a pre-determined basis of selection. This
type of samples is also required at times when random selection may not be possible. Therefore the reliability of conclusions based on this type of sampling is less. Whenever a researcher uses this type of sampling.
Cluster sampling method suggests, the samples are selected at different stages. In this method, the population is first divided into different stages. Then from the first stage, a few items are selected at random based on a specific feature or characteristic. From these in the second stage, a few elements are selected at random possessing, he characteristic. From which in the third stage a few are selected at random satisfying the characteristic and so on to finally make the necessary selection of samples. All the samples selected at random at different stages will posses the common characteristic or will be homogeneous on some basis.
Cluster sampling involves arranging elementary items in a population into heterogeneous subgroups that are representative of the overall population. One such group constitutes a sample for study.
The total numbers of respondents are termed as sample size. The sample size for this analysis is 30 respondents.
Sampling unit is that of “who is to be surveyed”. The survey is on advertisers of THE NEW INDIAN EXPRESS (MADURAI) LTD.
PERIOD OF STUDY:
The research is carried out for one month (26-06-09 to 31-07-09).
1.5.5 SATISTICAL TOOLS:
The collected data has been subjected to analyses by unit‟s appropriate tools, percentage, chi – square. The information gathered analyzed by using the following appropriate tool such as: Percentage Analysis Chi – Square test
Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. It is used to make comparison between two or more series of data. They can be used to compare the relative items, the distribution of two or more series of data since the percentage reduce everything as common base and allow the meaningful comparisons to be made.
Percentage refers to the special kind of ratio percentage are used in making comparison between two or more series of data. Percentages are used to describe relationship.
No. of respondents Percentage (%) = _________________________ Total respondents X 100
Bar chart and Pie charts are used to explain the tabulation clearly.
Chi – Square test:
This test is one of the simplest and most widely used non – parametric in Statistical work, when certain observed values of the variable are to be compared with the expected value. The chi – square is computed on the basis of frequencies in a sample and thus the value of chi – square. So, obtained in a statistic chi – square is not a parameter as its value is not derived from the observations in population, Hence chi – square test is a non – parametric test. Chi – Square test is not concerned with any population distribution and its observation. The chi – square test was first used in testing statistical hypothesis by karl person in the year. 1900 it is defined as, n Chi – Square = Where, Oi = Observed frequency of ith event Ei = Expected frequency of ith event Σ i =1 (Oi – Ei) 2 ------------Ei
CHAPTER 2: PROFILES 2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE News paper market
Survey results find that traditional journalistic values remain important at marketoriented newspapers, though senior editors tend to report more interaction with departments outside the newsroom - including the advertising department. In a market-oriented business, the customer is unquestionably king. The successful market-oriented firm identifies a potential market opportunity, selects a group of customers that it wants to serve and develops a strategy for efficiently meeting the wants and needs of those customers. The central business assumption is that long-run success depends on a strong, organization-wide focus on customer wants and needs.1 During the last decade, as the business environment has become more challenging for daily newspapers,2 many of them have adopted a stronger market orientation. They have concentrated both on learning what their two customer groups advertisers and readers - say they want and need from a newspaper, and on finding ways to meet those wants and needs. In newsrooms, this has brought changes to the newsmaking process.
Rather than relying strictly on journalists' expert judgment to decide what to publish in the newspaper, newsroom managers have encouraged reporters and editors to pay more attention to perceived reader interests. They also have asked reporters and editors to shape content to more closely conform to those reader interests.3 This practice has drawn praise and criticism. Supporters have argued that it will help save daily newspapers from irrelevance and, perhaps, extinction.4 Critics have disparaged it. 5 They have charged that market-oriented news organizations: De-emphasize serious content in favor of frivolous, entertaining information. Undermine the ethical fire wall between an organization's news and business operations. Fail to live up to social obligations to disseminate the kind of public-affairs information essential to a democracy. This article examines those assertions as it explores what it means for a news organization to be market oriented by asking these questions: The answers to these questions are based on a 1996 national survey of 406 senior editors at 182 general-circulation U.S. daily newspapers. This survey differs from earlier quantitative research on market-oriented journalism in that the sample is larger and the questionnaire more comprehensive than most other studies of this subject. In addition, the national sample allows the findings to be generalized to all U.S. general-circulation dailies, whereas much of the earlier research has had a statewide or regional focus. The findings reported here should convey a fuller sense than previously published work of what it means to be a market-oriented daily newspaper in the mid-1990s
Advertisers' Media Selection in Small Newspaper Markets.
As the market becomes continually more competitive for advertising dollars, newspapers need to develop more sophisticated sales strategies. (1) Yet, due to personnel limitations and other economic considerations, smaller newspapers may find compiling data and developing sales strategies to be daunting tasks.
Some relief is granted by the typical advertisers in small communities -- local merchants. They may not demand data that is as sophisticated as that required in larger markets because the vast majority of advertisers in smaller markets are not very knowledgeable about market conditions. (2) This does not absolve newspaper sales personnel from knowing their advertisers. In writing about the relationship between national advertisers and a sample comprised mostly of larger dailies, Daniel Stout concluded that when a salesperson comes to understand the factors that influence the advertiser, "the skills of that person are enhanced." (3) The same could be said about the relation ship between advertising representatives at smaller newspapers and their clients. Even in those markets, as salespeople develop better skills, they may increase the ad revenues that will help fund an improved news product.
Newspapers in Chennai
There are a number of newspapers that are published from Chennai city. Some of the widely read newspapers in Chennai are:
The Hindu: The Hindu is one of the premier English dailies not only in Chennai but also in India. The newspaper was founded in the year 1878 and was published on a weekly basis. However, the newspaper was made a daily in the year 1889. The English daily employs the advanced technology for page designing and printing. The paper is rated among the 10 best papers of the world. The New Indian Express: This is another English daily published from Chennai. The newspaper was established in the year 1932. The newspaper is published from Karnataka, Kerala, Coimbatore, Kochi, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh. The Deccan Chronicle: The Deccan Chronicle is the fourth largest English language daily in India. The daily is published from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The cartoon strips featuring on the cover page and inside pages of the newspaper are its main characteristic. It is the largest circulated daily in Hyderabad.
Some of the regional newspapers published in Chennai are Dinamalar, Thanthi, Dinakaran, Ananda Vikatan, Dinamani, Viduthalai. Role of Indian Newspaper
Newspapers and newspaper advertising has been the most important tool in shaping the growth and development of any society in the modern world. More than anything, they have been very instrumental in bridging the communication gap between people that contributes to the air of awareness in a society. Since the very first day that the oldest newspaper in the world had made its appearance, there has been seen progressive changes that have catapulted the Status of every society to new levels of evolution from time to time. The newspaper industry in every country stands out as an influential body contributing to the development of the modern society by acting as one of the most potential platform for exchange of thoughts and opinions. Moreover, by covering a wide arrange of topics that are relevant to the daily lives of the people in a society, it promulgates the identity of the society, and acts as the dispenser of public opinions. One of the most crucial tasks of the newspaper industry is its contribution towards the economic and industrial development of a country through its assimilation of the people‟s voice.
The Indian newspaper industry has passed various stages of evolution to reach the status that it enjoys today – that of a leading press arena in the world. There are hundreds of newspapers that reach out to the people of this vast country in enormous numbers every morning. A typical Indian daily newspaper is the staple diet for a typical Indian, bringing him/her news from all over the globe. Since daily newspapers succeed in attracting more readerships, an Indian daily newspaper is the order of the morning for eager news hungry readers across the country. By garnering an increasing number of subscribers in the form of readers, newspapers clearly reflect the individuality of a reader and the country as well. The growth in the circulation of newspapers in the country results in the overall economic prosperity of the country, elevating it to higher levels. An Indian daily newspaper strikingly plays a significant role in the structural shaping of the country‟s economical development. In fact, the newspaper industry of any country for that matter spreads knowledge and awareness amongst the people by propagating itself as a medium for a wide area of topics such as politics, sports, social issues, medicine, entertainment, advertising and marketing and so on. These factions gel between each other on paper to rope in prosperity for a country by cashing in economicprosperity.
Newspaper Industry in India
Newspapers shape the nation and it holds true for India as well. Even before India got independence, newspapers played a major role in spreading the issue of independence. Today, India has over 300 big newspapers, besides hundreds of medium and small-sized ones. And the number is increasing almost everyday as existing newspapers bring out new editions apart from new players joining the bandwagon. More recently, Metro International, Sweden is in talks with ABP group to launch their daily „Metro‟ in India. The negotiations are on and very soon the deal would be done. Similarly, UK based Associated Newspapers and India Today Group have entered into a
joint venture to launch the „Daily Mail‟ in India. With such international newspapers foraying into the Indian market, the future of the newspaper industry at large, looks promising. Little doubt then that Ifra is set to hold its popular event IfraExpo for the first time in India. There was a time when select group of newspapers were ruling a particular region and they all were self-contained and did not wish to foray into other regions. For example, Hindustan Times was confined to Delhi region, The Hindu in Chennai region, while Tribune was dedicated to Ambala (later Chandigarh), Anandabazar Patrika was confined in West Bengal and Bhaskar in Gujarat and so on. The Indian Express group launched its Marathi daily „Loksatta‟ in Bangalore and Hyderabad. Deccan Chronicle Holdings Ltd launched the Chennai edition of Deccan Chronicle and they are now planning to bring out a Bangalore edition as well. HT Media Ltd launched a new edition in Kolkata and lately in Mumbai. They also relaunched HT Next, targeted at students of age group 12 to 16 years with its new campaign „I am next‟.
Business newspapers have also branched into new editions in newer territories. Financial Express, the business daily, launched its Pune edition while Business Standard launched its Bhubaneshwar edition. Another business newspaper (20 pages colour and 4 pages black-andwhite) launched was „Mint‟ from the Hindustan Times group in Delhi and Mumbai. After these two cities, HT Media plans to launch Mint in Kolkata and Chandigarh, giving competition to Economic Times from Times of India group. DNA Money launched its Ahmedabad edition for the Gujarati businessmen and also a stand-alone Mumbai edition, even though it continues to be available as a supplement along with the main paper „DNA‟ in Mumbai. DNA Money is planning to bring out its Jaipur edition as well. The Times Group has launched a Gujarati language edition of The EconomicTimes. It‟s really surprising that how fierce competitors join hands to form new strategies - first it was in collective marketing campaigns and now a joint newspaper as well. As a new marketing alliance, Business Standard has tied up with Desh Pardes Ni AajKaal, a Gujarati evening newspaper, for advertising combination. This step has been taken to grow the circulation of Business Standard in Saurashtra and Kutch regions.
RECENT ISSUES IN NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY
Newsprint prices have increased 50% in the last 6 months Indian Newspaper Society has advised its member-publications to reduce their newsprint consumption by 20% To tide over the crisis, INS members are pressing for a 30% increase in government advertising rates Newspapers may see a 10% drop in ad volume
The print media industry is saying it is not as bullish as it was last year
Hindustan Times and Times of India jointly launched a newspaper „Metro Now,‟ a morning tabloid targeted at the age group of 18-30 years. Metro Now is published by Metropolitan Media; a 50:50 joint venture between HT Media and The Times of India group. Even though the tabloids have not been very successful in the past, specially in Delhi, but this market is now set to experience world-class changes as three major tabloids are lined up for Delhi region alone - first it was Metro Now and recently Mid Day group has relaunched its afternoon tabloid „Mid Day Delhi‟ on the same content lines as „Mid Day Mumbai.‟ Both the newspapers are targeted at the young readers who are regularly on the move. Besides, the Times of India group is set to launch Bangalore Mirror, another tabloid for the IT city Bangalore. In terms of adopting new technologies, the newspapers have realized that customer is the king and amidst so many choices, readers would go for newspapers that are more reader-specific, content-rich and give value for money. The blackand- white technology is becoming passé whether it is a mobile phone or a newspaper. Today, readers prefer all-colour editions and more and more newspapers have come out with all-colour editions. This has necessitated the newspaper publishers to opt for CtP technology, which by default has improved the print quality and reduced the waste percentage. Besides, the newspapers are also going in for makeover of their publications, in terms of layout, font and sometimes even masthead. For this, they are spending substantial money and are even taking help of international designers. The cut-off size 546 mm is preferred over 578 mm, which has resulted in savings in newsprint cost. The price of the newspapers also dwindled and some newspapers even went to the extent of offering their newspaper at Re 1 only. The newly launched Metro Now newspaper is also offered for a cover price of Re 1 only and provides 40 pages in colour and 8 in black-and-white. Top newspapers in India are now opting for high-speed web presses like that of Goss, MAN Roland, Mitsubishi and mailroom systems from Ferag and Muller Martini. However, the majority of newspapers are continuing their production on indigenously produced equipment. With this impressive growth in the industry, it is high time that the highend manufacturers from developed countries may enter into India either in collaboration with local manufacturers or independently to tap the growing demand. Infact, a little bird has informed that a leading foreign manufacturer is in talks with a local web press manufacturer to jointly set up a new manufacturing facility in India. It would indeed be a major step in this industry and the effect would be for all of us to see. Quality has become an important factor in the industry and Indian newspapers are continuously investing in quality control equipments. The demand for automatic registration control systems has increased to the extent that leading manufacturer QI Press Controls is planning to come up with manufacturing activities in India.
2.2 COMPANY PROFILE:
The New Indian Express is a newspaper with its head office based in Chennai in south India. It was started in 1932 as the Indian Express, under the ownership of Chennai-based Veradharajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of the then owner Ramnath Goenka, the Goenka's family split the group into two separate companies. The northern editions, headquartered in Mumbai, retained and renamed Indian Express into The Indian Express title, while the southern editions became The New Indian Express. The two newspapers used to share articles till early 2008, but they are now very much different corporate entities. The newspaper is known for its intrepid and antiestablishment tone. Express Network Private Limited was incorporated on 13.8.99 under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The company was promoted by The New Indian Express Group. The objects of the company include, among other things, carrying on the business of network and software. Express Network Private Limited and Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd., come under The New Indian Express Group of Companies. The major organisation in the Group is Express Publications (Madurai) Limited; it brings out the prestigious English language newspaper The New Indian Express from 21 centres spread over the four southern states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and also Orissa. Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd is also the publisher of two vernacular newspapers. These are Dinamani in Tamil and Kannada Prabha in Kannada. The Group also publishes the following magazines: Cinema Express (Tamil), Malayalam Vaarika (Malayalam) and Tamilan Express (Tamil). Express Publications (Madurai) Limited , (formerly Indian Express (Madurai) Limited) was incorporated on 11th April 1959 under the Indian Companies Act, 1956 and has its Registered Office at Express Garden, 29 Second Main Road, Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai 600 058.
Express (Madurai) Group is an independent Group, Publishing Newspapers and
Periodicals in the States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and Union Territories of Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Enam and Lakshdweep.
The Company's publications include Dailies viz. The New Indian Express in English (the southern editions of The Indian Express renamed as "The New Indian Express", effective from 28-12-98), Dinamani in Tamil, Kannada Prabha in Kannada.
Indian Express was started in 1932 at Chennai by an Ayurvedic doctor and Indian National Congress member Varadarajulu Naidu, publishing from his “Tamil Nadu” press. But soon under financial difficulties, he sold it to S Sadanand, founder of the The Free Press Journal, another English news paper. In 1933, The Indian Express opened its second office in Madurai and launched the Tamil edition Dinamani. Sadanand introduced several innovations and reduced the price, but was later forced to sell part of the stake in form of convertible debentures to Ramnath Goenka due to financial difficulties. Later, when his The Free Press Journal further went into financial crunch in 1935, Sadanand lost the ownership of Indian Express after a long controversial court battle with Goenka, where blows were exchanged between some of the parties. Finally, a year later, Goenka bought the rest of the 26 per cent stake from Sadanand, and the paper came under Goenka's control who took the already antiestablishment tone of the paper to greater heights. Also at that time it had to face stiff competition from a well established The Hindu and the Mail besides other prominent newspapers. In late 1930s the circulation was no more than 2000 In 1939 it also bought out Andhra Prabha, another prominent Telugu Daily. Later it gained the name Three Musketeers for the three dailies. In 1940 the whole premises
were gutted by fire. The Hindu, its rival, helped considerably in re-launching the paper, by getting it printed temporarily at one of its Swadesimithran‟s press and later offering its recently vacated premises at 2, Mount Road later to become the landmark Express Estates. This relocation also helped the Express obtain better high speed printing machines, while some claimed the Goenka had deliberately set fire to escape financial embarrassment. In later years, Goenka started the Mumbai edition with the landmark Express Towers as his office when the Morning Standard was bought by him in 1944. Two years later to become it became the Mumbai edition of The Indian Express. Later on, editions were started in several cities like Madurai (1957), Bangalore (1965) and Ahmedabad (1968). The Financial Express was launched in 1961 from Mumbai, Kannada Prabha (Kannada Daily) from Bangalore in 1965 and a Bangalore edition of the Telugu Daily Andhra Prabha, and Gujarati dailies Lok Satta and Jansatta in 1952, from Ahmedabad and Baroda. The Delhi edition started was when the Tej group's Indian News Chronicle was acquired in 1951, which from 1953 became the Delhi edition of Indian Express. In 1990 it bought the Sterling group of magazines, and along with it the Gentleman magazine. After Goenka's demise in 1991, two of the family members split the group into Indian Express Mumbai with all the North Indian editions, while the Southern editions were grouped as Express Madurai Ltd with Chennai as headquarters. The New Indian Express daily is published from the following cities: Bangalore Belgaum Bhubaneswar Chennai Coimbatore
Hyderabad Kochi Kozhikode Madurai Shimoga Thiruvananthapuram Tiruchy Vijayawada Visakhapatnam. Express Network Private Limited is subsidiary company of Express Publications
(Madurai) Limited. It has been granted licence by Express Publications (Madurai) Ltd. to use the under mentioned websites registered in its name: www.indiavarta.com www.newindpress.com www.dinamani.com www.kannadaprabha.com www.andhraprabha.com www.apweekly.com www.cinemaexpress.com www.malayalamvarikha.com www.tamilanexpress.com
2.2.1 PRODUCT PROFILE
The Company's publications include Dailies viz. The New Indian Express in English (the southern editions of The Indian Express renamed as "The New Indian Express", effective from 28-12-98), Dinamani in Tamil, Kannada Prabha in Kannada.
In adition to dailies, the company also brings out magazines. Cinema Express (Tamil) Malayalam Vaarika (Malayalam) Tamilan Express (Tamil).
Its various supplements, which appear on a weekly or fortnightly basis, include The new Sunday express (Sunday) i.witness and i.witness 2 ( Sunday magazines) Zeitgeist (Saturday) Indulge (Friday) Expresso ( daily-Chennai) City express
CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE SURVEY:
3.1.CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL REVIEW
Advertising Perception Survey Experts
Definition: Advertising Perception Survey - In the context of litigation, an advertising perception survey is a study commissioned by a challenger seeking to show that a competitor's advertising contains implied messages that are false or misleading.
What Advertisers Think
The largest multi-client study of media decision makers in the world, The Advertiser Intelligence Reports (AIR) provides media executives with the plans and opinions of more than 1,500 advertising decision-makers (agency and marketer), by media decision making responsibility, across twelve major advertising categories, about more than 300 leading online, print and television media brands. Key Measures and Trends by leading Online Media Brands, Magazines, National Newspapers and Television Networks include:
Advertising Consideration Advertising Plans Media Selection Criteria Perceptions of Media Brands by Selection Criteria Perceptions of Marketing Effectiveness Perceptions of Sales Coverage Perceptions of Salespeople Advertiser Satisfaction Plans to Increase, Decrease and Maintain Ad Spending
Measured Advertising Categories Include:
Entertainment Finance Home Furnishings and Appliances Liquor, Beer and Wine Pharmaceuticals and Health Care
Technology and Consumer Electronics Toiletries and Cosmetics (Beauty)
Advertiser Perceptions: Optimism down for 2008
The forecasts predicting an upswing in online advertising and an increase in budgets may have been a bit off, at least for the first six months of 2008. According to the most recent Advertiser Perceptions survey, advertising executives have doubts about the online spend increasing at high rates this year. The survey found that 76% of advertising executives not feel that online ad budgets will increase; a decrease of 3% over the last survey. About 21% of executives feel budgets will stay the same. Online budgets aren't the only ones to suffer. According to the survey 16% of advertising executives and media buyers expect the share of radio advertising to increase; in the spring of 2007 26% of marketers expected radio's ad budget to increase.
Broadcast television has also seen a decrease. Only 22% of executives expect budgets to increase in the broadcast arena compared to 29% in spring '07.
Magazines and newspaper budgets are also expecting a decline (24% and 37% respectively). Outdoor advertising budgets could see a 22% decline. Meanwhile mobile is also expected to slide a bit, from 55% expecting an increase to 48%.
Fred luthans opines, “Perception is an important meditating cognitive process through which person make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with.” Stephen. P. Robbins defines perception as “a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment.”
Perception is the process through which information from the outside environment is selected, received, organized, and interpreted to make it meaningful to you. Perception refers to interpretation of sensory. In other works sensation involves understanding what the stimulus means.
Characteristics of the perceiver:
The characteristics of the perceiver include such factors such as needs, values, experience and attitudes. A persons needs, habits, impacts of past experience ethics and personality all influence the perceptual process.
Characteristics of the perceived:
It may defy logic and objectivity but perception about others are influenced by their physical characteristics such as appearance, facial expression, age, gender, manner of communication as well as personality traits and other forms of behavior.
Eg. When we see persons to be assertive and confident we assume him to be an executive or leader.
Perceptual selectivity refers to the tendency to select certain objects from the environment for attention such that these objects are consistent with our existing beliefs, values and needs.
“Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of goods services or ideas by an identified” – AMA
Advertising is a form of communication used to help sell products and services. Typically it communicates a message including the name of the product or service and how that product or service could potentially benefit the consumer. “Advertiser” means a person, firm or company whose products, goods or services are the subject matter of the Advertisement. The manufacturer, Service Company, retailer, or supplier who advertises their product or service. The advertiser is commonly interpreted as a commercial organization which has the paramount objective of making profits out of its business activities. Profits are usually generated through marketing or trading activity, apart case, marketing has a role to play as the yield for investments in other companies and assets will, in turn depend on the marketing activity of the latter. The communication logic will, however, also apply to the types of advertisers which may have a societal or political objective. Advertising for family planning, road safety and the like, and election campaigns are no different in this respect.
The bulk of newspapers' revenue comes from advertising - the contribution from sales is small by comparison. On average, a newspaper generates 80% of its revenue from advertising and 20% from sales. The portion of the newspaper that is not advertising is called editorial content, editorial matter, or simply editorial, although the last term is also used to refer specifically to those articles in which the newspaper and its guest writers express their opinions. Newspapers have been hurt by the decline of many traditional advertisers. Department stores and supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages of newspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much less likely to do so now. [Additionally, newspapers are seeing traditional advertisers shift to new media platforms. The classified category is shifting to sites including Craig list, employment websites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many types of digital content including websites, rich media platforms, and mobile. In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most commonly recognized as an opposite-editorial which third-parties pay a fee to have included in the paper. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques.
Newspaper flourished for decades in the face of radio, television, and the internet. However, advances in web syndication and news aggregation online are placing serious pressures on the current model of newspaper distribution and ad placement.
Need for Advertising:
The question often asked is: „why does a developing country like India need advertising‟
Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer information which enables him or her to compare and choose from the products and services available. Advertising enables consumers to exercise their right of free choice. Advertising being a necessary means of communication is an inseparable part of free speech. Any restriction on the right to recommend legitimate goods, services r ideas in public will diminish the fundamental right of the freedom of speech. Advertising is the promotion of a product or service and is extremely pervasive in contemporary society. To maximize sales, companies will pay a premium for wide exposure through the mass media. Advertising space is common, but not restricted to these realms; billboards, public transportation, movies (product placement), schools, clothing, even bathroom stalls carry ads and the industry is constantly finding new ways to advertise.
The newspaper is a product borne of necessity, invention, the middle class, democracy, free enterprise, and professional standards. Pre-history "newspapers" were one-to-one in nature. The earliest variation on a newspaper was a daily sheet published in 59 BC in Rome called Acta Diurna (Daily Events), which Julius Caesar ordered posted throughout the city. The earliest known printed newspaper was in Beijing in 748. In 1451, Johannes Gütenberg uses a press to print an old German poem, and two years later prints a 42-line Bible -- the significance being the mass production of print products, ushering in an era of newspapers, magazines, and books. By 1500, the genesis of a postal system can be seen in France, while book publishing becomes popular throughout Europe and the first paper mill can be found (England).
The rise of the middle class transformed newspapers in the 1800s. A penny (US$0.01) buys a New York newspaper in 1833, opening up the first mass market for newspapers. In 1847, the telegraph is used as a business tool, transforming far-away stories. In 1873, an illustrated daily newspaper can be seen in New York. In 1878 the first full-page newspaper advertisements appear, and in 1880 the first photographs are seen in newspapers, using halftones. With the basic technical groundwork for the modern newspaper in place by the late 19th century, the story of newspapers in the 20th century was about professional development and adaptation to changing consumer and media markets. The story also involved an evolving business model that rode an ever-growing wave of mass-market advertising. Increased profitability and higher revenues attracted publicly owned corporations interested in buying newspapers from descendants of company founders, while simultaneously exposing newspapers to the whims of cash- and profit-hungry stock markets.
By 2000, newspapers were juggling priorities: fragmentation of news consumption, fragmentation of advertising investments, the advantages and
disadvantages of being a mass medium, balancing the wants of the marketplace with the company's duty to provide the needs of the marketplace, a journalistic backlash against industry changes, the sheer physicality of ink-on-paper production and distribution versus digital distribution, increasing profit pressure surrounding the core print product, and extension of the company's core brand into other profit centers. Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image”. For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags, billboards and mail or post. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. Organizations that frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sells what is not, strictly speaking, a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations, and military recruiters. Non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients, and may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as public service announcements. Money spent on advertising has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2007, spending on advertising has been estimated at over $150 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $450 billion by 2010. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently utilizes psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.
ADVERTISING IN INDIA
Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags, billboards
and mail or post. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization. 3.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
Advertiser perception of the internet as a marketing communication vehicle: Case study by Khalid Alrawi and Walid Alrawi source African Journal of Marketing Management Vol. 1(2) pp. 062069 May, 2009 Available online http://www.academicjournals.or g/ajmm ©2009 Academic Journals
The overriding finding of
the study is that the scope of Internet usage as a media is affected by managements' perceptions of the effectiveness of their websites as marketing tools. The researcher‟s recommendation in this context is that firms should develop and evaluate a webbased methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of promotional websites
The public’s perception of advertising in today’s Society by
Advertising is everything with a name on it Life without advertising would be dull Advertising is an indicator of business
Sally Ford-Hutchinson and Annie Rothwell Source: The Thinking Shop 9 Kenneth Crescent London NW2 4PS CHILDRENS’ PERCEPTION ON TV ADVERTISING A CASE STUDY OF 3RD GRADERS IN SWEEDEN BY: MARIA ERRSON ULRIKA KOBIN
health „Clever‟ advertising is good advertising Advertising is all -embracing :The all embracing concept of advertising was a widely held one although the older respondents (anyone over the age of 25)
The findings of this studty reveals that children are affected by tv advertisements and more they watch the more they are affected. They are highly influenced by peers. Furthermore, their behaviour towards parents and pester more are also affected
SOURCE: Lulea university of technology Bachelor thesis Marketing Department of business administration and social sciences Division of indusial marketing and e-commerce
by their viewing of advertisements. The most memorable commercial advertisements for the children appears to be the ones using humours and celebrities. Furthermore children ability to distinguish between reality and fiction is possible for this age group.
Brand Perception & Brand Equity of Baby Accessory Products in Working Moms’ Perspective by Phusit Wonglorsaichon* and
working moms who were using differences brand would be perceived their brand with difference ways.
Working mom who were using Pigeon perceived that Pigeon was innovating, Avent was modernizing and Chicco was safety for
Paitoon Sathainrapabayut source International Review of Business Research Papers Vol. 4 No.1 January 2008 Pp.385-395
their babies. These results were based on marketing communication programs that have been implementing from each brand in order to create their brand characteristic and brand differentiation from other players.
CORPORATE BRAND IMAGE: ANTECEDENTS, MEDIATING ROLE AND IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS EXPECTATION by Prathab oburai YLR moorthi Chew kok wai Michael j baker Source: INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, AHMEDABAD
Corporate brand image is impacted most by the brand awareness construct general expectation construct have less impact
Corporate brand image on its own is a significant predictor of specific expectations
Corporate brand image mediates the best of brand awareness
Australian and Taiwanese Advertiser's Perceptions of Internet Marketing
With the Internet being a relatively new communication medium, the perceptions of advertising agencies on the use and future of Internet marketing has important implications for companies using these agencies to develop their
Source: University of New South
advertising strategies. This research investigates the perception
Wales Newspapers and Their Online Editions: Factors that Influence Successful Integration by Bonnie Bressers and Robert Meeds
of advertisers towards the use of the Internet as a communication medium
Because of the inherent cultural differences between traditional newspaper staff and online staff, industry analysts have suggested that online workers struggle for respect from their newsroom counterparts. The perception of the relative equality of status between the print and online staffs was not a significant predictor of levels of integration, but it was positively associated with managers‟ reports that objectives have been met, suggesting that policies and practices aimed at equalizing perceived levels of status between the two groups would be desirable.
Selling Newspaper Advertising on the web: A Case Study of the Newspaper Advertising Website in A Chinese Press Group By Qiping Hu, M.A. Master Student School of Journalism The original idea of developing a newspaper advertising website is to provide access to the latest, most relevant multimedia sales presentation and data. Links to databases, computational tools and forms for placing orders could also
University of MissouriColumbia Columbia, MO 65211
be on the website. Additionally, interactivity based on the website between the sellers and buyers is also projected. Despite differences between the business models between China and America, the two studies have found some common values of the NAW. But even the leading Chinese newspaper tended to be more conservative about the electronic ordering and database functions.
Advertiser Perceptions: Cross Media Builds Purchase Intent BY: Report by research firm
The study found consumers expressed a stronger intent to buy a particular product after they had been exposed to ads for it on more than one medium.
That finding could lend strong support to media buyers looking to justify crossmedia ad spend, especially since "intent to buy" is considered an important way to measure a campaign's success.
Advertisers' Media Selection in Small Newspaper Markets
when a salesperson comes to understand the factors that influence the advertiser,
By Ken Smith; Newspaper Research Journal, Vol. 19, 1998 Journal Article Excerpt
"the skills of that person are enhanced." The same could be said about the relation ship between advertising representatives at smaller newspapers and their clients.
CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: 4.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: TABLE NO. 4.1:
INDULGE REMAINS ABOUT
Responses Masthead Supplement format Color spread Content Specific topic/writer TOTAL Respondents 12 12 5 1 30 100 percentage 40 40 16.5
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
From the above table it is found that 40% of advertisers remains about the supplement format of the INDULGE whereas another 40% reminds about the colorful spread , 16.5% of them remains about the content and remaining a meager 3.5% of advertisers remains about the specific writer of indulge
TABLE NO:4.2 :
The best of Indulge :
Responses News spread News items in every week Columnist New product launches Interesting read as a whole TOTAL Respondents 6 4 2 11 7 30 Percentage 10 23 8 40 19 100
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
23.5 20 13.5 6.5
News spread News items in every week
New product launches
Interesting read as a whole
From the above table it is found that maximum of 36.5% of advertisers likes the new product launch information in indulge, whereas 23.5% advertisers opinion is that indulge is a interesting read as a whole.
TABLE NO:4.3 : Perception of Indulge.
Responses Great product The right fit A new trend wave Informative Another supplement TOTAL Respondents 5 15 8 70 Percentage 16.6 50 26.6 6.6 100
17% Great product
The right fit A new trend wave Informative Another supplement 49%
From the above table it is found that 49% of advertisers perceive indulge as a new trend wave for Chennai market, 7% of advertisers perceived as just an another supplement.
TABLE NO:4.4 : The look and content of the product.
Responses Excellent Very good Informative Colorful & interesting Captures the changes TOTAL
Respondents 0 6 9 7 8 30
Percentage 0% 20% 30% 23.3% 26.7% 100
0% 26.70% 20%
Excellent Very good Informative Colorful & interesting Captures the changes
From the above table it is found that maximum of 30% of advertisers opinion about the look and content of the supplement is as informative.
TABLE NO: 4.5:
Waiting for a grab of the product each week.
Responses Yes No Browse through it TOTAL Respondents 8 6 16 30 Percentage 26.6% 20% 53.4% 100
27% Yes 53% 20% No Brow se through it
From the above table it is found that maximum of 53% of advertisers says that they browse through the paper whenever they see it whereas 27% advertisers say that they wait to grab the product and 20% of advertisers does not wait for the product.
TABLE NO: 4.6: The improvement to be made in the product.
Responses Content Layout Paper quality TOTAL
Respondents 18 12 0 30
percentage 60% 40% 0% 100
Paper quality 0% Layout 40% Content 60%
From the above table it is found that maximum of 60%of advertisers says that content of the supplement need to be improved whereas 40% of advertisers says layout need to be improved.
TABLE NO: 4.7: Look out for the product each week.
Responses Advertisement Information New life style products TOTAL
Respondents 12 16 2 30
percentage 40% 53.4 6.66% 100
6000% 5000% 4000% 3000% 2000% 1000% 40% 0% Advertisement
6.66% Information New life style products
From the above table it is found that maximum of 36% of clients look out for advertisement and information and minimum of 28% were looks out for new life style products.
TABLE NO: 4.8: Like to enhance brand equity through Indulge.
Responses Yes No TOTAL
Respondents 14 16 30
Percentage 46.6% 53.3% 100
16 16 15.5 15 14.5 14 13.5 13 Respondents 14
INFERENCES: From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to enhance their product brand equity through indulge
TABLE NO: 4.9: Like to advertise in Indulge.
Responses Yes No TOTAL
Respondents 14 16 30
Percentage 46.6% 53.3% 100
INFERENCES: From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to advertise in indulge
TABLE NO: 4.10: Would like to continue the Indulge
Responses Yes No TOTAL
Respondents 14 16 30
Percentage 46.6% 53.3% 100
Y es No
INFERENCES: From the above table it is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to continue to advertise in indulge
CHAPTRER – 5: CONCLUSION 5.1 RESULTS AND FINDINGS
1. It is found that 40% of advertisers remains about the supplement format of the INDULGE whereas another 40% reminds about the colorful spread , 16.5% of them remains about the content and remaining a meager 3.5% of advertisers remains about the specific writer of indulge
2. It is found that maximum of 36.5% of advertisers likes the new product launch information in indulge, whereas 23.5% advertisers opinion is that indulge is a interesting read as a whole.
3. It is found that 49% of advertisers perceive indulge as a new trend wave for Chennai market, 7% of advertisers perceived as just an another supplement.
4. It is found that maximum of 30% of advertisers opinion about the look and content of the supplement is as informative.
5. The maximum of 53% of advertisers says that they browse through the paper whenever they see it whereas 27% advertisers say that they wait to grab the product and 20% of advertisers does not wait for the product.
6. The maximum of 60%of advertisers says that content of the supplement need to be improved whereas 40% of advertisers says layout need to be improved.
7. The maximum of 36% of clients look out for advertisement and information and minimum of 28% were looks out for new life style products.
8. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to enhance their product brand equity through indulge
9. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to advertise in indulge
10. It is found that 53.3% of advertisers are not willing to continue to advertise in indulge
5.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The data for the project was conducted from the opinion of advertisers in market. Any bias in the opinion of false will impact on the findings of the study. The sample size was large as the advertiser markets were to be interviewed while at work. Some of the answer given by the respondents may be biases. Few respondents were reluctant while answering the question due to their busy schedule. Time is a constraint because duration of project is one month. Some of the advertiser‟s were hesitating to give whole- hearted opinions due to fear.
In this study observed that half and above of the respondents are mentioned that the improvement have to be made in content of Indulge, so the company can take effort to improve the content.
An advertisers feels that news spread can be increased in the indulge so that many information can be seen. Availability of the product is scarce, so the company can improve its circulation
The informative and interesting analysis of “Advertisers‟ perception about Indulge in The New Indian Express Chennai ”, advertisers perception provides media company executives insight necessary for increasing ad sales, market position and
competitive advantage. And it helps to make more benefits to advertisers. To give advertising to advertisers for which one is highly expected. It is concluded that advertisers‟ perception are the basic things, which could helpful to the company. Some suggestions are given in this project, where the company could look into the grey areas and try to rectify them, so that advertisers could be highly satisfied.