VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 14 CATEGORY: Education POSTED ON: 1/18/2010
Formal Methods for Security Protocols Catuscia Palamidessi Penn State University, USA 6 June 2002 - Lecture 2 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 1 Security Protocols Contents of previous lecture: • A brief introduction to security protocols • Distributed systems, insecure communication, intruders • Aims and properties • authentication, secrecy, integrity, anonymity, etc. • Notation Message # x-> y data • Example: the Noedam-Schoeder SK protocol • A very brief introduction to Cryptographic methods • Symmetric and asymmetric cryptography • one-way functions, door traps • Vulnerabilities of Security protocols (just started) 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 2 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Attack strategies • Man-in-the middle • The attacker interferes by intercepting the message and possibly modifying it and/or pretending to be one of the two parties. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 3 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Attack strategy Man-in-the middle Example: The Diffie-Hellman key establishment scheme • This scheme is meant to establish a private key between two parties. It is more straightforward and requires neither a third party nor a trap-door. • Chose a prime p and a primitive root r modulo p. (primitive means that all numbers between 1 and p can be generated by taking exponents of r modulo p) • Alice chooses at random an integer x and sends Bob the message m1 = rx(mod p) • Bob chooses an integer y and sends Alice the message m2 = ry(mod p) • Alice calculates K1 = m2x(mod p) • Bob calculates K2 = m1y(mod p) • It is easy to prove that K1 = K2. Hence Alice and Bob can use K1 as a private key between themselves. Note that Alice and Bob play a symmetric role in the generation of the key. • Deriving x from m1 (and y from m2) is considered to be intractable. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 4 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities • The Diffie-Hellman key establishment scheme has no way to ensure authentication. A man-in-the-middle, Yves, could pretend to be Bob and establish a shared key with Alice, thus reading all the messages that Alice thinks she is sending to Bob. The same he could do with Bob, even at the same time. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 5 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Replay • The intruder monitors a (possibly partial) run of the protocol and at some time reproduces (replays) one or more of the messages. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 6 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Example: Let us consider what could happen to the NSSK protocol (Needham-Schroeder-Secret-Key) if we remove the nonce from A Message 1 A -> J : A.B Message 2 J -> A : {B.kAB.{kAB.A} ServerKey(B) }ServerKey(A) Message 3 A -> B : {kAB.A} ServerKey(B) Message 4 B -> A : {nB}kAB Message 5 A -> B : {nB - 1}kAB Suppose that Yves eventually succeeds to break the key, so he now knows kAB. Presumably this will have taken a long time, so kAB is not used anymore by A and B. However, next time Alice sends a request to Jeeves, Yves can intercept Jeeves’ reply, and send back to Alice the message {B.kAB.{kAB.A} ServerKey(B) } ServerKey(A) So Alice will take the old key kAB as the key to use in next conversation with Bob. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 7 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities In the original NSSK protocol this attack is not possible because A would recognize that the nonce is different from the one it sent. Note that the nonce is used as a sort of local time stamp The original NSSK protocol Message 1 A -> J : A.B.nA Message 2 J -> A : {nA.B.kAB.{kAB.A} ServerKey(B) }ServerKey(A) Message 3 A -> B : {kAB.A} ServerKey(B) Message 4 B -> A : {nB}kAB Message 5 A -> B : {nB - 1}kAB 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 8 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities In the original NSSK protocol, however, a similar attack is possible on the other partner B. In fact, B has no way to establish the freshness of the first message he sees (the #3 in the protocol). So, Yves could intercept the message from A to B, and send to B, instead, a previously intercepted message {kAB.A} ServerKey(B) Assuming that the intruder had time to discover the previous key kAB, the communication from B using this key is compromised This attack was discovered by Denning and Sacco, 1981. (three years after it had been in use in the Kerberos protocol) A solution to this problem is to use timestamps. So in message #3, also a timestamp (generated by A or by J) should be sent, encrypted, to B. Note: Time stamps assume a global notion of time. The use of timestamps was introduced in the Kerberos protocol so to avoid the problem above 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 9 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Alternatively, one could use nonces in a different way, as with the Yahalom protocol: Message 1 A -> B : A.nA Message 2 B -> J : B.{A.nA.nB}ServerKey(B) Message 3 J -> A : {B.kAB.nA.nB}ServerKey(A) {A.kAB}ServerKey(B) Message 4 A -> B : {A.kAB}ServerKey(B).{nB}kAB In this protocol, both A and B get to inject nonces before the request reaches Jeeves, so they both get a handle on the freshness of the key generated by Jeeves. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 10 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Oracle • The intruder tricks an agent into inadvertently reveal some information, possibly by inducing him to perform some steps of a protocol. Interleave • The intruder contrives for two or more runs of the protocol to overlap 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 11 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities Example of an attack to the Needham-Schroeder- Public-Key protocol which combines oracle and interleaving techniques The NSPK protocol (simplified version) Message 1 A -> B : { A.nA }PKB Message 2 B -> A : { nA.nB }PKA Message 3 A -> B : { nB }PKB At the end of the protocol, it would seems reasonable to believe that: • A and B know with whom they have been interacting • A and B agree on the values of nA and nB • No one else knows the values of nA and nB 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 12 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities In fact, for many years the NSPK protocol (1981) has been believed to satisfy those properties, but in 1995 Gavin Lowe discovered the following attack: • here, Y(A) represents Y generating (resp. receiving) the message, making it appear as generated (resp. received) by A. Message a.1 A -> Y : { A.nA }PKY Message b.1 Y(A) -> B : { A.nA }PKB Message b.2 B -> Y(A) : { nA.nB }PKA Message a.2 Y -> A : { nA.nB }PKA Message a.3 A -> Y : { nB }PKY Message b.3 Y(A) -> B : { nB }PKB • Initially, Alice starts a protocol run with Yves thinking that he is an honest agent. • At the end, Bob thinks that • he has been communicating with Alice, while this is not the case • he and Alice share exclusively nA and nB, while this is not the case. 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 13 Security Protocols Vulnerabilities It is actually relatively easy to fix the NSPK protocol: it is sufficient to include the identity of the responder within the encrypted part of Message 2 Message 1 A -> B : A.B.{ A.nA }PKB Message 2 B -> A : B.A.{B.nA.nB}PKA Message 3 A -> A : A.B.{nB}PKB This new protocol (called the Lowe-Needham-Schroeder protocol) has been proved correct by using CSP/FDR methods 5 June 2002 - Lecture 1 TU Dresden - Ws on Proof Theory and Computation 14