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					                          SAMPLE PRESENTATION SCRIPT


This section provides a sample script for               Introduction
delivering a half-day to full-day presentation
covering all of the topics listed in the outline.       Distribute handouts.                           Ha
Tailor the script to your chosen program                                                                  nd
                                                                                                              ou
length, content and audience.                              • Making Library                                      ts
                                                             Resources Accessible
                                                             to People with
Presentation Outline                                         Disabilities
                                                           • Working Together: People
Introduction                                                 with Disabilities and Computer
     Success stories                                         Technology
     Legal issues                                          • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape: Working
     Definitions and statistics                              Together: People with Disabilities and
                                                             Computer Technology
General Library Access                                     • World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design
     Building and physical environment                     • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape: World
     Staff                                                   Wide Access
     Services

Adaptive Technology                                                                     Put up overhead
                                                                                        transparency.
     Assisting people with:                                Universal Access:
        Low vision
                                                          Electronic Information
        Blindness
                                                                in Libraries
        Hearing and speech impairments                                            I’m here today to
        Specific learning disabilities                                            share with you infor-
        Mobility impairments                                                      mation and issues
        Health impairments                                            related to people with disabili-
     Beginning the process of planning for               ties, electronic resources, and libraries.
        adaptive technology
     Getting started: a list of adaptive
        technology devices
                                                        Put up overhead                           Computers
     Resources                                                                                          +
                                                        transparency.                        Adaptive Technology
                                                                                                        +
Electronic Resources                                                                         Electronic Resources
                                                                                                        =
     Universal design principles                        Recent advances in                       Opportunities
     Accessible Web design                              adaptive computer
        General page design                             technology, greater reli-
        Graphical features                              ance on computers, and increased
        Special features                                availability and networking of electronic
        Web pages test                                  information resources have resulted in life-
     Resources                                          changing opportunities for many people with
Summary                                                 disabilities. In combination, these technolo-
                                                        gies provide many people with disabilities


                                                    7                    Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
better access to education, careers, and other                                       background, a videotape presentation and
life experiences.                                                                    discussion of adaptive technology for comput-
                                                                                     ers will bring our focus to electronic resources
Libraries play an important role in ensuring                                         in libraries. The last segment of the program
equitable access to information for all mem-                                         will include the second videotape presenta-
bers of our society. In addition, federal legis-                                     tion and a discussion of universal design of
lation mandates that public institutions,                                            electronic resources applied to the develop-
including libraries, provide accommodations                                          ment of World Wide Web pages.
for people with disabilities so that they can
utilize the same services and resources as                                           Today’s presentation will help you under-
other people.                                                                        stand the impact of these technologies for
                                                                                     people with disabilities while giving you the
What are some of the electronic resources                                            tools to begin implementing them in your
currently in your library?                                                           library. Your packet of handouts is one of the
                                                                                     tools that will help you apply the ideas pre-
  Solicit audience input to list items such as CD-                                   sented. Let’s walk through it.
  ROM encyclopedias and indexes, online cata-
  logs, WWW pages, and full-text databases.
                                                                                                                                Handouts
The information covered in this presentation                                         Put up overhead           • Making Library Resources Accessable to

will provide you with tools and insights that                                        transparency.                People with Disabilities
                                                                                                               • Working Together: People with Disabilties and

will help ensure that these electronic resources                                                                  Computer Technology
                                                                                                                • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape: Working

are accessible to the broadest audience. As an                                                                    Together: People with Disabilities and
                                                                                                                  Computer Technology

extra benefit, you will find that being sensitive                                    The following hand-        • World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design
                                                                                                                • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape: World

to the needs of people with disabilities can                                         outs are in your             Wide Access


often make access easier for everyone.                                               packet.

                                                                                        • Making Library Resources Accessible
                                                                                          to People with Disabilities
Put up overhead                                       Program Outline
                                                                                        • Working Together: People with Disabilities
transparency.                                     •   Success stories
                                                                                          and Computer Technology
                                                  •   Legal issues, statistics
                                                  •   General library access            • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape:
                                                  •   Adaptive technology                 Working Together: People with Disabilities
Our program today                                 •   Electronic resources
will cover these five                                                                     and Computer Technology
topics. To begin I                                                                      • World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design
will share some success
                                                                                        • Meet the Speakers in the Videotape: World
stories or examples of the impact that
                                                                                          Wide Access
adaptive technology for computers and elec-
tronic resources has had for people with                                             Much of the information presented today is
disabilities. Then we will consider the most                                         provided in these handouts. I will let you
important legislative directives on the issue                                        know which handout covers the information
and look at some statistics about people with                                        we are focusing on as we go through the
disabilities. We will then consider the bigger                                       presentation. Keep the handouts handy to
picture of access to libraries and library ser-                                      save from taking duplicative notes.
vices for people with disabilities. With that


Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
                                                                                 8
        Success Stories                                                 special interest, naval communication.

                                                                      • Sherri is legally blind, but has enough
                                            Put up overhead             sight to use enlarged screen images as she
          Success Stories                   transparency.               uses governmental resources on the World
•   Ben        mobility impairment                                      Wide Web in pursuing her master’s
•   Sarah      learning disability
•   Anna       blind                                                    degree in public administration.
•   Shane      mobility/speech impairment
•   Sherri     low vision
•   Katie                  I’m going to start out
               hearing impairment                                     • Katie is hearing impaired. She often
                           today by sharing with                        uses a sign language interpreter. On the
                           you a few stories of                         Internet, however, Katie communicates
                   people with disabilities who                         with the reference librarian quickly and
       are able to access information resources                         easily through electronic mail.
    thanks to the availability of adaptive technol-
    ogy and accessible electronic resources.                       These stories provide examples of people with
    You’ll meet them in the videotape we’ll view                   disabilities who are successfully pursuing
    shortly.                                                       avocations, education, and careers thanks to
                                                                   adaptive technology and electronic resources.
             • Ben cannot use his hands, but muscular              During our presentation today, we will be
               dystrophy doesn’t interfere with his use            learning how to ensure that there will be
               of the Internet; he uses a voice input              many more success stories like these for
               program that allows him to talk his way             people with disabilities.
               through the Net - six hours a day!

             • Sarah uses her library’s online catalog             Legal Issues
               and the Internet to research and write                                                     Section 504/ADA
                                                                                                   No otherwise qualified individual
               papers for school. Her learning disabil-                                            with a disability shall, solely by
               ity makes it difficult for her to read so           Put up overhead
                                                                                                  reason of his/her disability, be
                                                                                                  excluded from the participation
               she uses a speech output system to read             transparency.                  in, be denied the benefits of, or
                                                                                                  be subjected to discrimination
               the screen.                                                                        under any program or activity of
                                                                                                  a public entity.
             • Anna is blind. She uses a screen reader             According to Section
               and speech output system to access her              504 of the Rehabilitation Act
               library’s full-text databases and CD-               of 1973 (504) and the Americans with
               ROMs. Her system works well until                   Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), “no otherwise
               she runs into programs not designed                 qualified individual with a disability shall,
               according to universal design prin-                 solely by reason of his/her disability, be
               ciples.                                             excluded from the participation in, be denied
                                                                   the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimina-
             • Shane surfs the Net with a small tube in
                                                                   tion under any program or activity of a public
               his mouth. The computer obeys his
                                                                   entity.”1
               every command as he inputs Morse code
               - sip for a dot, puff for a dash. His cere-         The ADA and the regulations promulgated to
               bral palsy is only a minor inconvenience            implement it have stressed that people with
               as he researches information on his                 disabilities should be provided the same

    1
        1973 Rehabilitation Act, Public Law 93:112; The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Public Law 101:336.


                                                               9                           Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
services as others, unless this would be less                                                            edly held that the term “communication”
effective. The Department of Justice has                                                                 in this context means the transfer of infor-
stated that “Integration is fundamental to the                                                           mation, including (but not limited to) the
purpose of the American with Disabilities                                                                verbal presentation of a lecture, the printed
Act.” If accommodation, or an adjustment is                                                              text of a book, and the resources of the
needed to make a resource, program or facility                                                           Internet.
accessible to a person with a disability, the
individual’s preference of accommodation                                                             The letter continues:
must be given primary consideration.2
                                                                                                         Title II further states that, in determining
In short, libraries must assure that people                                                              what type of auxiliary aid and service is
with disabilities can participate in library                                                             necessary, a public college shall give pri-
programs and utilize library resources as                                                                mary consideration to requests of the
independently as possible. And this includes                                                             individual with a disability [28 C.F.R. ss
electronic information resources. As legal                                                               35.106(b)(2)].3
questions about the implications of the ADA
for access to electronic information resources
                                                                                                                                 “The more technology that has
are tested, libraries are being required to                                                          Put up overhead             been purchased by a public
provide access to                                                                                    transparency.               library to serve non-disabled
                                                                                                                                 patrons, the more reasonable
these services.                                                                                                                 the expectation that it will
                                                       “Title II of the ADA requires a
                                                                                                                                employ technology... to serve
                                                       college to take appropriate steps
                                                                                          public
                                                                                               to
                                                                                                     In providing guid-         its patrons with disabilities”.
                                                       ensure that communications with
                                                       sons with disabilities “are as effect
                                                                                            per-
                                                                                             ive
                                                                                                     ance on expectations
                                                      as communications with others.”
Put up overhead                                       has repeatedly held that the term
                                                                                           OCR       for libraries in
                                                                                         “com-

transparency.
                                                      munication” in this contest mean
                                                      transfer of information, including
                                                                                          s the      providing access to
                                                                                           (but
                                                      not limited to) the verbal presentatio
                                                      a lecture, resources of the Intern
                                                                                            nof      electronic resources, the letter states:
                                                                                          et.”

                                                                                                         Modern adaptive technology has radically
                                                                                                         affected the degree to which it is economi-
According to decisions in recent                                                                         cally feasible to make printed materials
cases on access to electronic resources,                                                                 and computer based information systems
libraries in academic institutions must                                                                  accessible to blind patrons. The larger and
proactively and deliberately plan for accessi-                                                           more financially endowed the library, the
bility. A recent letter from the U.S. Depart-                                                            higher the expectation that a greater vol-
ment of Education Office for Civil Rights                                                                ume of information will be made available
noted:                                                                                                   within a shorter amount of time, particu-
                                                                                                         larly when reasonably priced adaptive
      Title II of the Americans with Disabilities
                                                                                                         technology is available to replace tasks that
      Act requires a public college to take appro-
                                                                                                         previously required personnel. An impor-
      priate steps to ensure that communications
                                                                                                         tant indicator regarding the extent to
      with persons with disabilities “are as
                                                                                                         which a public library is obligated to
      effective as communications with others”
                                                                                                         utilize adaptive technology is the degree to
      [28 C.F.R. ss 35.160(a)]. OCR has repeat-

2
  56 Federal Register 35703.
3
  United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights Case Docket No. 09-97-2002 Letter of April 7, 1997
addressed to Dr. James Rosser, President, California State University, Los Angeles. Available http://www.rit.edu/~easi/
law/csula.html. Related information is available at http://www.rit.edu/~easi/law.html.

Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
                                                                                                    10
     which it is relying on technology to serve                                      may include, but are not limited to, spinal
     its non-disabled patrons. The more tech-                                        cord injuries, loss of limbs, multiple sclerosis,
     nology that has been purchased by a public                                      muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, hearing
     library to serve non-disabled patrons, the                                      impairments, visual impairments, speech
     more reasonable the expectation that it will                                    impairments, specific learning disabilities,
     employ technology such as scanners to                                           head injuries, psychiatric disorders, diabetes,
     serve its patrons with disabilities.4                                           cancer, and AIDS.

As libraries increasingly provide electronic                                         The examples listed here are conditions which
resources, they are legally obligated to ensure                                      limit people’s abilities to perform specific
accessibility for people with disabilities.                                          tasks. Some of these conditions are readily
                                                                                     apparent; some are invisible. Some require
                                                                                     that we provide special accommodations in
Definitions and Statistics                                                           the library; some do not. Additionally, some
So, what exactly does “person with a disabil-                                        people who have conditions with the same
ity” mean?                                                                           label may have very different abilities when it
                                                                                     comes to performing specific tasks. For
                                                                                     example, one student who has cerebral palsy
Person with a disability =       Put up overhead                                     may have difficulty walking. For another
    any person who:              transparency.                                       student, cerebral palsy may result in no func-
• has a physical or mental                                                           tional use of her/his hands or voice.
  impairment which
   substantially limits one or
  more major life activities.
                         “Person with a disabil-                                     Now that we discussed the definition of
• has a record of such an
  impairment.            ity” means “any person                                      disability according to the ADA, let’s consider
• is regarded as having such                                                         some statistics to gain a better understanding
  an impairment.         who has a physical or
                     mental impairment which                                         of this service population.
         substantially limits one or more major
life activities including walking, seeing,
hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and                                          Put up overhead
working; has a record of such an impairment;                                         transparency.                              1 in 10 Americans
or is regarded as having such an impairment.”                                                                                 has a severe disability
                                                                                                                              that limits at least one
                                                                                                                                major life activity.


                                                                                     According to surveys
Put up overhead                    Examples of Disabilities
                                                                                     conducted in 1991-1992,
transparency.                    • spinal cord injuries   • speech impairments       9.6% or 1 in 10 Americans
                                 • loss of limbs          • specific learning
                                 • multiple sclerosis       disabilities
                                                          • head injuries
                                                                                     has a severe disability that substan-
                                 • muscular dystrophy
                                 • cerebral palsy         • psychiatric disorders
                                                          • diabetes
                                                                                     tially limits at least one major life activity. 19.4
                                 • hearing impairments

Examples of qualify-             • visual impairments     • cancer                   % or 1 in 5 Americans has a disability. 5
                                                          • AIDS

ing disabilities                                                                     In addition, we can expect the number of
covered by legislation                                                               library patrons with disabilities to increase.


4
 Ibid.
5
 “Americans With Disabilities: 1991-1992”. Current Population Reports, Series P70-33. Information also available at
http://www.census.gov/


                                                                                    11                       Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
 Some reasons for this increase include:
                                                                  Put up overhead
                                                                  transparency.                 Age    % Disabilities
                                                                                               18-44        5%
The number of patrons with                     Put up overhead                                 65-74
                                                                                               75-84
                                                                                                            25%
                                                                                                            42%
disabilities will increase
because of:
                                               transparency.      Among people aged
• advances in medical technology
                                                                  18-44, 5% have a
• advances in adaptive technology
• increased awareness
                                                                  severe disability;
                           Advances in medical
• increased education support                                     among people aged 65-74,
• older average age
                           technology and tech-                   25% have a severe disability; and
                           niques result in greater               among people aged 75-84, 42% have a severe
                   numbers of people who survive                  disability. 7
        traumatic accidents and problematic births.
                                                                  All of these factors are leading to increased
 Improvements in technology make it possible                      numbers of people with disabilities who are
 for more people with disabilities to live inde-                  and will be requesting services at libraries.
 pendently and have productive lives for which
 they will want and need library resources.
                                                                  Summary
 Increased awareness of people with disabili-
 ties’ rights to accommodations and equal                         The purpose of this introduction is to help you
 opportunities in education and employment,                       understand why libraries need to be prepared
 guaranteed by 504 and the ADA, has, and will                     to serve people with disabilities. The legal
 continue to encourage more people to pursue                      imperatives of the ADA and other laws and
 these activities and request accommodations.                     the expected increase of people with disabili-
                                                                  ties in our constituencies and argue strongly
 The creation of federal and state mandated K-                    for immediate action. Libraries will be best
 12 and higher education academic support                         prepared to serve patrons with disabilities if
 programs helps more students with disabili-                      they strive to include them in regularly pro-
 ties complete high school and enter college                      vided services. This is best achieved by using
 and careers. The number of students with                         universal design principles when designing
 disabilities enrolled in universities and col-                   facilities, equipment, services and resources;
 leges has already increased. In 1994, 9.2% of                    by providing a base level of adaptive technol-
 all full-time, first-time entering freshman                      ogy; and by developing a policy and proce-
 reported a disability, up from 2.6% in 1978.6                    dures for handling requests for accommoda-
 This trend will create a greater demand for                      tion. By taking these steps the library will be
 accessible information resources in academic                     better able to respond quickly to more special-
 libraries.                                                       ized requests for accommodation.

 The aging of the baby boomer generation will                     The rest of today’s presentation will help you
 cause a significant demographic shift in our                     develop an understanding of adaptive tech-
 society, increasing the number of people with                    nology and of universal design principles so
 low vision, hearing impairments, and other                       that you can help develop accessible services
 disabilities related to the aging process.                       and resources for your library.
 6
  Facts You Can Use. “College Freshman with Disabilities.” Information from HEATH. Vol. 14, No. 2,3 June/July 1995.
 7
  Americans With Disabilities. Bureau of the Census Statistical Brief. SB/94-1, January 1994. Bureau of the Census, U.S.
 Department of Commerce. Available at http://www.census.gov/

 Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries
                                                                 12

				
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