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					College Enrollment Hits All-Time High, Fueled by Community College Surge

FOR RELEASE: OCTOBER 29, 2009

Paul Taylor, Project Director Richard Fry, Senior Researcher Wendy Wang, Research Associate Daniel Dockterman, Research Assistant Gabriel Velasco, Research Analyst MEDIA INQUIRIES CONTACT: Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project 202.419.4372

http://pewsocialtrends.org

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College Enrollment Hits All-Time High, Fueled by Community College Surge
By Richard Fry, Pew Research Center

Executive Summary
The share of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college in the United States hit an all-time high in October 2008, driven by a recession-era surge in enrollments at community colleges, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of newly released data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Just under 11.5 million students, or 39.6% of all young adults ages 18 to 24, were enrolled in either a two- or four-year college in October 2008 (the most recent date for which comprehensive nationwide data are available). Both figures—the absolute number as well as the share—are at their highest level ever. Enrollments have been rising over many decades at both two- and four-year colleges, but the most recent annual spike has taken place entirely at two-year colleges. In October 2007, some 3.1 million young adults, or 10.9% of all 18- to 24-year-olds, were enrolled in a community college.1 A year later, that figure had risen to 3.4 million students, or 11.8% of all 18- to 24-yearolds. By contrast, enrollments at four-year colleges were essentially flat from 2007 to 2008. This new peak in college enrollment has come in the midst of a recession that has driven the national unemployment rate to its highest level in more than a quarter of a century and has had an especially harsh impact on young adults. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a smaller share of 16- to 24-year-olds were employed in September 2009— 46.1% —than at any time since the government began collecting such data in 1948. Community college enrollments have long been considered somewhat countercyclical; that is, they tend to rise as the economy worsens (Betts and McFarland, 1995). One reason is that community colleges are less expensive than four-year institutions—they average $6,750 per year (including tuition, fees, and room and board) in the net price for full-time students, compared with $9,800 for four-year public colleges and $21,240 for four-year private colleges (College Board, 2009).2 Despite the higher costs of four-year institutions, their enrollments have not dropped during this recession. Rather, they have held steady—and have been able to do so despite tuition increases averaging 4.9% per year beyond general inflation from 1999-2000 to 2009-10 at public four-year colleges and universities (College Board, 2009).

Technically, not all two-year colleges are “community colleges.” But 96% of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in two-year colleges are enrolled in community colleges, so this report refers to two-year colleges as community colleges. 2 The net price refers to the published tuition, fees and room and board and then deducts grant aid from all sources and federal tax benefits. Financial aid in the form of loans to students or parents is not subtracted.

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Changes in the labor market and the overall economy are not the only factors that affect college enrollment levels. Another important factor is the rate at which young adults complete high school. Here, too, Census Bureau data show that a new milestone has been reached.
Education and Labor Market Status of Young Adults
Percentage Point Change 1973 to 2008 15.6 4.9 10.7 -5.9 -7.5 4.2 -6.4 Percentage Point Change 2007 to 2008 0.8 0.9 -0.1 -0.6 -2.3 1.0 -0.9

Enrolled in college (18 to 24) Enrolled in 2-year college (18 to 24) Enrolled in 4-year college (18 to 24) Labor force participant (16 to 24) Employed (16 to 24) Completed high school (18 to 24) High school dropout (18 to 24)
Source: October Current Population Survey.

1973 % 24.0 6.9 17.1 64.3 57.9 80.7 15.7

2007 % 38.8 10.9 27.9 59.0 52.7 83.9 10.2

2008 % 39.6 11.8 27.8 58.4 50.4 84.9 9.3

According to census figures, a record 84.9% of 18- to 24-year-olds had completed high school as of October 2008, up from 75.5% in 1967 and 83.9% in 2007. Along these same lines, there is a record low in the share of young adults who are high school dropouts—9.3% in 2008, less than half the figure (19.8%) in 1967 and down nearly a percentage point from 10.2.% in 2007.

About this Report
This report is primarily based on the Pew Research Center’s analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and Census Bureau’s historical time series on college enrollment available at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html. The charts were prepared by research associate Wendy Wang. The historical tables in the Appendix were formatted by research assistant Daniel Dockterman. Paul Taylor, director of the Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends project, provided editorial guidance and wrote the overview. Senior researcher Rakesh Kochhar provided helpful insights on the use of the Current Population Survey. Research analyst Gabriel Velasco did the number checking, and Marcia Kramer copy-edited the report.

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I. The Rise in College Enrollment
Newly released Census Bureau data indicate that college enrollment among 18- to 24 year-olds reached an alltime high last year. In October 2008, 39.6% of 18- to 24-year-olds were in college (Figure 1), an increase from 38.8% in October 2007 and 24.0% in October 1973.3 The relatively high proportion of young adults attending college is due to a recent spike in enrollments at two-year colleges. In October 2008 11.8% of 18- to 24-yearolds were enrolled in two-year colleges, the highest figure for two-year college attendance among that age group on record. In October 2008, 27.8% of 18- to 24-year-olds were enrolled in four-year colleges. This was unchanged from October 2007 (27.9%) and below College Enrollment Among 18- to 24-Year-Olds,1973-2008 the October 2005 (Figure 1) % of 18- to 24-year-olds in college peak (29.2%). Among 18- to 24year-olds, two-year colleges educated about 30% of college students in October 2008, not much different from the 29% share they educated in 1973.
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 4-year college

The size of the total 2-year college 0 18- to 24-year-old 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 population in 2008 (29 million) was close Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data). to its all-time high attained in 1981,4 so the high college enrollment rate in 2008 also led to a record in the absolute number of young adults attending college. Almost 11.5 million 18- to 24-year-olds were enrolled in college in 2008, the highest figure ever (Appendix Table A1).5

1973 is the earliest year in which the split of college enrollment between two-year enrollment and four-year enrollment is available in the historical time series. See Table 204 of the National Center for Education Statistics (2009a). 4 The universe for the Current Population Survey is the civilian non-institutional population. The figures for the numbers of 18- to 24-year-olds refer to those in the civilian non-institutional population. 5 The National Center for Education Statistics, as part of its Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), tabulates fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions from its survey of the nation’s college and universities. The latest figures available are October 2007. The count of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in degree-granting institutions in October 2007 is 10.6 million. This compares to college enrollment of 11.2 million based on the October 2007 Current Population Survey.

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This peak in college enrollment is occurring concurrently with difficult labor market prospects facing youths. Recent news accounts have noted that the employment rate among 16- to 24-year-olds is at its lowest level since the government began collecting the data in 1948. And labor force participation for that age group is at its lowest level since at least 1970. Further analysis is needed to determine the extent to which the recent increase in community college enrollment among 18- to 24-year-olds is explicitly related to the current recession, which officially began in December 2007. Previous research has shown that community college enrollments tend to rise as labor market conditions deteriorate and unemployment rates rise (Betts and McFarland, 1995). But recent movements in both college enrollment and labor force participation might also reflect longer-running trends. College enrollment among youth has been rising since 1980 (Turner, 2004), and labor force participation among younger people has been declining since the mid-1980s (Juhn and Potter, 2006). Moreover, schooling and work are not mutually exclusive endeavors. About half of young full-time college students are either working or looking for work.

II. The Expanding Base of Young High School Completers
The record share of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college in 2008 comes at a time when a record proportion of young adults have completed high school, either by regular high school graduation or passing an equivalency test. According to Census Bureau figures, in October 2008, almost 85% of 18- to 24-year-olds had completed high school, an all-time high for this basic measure of educational attainment (Figure 2) and up from 75.5% in 1967. Thus, more youths than ever before were eligible to attend college (most college students have finished high school). Another factor that could account for the greater share of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college could be an increase in the rate of college attendance among those who have finished high school. However, this did not occur in October 2008. The measured college enrollment rate of 18- to 24-year-old high school completers was 46.7% in 2008, slightly below the peak attained for this measure in 2005 (46.9%). Effectively, a record high proportion of youths are in college because the base of young high school completers is at an all-time high, not because college enrollment among high school-educated youth has increased.

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Census figures also indicate that a record low share6 of 18- to 24year-olds were high school dropouts in 2008 (Figure 2). In October 2008, 9.3% of 18- to 24-year-olds were high school dropouts—less than half the 19.8% of 18- to 24-year-olds who were high school dropouts in 1967.7
Share of 18- to 24-Year-Olds Completing High School,1967-2008 (Figure 2)
% of 18- to 24-year-olds who completed high school or dropped out
High school completers High school dropouts

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1967 1972

1977

1982

1987

1992

1997

2002

2007

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data).

6 The status high school dropout rate refers to the percent of the population that has not completed high school and is not enrolled in school. As many analysts have noted, some high school dropouts were never enrolled in school in the United States and left school in their country of origin before migrating to the United States. 7 Again, these rates refer to 18- to 24-year-olds in the civilian non-institutional population. Thus, they might overstate the decline in the fraction of youths who are high school dropouts. A larger share of 18- to 24-year-olds were institutionalized in 2008 than 1967, and high school dropouts are much more likely to be institutionalized than other youth. Nonetheless, high school dropout rates calculated using all youths, not just those in the civilian non-institutionalized population, still show a marked decline in dropout status over the past 40 years (Fry, 2009).

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III. College Enrollment by Gender
Since 1987 women have been a majority of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college. As of October 2008, women comprised 53% of all young college students.8 Share of Young Adults in College, by Gender,1967-2008 Notwithstanding that (Figure 3) % of 18- to 24-year-olds in college trend by gender, the percentage of 18- to 24Male Female year-old men enrolled in 45 college reached an all40 time high in October 35 2008 (37.0%) (Figure 30 3). For many years, 25 young men’s college 20 participation had 15 remained below the level 10 5 reached during the 0 height of the Vietnam 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 War (35.2% in October 1969), when many male Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data). students extended their education because they wanted to hang on to their student deferment from the military draft. Not until October 2005 did college enrollment among young men surpass the October 1969 level. It has kept rising since then. In October 2008, a larger share of 18- to 24-year-old women were enrolled in college (42.3%) than their male counterparts (37%), but young female college enrollment was not much different than its October 2005 peak (42.5%)

Among college students of all ages, women became the majority of undergraduate college students in 1979 and the majority of graduate students in 1990 (Census Bureau, 2008).

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IV. College Enrollment by Race and Ethnicity
White youths attained several educational milestones in 2008 (Figure 4).9 Nearly 41% of white 18- to 24-yearolds were enrolled in college in 2008, an all-time high. This is partly accounted for by the relatively high levels of high school completion attained by white 18- to 24-year-olds in 2008. Nearly 86% of white youths completed high school (by either receiving a high school Trends in Educational Attainment Among Whites (Figure 4) diploma or high school % of white 18- to 24-year-olds who are … equivalency) in 2008, an High school completers High school dropouts all-time high. There Enrolled in college were fewer white high 100 90 school dropouts than 80 ever before, and the 70 white high school 60 dropout rate reached an 50 all-time low in 2008. 40 The absolute number of 30 20 white 18- to 24-year10 olds who were not 0 enrolled and had not 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 completed high school Note: From 2003 onward white refers to those who identified as white alone. fell below 2 million for Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data) the first time. The white high school dropout rate also fell under 9% for the first time in 2008. About 26% of Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds were enrolled in college in 2008 (Figure 5). This level did not surpass the 2007 young Hispanic college enrollment rate and trailed the white young college enrollment rate by nearly 15 percentage points. However, more Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds had completed high school (70%) than ever before. And the Hispanic high school dropout rate among 18- to 24-year-olds continued its downward march in 2008. In 2008, 22% of Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds were high school dropouts, the lowest rate on record.10

9 In this report, “white” refers to any person reporting white racial identity regardless of his or her Hispanic origin. The longest running Census Bureau historical time series on white college enrollment includes Hispanics and non-Hispanics. It should also be noted that the historical series on the “white alone” population has a break in 2003. Beginning in 2003, respondents in the Current Population Survey could identify more than one race. The “white alone” category from 2003 onward refers to respondents of only white racial identity. Hence, the figures for “white alone” persons before 2003 may not be entirely comparable to figures for 2003 and thereafter. 10 The U.S. Department of Education, on the basis of the same Census Bureau data utilized in this report, tabulates Hispanic high school dropout rates for 16- to 24-year-olds (NCES, 2009b). It finds that the Hispanic high school dropout rate has been trending downward since 1990.

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Black college enrollment among 18- to 24-yearolds in 2008 (32%) did not surpass the 2007 level (33%) (Figure 6).11 The high school completion rate of 18- to 24-year-old blacks in 2008 was lower than 2007, and the black high school dropout rate for 18- to 24-year-olds in 2008 was higher than in 2007.
Trends in Educational Attainment Among Hispanics (Figure 5)
% of Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds who are …
High school completers Enrolled in college High school dropouts

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data).

Trends in Educational Attainment Among Blacks (Figure 6)
% of black 18- to 24-year-olds who are …
High school completers Enrolled in college High school dropouts

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007

Note: From 2003 onward black refers to those who identified as black alone. Source: U.S. Census Bureau (October Current Population Survey data)

As discussed in footnote 9, “black” college enrollment in this report refers to the “black alone” population. Because of the change in 2003 of the racial identity question, figures for the black population before 2003 are not entirely comparable to those for 2003 and since then.

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V. Looking Ahead to 2009
The U.S. Census Bureau’s reports on college enrollment rely on the bureau’s supplement to the October Current Population Survey (CPS). The October 2009 CPS supplement is being processed. It will not be publicly available for many months, and thus it is impossible to know definitively how the 2009 levels of college enrollment compare with 2008 and earlier years. However, each month the Census Bureau collects more limited information on school enrollment in its basic monthly questionnaire. The share of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in college can be estimated each month from the basic questionnaire. College enrollment is seasonal, and hence comparison of enrollment across different months reflect that seasonality. College enrollment estimates based on the September 2009 CPS suggest that enrollment among 18- to 24-yearolds has not decreased from its 2008 peak. In September 2009, 39.9% of 18- to 24-year-olds were enrolled in college. In comparison, 38.6% of 18- to 24-year-olds were enrolled in college in September 2008. Hence, early indications suggest that 2009 college enrollment for 18- to 24-year-olds at a minimum continues at the high levels of college enrollment measured for 2008.

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References
Betts, Julian R., and Laurel L. McFarland. “Safe Port in a Storm: The Impact of Labor Market Conditions on Community College Enrollments,” Journal of Human Resources, vol. 30, no. 4 (Fall 1995). College Board. Trends in College Pricing 2009. New York, NY: College Board (October 2009). Fry, Richard. The Changing Pathways of Hispanic Youths into Adulthood. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center (October 2009). Juhn, Chinhui, and Simon Potter. “Changes in Labor Force Participation in the United States,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 20, no. 3 (Summer 2006). National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics 2008. September 2009a. NCES 2009020. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. National Center for Education Statistics. High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2007. September 2009b. NCES 2009-064. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Turner, Sarah E. “Going to College and finishing college: Explaining different educational outcomes,” in College Choices: The Economics of Where to Go, When to Go, and How to Pay For It, edited by Caroline M. Hoxby, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (2004). U.S. Census Bureau. School Enrollment in the United States: 2006, P20-559, Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau (August 2008).

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Appendix Tables

Table A1 The Population of 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1967 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands unless otherwise noted. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in 2-Year College 3,425 3,145 2,711 2,688 2,616 2,786 2,649 2,632 2,508 2,367 2,608 2,462 2,332 2,223 2,301 --2,360 2,414 2,378 2,166 2,027 2,253 2,112 2,005 1,999 2,048 2,118 2,230 2,174 2,059 1,749 1,825 1,847 1,734 2,362 1,948 1,741 ------------Enrolled in 4-Year College 8,041 8,016 7,876 8,147 7,995 7,578 7,384 7,160 6,944 6,893 6,715 6,738 6,436 6,316 6,428 --5,833 5,928 5,793 5,798 5,776 5,539 5,582 5,393 5,538 5,544 5,360 5,447 5,400 5,381 5,242 5,169 5,295 5,447 4,574 4,367 4,314 -------------

PERCENT
Enrolled in 2-Year College 11.8 10.9 9.6 9.6 9.4 10.2 9.7 9.8 9.4 9.1 10.2 9.9 9.5 8.9 9.1 --9.8 9.9 9.7 8.7 8.0 8.8 8.1 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.7 7.5 7.1 6.3 6.6 6.8 6.4 9.0 7.6 6.9 ------------Enrolled in 4-Year College 27.8 27.9 27.8 29.2 28.6 27.7 27.0 26.6 26.0 26.5 26.3 27.0 26.1 25.4 25.5 --24.2 24.4 23.6 23.3 22.9 21.5 21.5 20.3 20.4 19.8 18.8 18.9 18.6 18.6 18.7 18.7 19.4 20.2 17.3 17.0 17.1 ------------Of High School Completer Enrolled in College 46.7 46.2 45.2 46.9 46.0 45.9 45.0 44.1 43.3 43.8 45.3 45.3 43.5 42.4 42.4 41.4 41.4 41.9 41.1 39.2 38.1 37.3 36.4 34.3 33.7 33.2 32.5 33.0 32.5 31.6 31.2 31.4 32.5 33.1 32.5 30.5 29.7 31.9 33.2 32.7 35.0 34.2 33.7

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 28,950 28,778 28,372 27,855 27,948 27,404 27,367 26,965 26,658 26,041 25,507 24,973 24,671 24,900 25,254 25,522 24,100 24,278 24,572 24,852 25,261 25,733 25,950 26,512 27,122 28,031 28,580 28,846 28,965 28,957 27,974 27,647 27,331 26,919 26,387 25,670 25,237 24,579 23,668 22,552 21,362 20,562 20,009

Total 24,570 24,146 23,430 23,103 23,086 22,603 22,319 21,836 21,822 21,127 20,567 20,338 20,131 20,125 20,581 20,844 19,772 19,921 19,883 20,311 20,461 20,900 21,118 21,768 22,349 22,870 22,988 23,291 23,343 23,413 22,421 22,309 22,008 21,677 21,326 20,725 20,377 19,618 18,691 17,768 16,703 15,683 15,114

Enrolled in College 11,466 11,161 10,586 10,834 10,611 10,364 10,033 9,629 9,452 9,259 9,322 9,204 8,767 8,539 8,729 8,630 8,193 8,343 8,172 7,964 7,804 7,791 7,693 7,477 7,537 7,591 7,477 7,678 7,575 7,400 6,991 6,995 7,142 7,181 6,935 6,316 6,055 6,257 6,210 5,805 5,840 5,356 5,100

High School Enrolled in Completers College 84.9 83.9 82.6 82.9 82.6 82.5 81.6 81.0 81.9 81.1 80.6 81.4 81.6 80.8 81.5 81.7 82.0 82.1 80.9 82.3 81.0 81.2 81.4 82.1 82.4 81.6 80.4 80.7 80.6 80.9 80.1 80.7 80.5 80.5 80.8 80.7 80.7 79.8 79.0 78.8 78.2 76.3 75.5 39.6 38.8 37.3 38.9 38.0 37.8 36.7 35.7 35.5 35.6 36.6 36.9 35.5 34.3 34.6 33.8 34.0 34.4 33.3 32.0 30.9 30.3 29.6 28.2 27.8 27.1 26.2 26.6 26.2 25.6 25.0 25.3 26.1 26.7 26.3 24.6 24.0 25.5 26.2 25.7 27.3 26.0 25.5

Number 2,702 2,937 3,128 3,154 3,836 3,228 3,375 3,519 3,315 3,413 3,544 3,236 3,147 3,471 3,365 3,349 3,070 3,083 3,486 3,379 3,644 3,749 3,751 3,687 3,687 4,142 4,410 4,500 4,520 4,515 4,560 4,388 4,313 4,276 4,110 4,070 3,973 4,068 4,025 3,908 3,769 3,929 3,967

Percent 9.3 10.2 11.0 11.3 12.1 11.8 12.3 13.0 12.4 13.1 13.9 13.0 12.8 13.9 13.3 13.1 12.7 12.7 14.2 13.6 14.4 14.6 14.5 13.9 13.9 14.8 15.4 15.6 15.6 15.6 16.3 15.9 15.8 15.9 15.6 15.9 15.7 16.6 17.0 17.3 17.6 19.1 19.8

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. Notes: High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

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Table A2 The Male Population 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1967 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in College 5,383 5,156 4,874 4,973 4,865 4,697 4,629 4,437 4,343 4,396 4,403 4,374 4,187 4,089 4,152 4,237 3,994 3,912 3,954 3,922 3,717 3,770 3,867 3,702 3,749 3,929 3,820 3,837 3,833 3,717 3,508 3,621 3,712 3,673 3,693 3,411 3,360 3,534 3,599 3,331 3,392 3,152 2,982 High School Completers 83.8 81.5 80.5 79.4 80.3 79.8 78.7 77.9 79.6 79.1 77.7 79.4 80.0 79.3 79.4 79.8 80.2 80.0 78.9 80.6 78.7 78.7 79.4 80.0 80.4 79.4 77.9 79.0 78.2 78.9 78.5 79.3 79.0 79.2 80.3 79.9 80.2 79.0 78.2 77.9 77.2 74.2 74.2

PERCENT
Of High School Completer Enrolled in Enrolled in College College 37.0 35.5 34.1 35.3 34.7 34.3 33.7 33.0 32.6 34.0 34.5 35.0 34.1 33.1 33.1 33.3 33.6 32.7 32.9 32.3 30.2 30.2 30.6 28.7 28.4 28.6 27.3 27.2 27.1 26.3 25.8 27.1 28.1 28.2 29.0 27.7 27.7 30.2 32.4 32.1 35.2 34.1 33.1 44.1 43.6 42.4 44.5 43.2 43.0 42.8 42.4 40.9 43.1 44.4 44.0 42.7 41.8 41.6 41.8 41.9 40.9 41.7 40.1 38.3 38.3 38.6 35.8 35.3 36.0 35.0 34.5 34.7 33.4 32.9 34.1 35.6 35.6 36.2 34.7 34.6 38.2 41.5 41.2 45.6 45.9 44.7

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 14,559 14,515 14,300 14,077 14,018 13,681 13,744 13,434 13,338 12,905 12,764 12,513 12,285 12,351 12,557 12,712 11,898 11,965 12,036 12,134 12,325 12,491 12,626 12,921 13,199 13,744 14,003 14,083 14,127 14,107 13,571 13,385 13,218 13,012 12,724 12,315 12,111 11,712 11,092 10,385 9,649 9,251 8,999

Total 12,199 11,825 11,508 11,182 11,258 10,919 10,823 10,461 10,622 10,201 9,915 9,933 9,815 9,789 9,970 10,142 9,541 9,576 9,493 9,778 9,700 9,832 10,030 10,338 10,614 10,914 10,906 11,120 11,052 11,125 10,657 10,614 10,440 10,312 10,214 9,835 9,716 9,247 8,669 8,087 7,445 6,864 6,678

Number 1,445 1,680 1,741 1,852 1,942 1,875 1,925 2,028 1,837 1,818 2,018 1,765 1,628 1,791 1,804 1,745 1,575 1,617 1,810 1,689 1,941 1,950 1,948 1,924 2,015 2,184 2,379 2,329 2,424 2,390 2,320 2,200 2,170 2,109 1,928 1,958 1,853 1,898 1,865 1,746 1,640 1,777 1,804

Percent 9.9 11.6 12.2 13.2 13.9 13.7 14.0 15.1 13.8 14.9 15.8 14.1 13.2 14.5 14.4 13.7 13.2 13.5 15.0 13.9 15.7 15.6 15.4 14.9 15.3 15.9 17.0 16.5 17.2 16.9 17.1 16.4 16.4 16.2 15.2 15.9 15.3 16.2 16.8 16.8 17.0 19.2 20.0

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

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Table A3 The Female Population 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1967 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in College 6,083 6,005 5,712 5,861 5,746 5,667 5,404 5,192 5,109 4,863 4,919 4,829 4,582 4,452 4,576 4,393 4,199 4,429 4,218 4,042 4,085 4,021 3,826 3,775 3,788 3,662 3,657 3,841 3,741 3,682 3,482 3,373 3,431 3,508 3,243 2,905 2,696 2,724 2,610 2,474 2,448 2,205 2,117 High School Completers 86.0 86.4 84.7 86.5 84.9 85.1 84.4 84.1 84.1 83.2 83.6 83.5 83.3 82.4 83.6 83.5 83.9 84.0 82.9 82.8 83.2 83.6 83.2 84.1 84.3 83.7 82.9 82.4 82.8 82.7 81.7 82.0 82.0 81.7 81.3 81.5 81.2 80.6 79.7 79.6 79.0 78.0 76.6

PERCENT
Of High School Completer Enrolled in Enrolled in College College 42.3 42.1 40.6 42.5 41.2 41.3 39.7 38.4 38.4 37.0 38.6 38.8 37.0 35.5 36.0 34.3 34.4 36.0 33.6 31.8 31.6 30.4 28.7 27.8 27.2 25.6 25.1 26.0 25.2 24.8 24.2 23.7 24.3 25.2 23.7 21.8 20.5 21.2 20.8 20.3 20.9 19.5 19.2 49.2 48.7 47.9 49.2 48.6 48.5 47.0 45.6 45.6 44.5 46.2 46.4 44.4 43.1 43.1 41.0 41.0 42.8 40.6 38.4 38.0 36.3 34.5 33.0 32.3 30.6 30.3 31.6 30.4 30.0 29.6 28.8 29.7 30.9 29.2 26.7 25.3 26.3 26.0 25.6 26.4 25.0 25.1

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 14,391 14,263 14,073 13,778 13,930 13,724 13,623 13,531 13,319 13,136 12,743 12,460 12,386 12,548 12,696 12,810 12,202 12,313 12,536 12,718 12,936 13,242 13,324 13,591 13,923 14,287 14,577 14,763 14,838 14,851 14,403 14,262 14,113 13,907 13,663 13,355 13,126 12,867 12,576 12,167 11,713 11,311 11,011

Total 12,371 12,321 11,922 11,921 11,828 11,684 11,496 11,375 11,200 10,926 10,651 10,403 10,317 10,338 10,611 10,702 10,232 10,344 10,391 10,533 10,758 11,068 11,086 11,430 11,736 11,956 12,082 12,171 12,290 12,287 11,763 11,694 11,569 11,365 11,113 10,889 10,663 10,371 10,020 9,680 9,259 8,820 8,436

Number 1,257 1,256 1,387 1,302 1,444 1,354 1,450 1,491 1,478 1,594 1,526 1,471 1,519 1,679 1,561 1,604 1,494 1,466 1,676 1,690 1,702 1,799 1,803 1,751 1,804 1,958 2,031 2,171 2,097 2,124 2,240 2,188 2,143 2,168 2,181 2,112 2,119 2,170 2,159 2,163 2,128 2,150 2,162

Percent 8.7 8.8 9.9 9.5 10.4 9.9 10.6 11.0 11.1 12.1 12.0 11.8 12.3 13.4 12.3 12.5 12.2 11.9 13.4 13.3 13.2 13.5 13.5 12.9 13.0 13.7 13.9 14.7 14.1 14.3 15.6 15.3 15.2 15.6 16.0 15.8 16.1 16.9 17.2 17.8 18.2 19.0 19.6

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

14
Table A4 The Hispanic Population 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1972 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in College 1,338 1,375 1,182 1,215 1,221 1,115 979 1,035 899 739 820 806 706 745 662 728 602 586 516 435 453 450 455 458 375 362 349 337 342 327 292 254 277 309 295 272 206 179 High School Completers 70.2 67.4 65.9 66.0 65.6 65.1 62.6 62.0 59.6 58.8 59.8 62.0 57.5 58.6 56.6 60.9 60.7 57.3 52.1 54.5 55.9 55.2 61.6 59.9 62.9 60.1 54.8 57.6 55.8 54.1 55.2 55.9 54.7 55.6 57.5 55.9 55.2 51.9

PERCENT
Of High School Completer Enrolled in Enrolled in College College 25.8 26.6 23.6 24.8 24.7 23.5 19.9 21.1 21.7 18.7 20.4 22.4 20.1 20.7 18.8 21.6 21.7 21.3 18.0 15.8 16.1 17.0 17.6 18.2 16.9 17.9 17.2 16.8 16.7 16.1 16.6 15.2 17.2 19.9 20.4 18.1 16.0 13.4 36.8 39.4 35.8 37.6 37.6 36.0 31.8 34.1 36.5 31.8 34.1 36.0 35.0 35.3 33.2 35.5 35.8 37.1 34.4 29.0 28.7 30.9 28.5 30.4 26.9 29.9 31.4 29.2 29.9 29.8 30.2 27.2 31.5 35.8 35.5 32.3 29.1 25.8

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 5,176 5,175 5,006 4,898 4,941 4,754 4,918 4,892 4,134 3,953 4,014 3,606 3,510 3,603 3,523 3,363 2,772 2,754 2,874 2,749 2,818 2,642 2,592 2,514 2,221 2,018 2,025 2,001 2,052 2,033 1,754 1,672 1,609 1,551 1,446 1,506 1,285 1,338

Total 3,632 3,487 3,301 3,230 3,244 3,096 3,078 3,031 2,462 2,325 2,403 2,236 2,019 2,112 1,995 2,049 1,682 1,579 1,498 1,498 1,576 1,458 1,597 1,507 1,396 1,212 1,110 1,153 1,144 1,099 968 935 880 862 832 842 709 694

Number 1,155 1,310 1,313 1,335 1,386 1,353 1,479 1,548 1,335 1,340 1,383 1,103 1,210 1,250 1,224 1,103 907 936 1,139 1,025 1,062 1,046 849 864 700 691 759 740 790 820 687 656 622 566 505 558 500 541

Percent 22.3 25.3 26.2 27.3 28.0 28.4 30.1 31.7 32.3 33.9 34.4 30.6 34.5 34.7 34.7 32.8 32.7 33.9 39.6 37.3 37.7 39.6 32.8 34.4 31.5 34.2 37.5 37.0 38.5 40.3 39.2 39.2 38.7 36.5 34.9 37.1 38.9 40.4

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. Hispanics may be of any race. High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

15
Table A5 The White Alone Population 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1967 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in College 9,141 8,780 8,298 8,498 8,351 8,150 7,921 7,548 7,566 7,447 7,541 7,495 7,123 7,011 7,118 7,074 6,763 6,916 6,813 6,635 6,631 6,659 6,483 6,307 6,500 6,256 6,463 6,694 6,549 6,423 6,120 6,077 6,209 6,276 6,116 5,589 5,438 5,624 5,594 5,305 5,347 4,929 4,708 High School Completers 85.8 84.5 83.4 83.3 82.6 83.3 82.0 81.2 82.4 81.7 81.6 82.7 82.3 81.9 82.6 82.9 83.4 83.3 81.7 82.5 82.1 82.3 82.3 83.1 83.6 83.0 82.2 82.4 82.2 82.6 82.1 82.6 82.3 82.4 83.2 82.7 82.8 81.7 81.3 81.4 80.8 78.7 78.0

PERCENT
Of High School Completer Enrolled in Enrolled in College College 40.6 39.2 37.4 39.0 38.0 37.9 36.5 35.3 35.6 35.7 36.9 37.4 36.2 35.3 35.3 34.5 34.8 35.2 34.1 32.5 31.8 31.3 30.2 28.6 28.7 28.0 27.0 27.2 26.7 26.2 25.6 25.7 26.5 27.1 26.9 25.2 25.0 26.4 27.2 27.1 28.7 27.5 26.9 47.3 46.4 44.9 46.9 45.9 45.5 44.5 43.5 43.2 43.7 45.2 45.3 44.0 43.1 42.7 41.6 41.8 42.2 41.7 39.4 38.8 38.1 36.6 34.5 34.4 32.3 32.9 33.6 32.5 31.8 31.2 31.1 32.2 33.0 32.4 30.5 30.2 32.3 33.7 33.2 35.6 34.9 34.5

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 22,530 22,392 22,169 21,777 21,896 21,502 21,704 21,372 21,257 20,866 20,465 20,020 19,676 19,866 20,171 20,493 19,430 19,671 19,980 20,393 20,825 21,261 21,493 22,020 22,632 23,347 23,899 24,206 24,486 24,482 23,895 23,650 23,430 23,119 22,703 22,141 21,766 21,315 20,533 19,608 18,606 17,951 17,500

Total 19,340 18,913 18,489 18,130 18,213 17,901 17,793 17,348 17,512 17,052 16,701 16,557 16,199 16,269 16,670 16,989 16,196 16,379 16,324 16,823 17,089 17,491 17,689 18,291 18,916 19,373 19,643 19,944 20,123 20,214 19,616 19,526 19,291 19,045 18,883 18,318 18,023 17,410 16,593 15,960 15,031 14,127 13,657

Number 1,991 2,248 2,399 2,466 2,599 2,489 2,641 2,865 2,598 2,680 2,810 2,476 2,458 2,711 2,553 2,595 2,369 2,398 2,845 2,751 2,926 3,012 3,042 2,961 3,050 3,281 3,428 3,523 3,590 3,525 3,571 3,464 3,445 3,407 3,149 3,212 3,085 3,241 3,156 2,974 2,915 3,107 3,141

Percent 8.8 10.0 10.8 11.3 11.9 11.6 12.2 13.4 12.2 12.8 13.7 12.4 12.5 13.6 12.7 12.7 12.2 12.2 14.2 13.5 14.1 14.2 14.2 13.4 13.5 14.1 14.3 14.6 14.7 14.4 14.9 14.6 14.7 14.7 13.9 14.5 14.2 15.2 15.4 15.2 15.7 17.3 17.9

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. Hispanics may be of any race. 1 Starting in 2003 respondents could identify more than one race. Except as noted, the race data in this table from 2003 onward represent those respondents who indicated only one race category. High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

16
Table A6 The Black Alone Population 18-to 24-Year-Olds by High School Completion Status, College Enrollment and Attainment: October 1967 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 18 to 24 )

HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETERS
Enrolled in College 1,349 1,396 1,321 1,297 1,238 1,225 1,226 1,206 1,216 1,145 1,116 1,085 983 988 1,001 897 861 886 828 894 835 752 823 812 734 786 741 767 750 715 696 694 721 749 665 555 498 540 522 416 407 352 297 High School Completers 79.4 81.8 77.3 79.1 77.4 76.8 77.5 77.0 77.0 76.1 73.4 74.7 75.3 76.9 77.0 74.9 74.8 74.6 75.1 77.0 76.1 75.1 76.0 76.5 75.6 74.7 70.9 70.9 70.9 69.7 67.1 67.8 67.5 67.5 64.8 67.1 66.8 66.7 62.4 59.5 58.9 57.8 55.9

PERCENT
Of High School Completer Enrolled in Enrolled in College College 31.6 33.4 32.3 32.7 31.4 31.9 31.3 30.8 30.3 29.9 29.8 29.7 27.0 27.3 27.3 24.5 24.5 25.2 23.6 25.4 23.5 21.1 22.8 22.2 19.8 20.4 19.2 19.8 19.9 19.2 19.8 20.1 21.3 22.6 20.7 17.9 16.0 18.1 18.2 15.5 16.0 14.5 13.0 39.8 40.8 41.9 41.3 40.6 41.6 40.3 40.0 39.4 39.3 40.6 39.8 35.9 35.4 35.5 32.7 32.8 33.8 31.5 33.0 30.8 28.1 30.0 29.1 26.1 27.2 27.0 28.0 28.0 27.6 29.5 29.7 31.5 33.5 32.0 26.6 24.0 27.1 29.2 26.0 27.2 25.2 23.3

HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS

TOTAL
Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 4,265 4,182 4,085 3,964 3,940 3,837 3,924 3,916 4,013 3,827 3,745 3,650 3,637 3,625 3,661 3,666 3,516 3,521 3,504 3,520 3,559 3,568 3,603 3,653 3,716 3,862 3,865 3,872 3,778 3,721 3,510 3,452 3,387 3,315 3,213 3,105 3,114 2,986 2,866 2,692 2,542 2,421 2,283

Total 3,386 3,423 3,156 3,137 3,050 2,948 3,040 3,016 3,090 2,911 2,747 2,725 2,738 2,788 2,818 2,747 2,629 2,625 2,630 2,710 2,708 2,680 2,739 2,795 2,810 2,885 2,740 2,744 2,678 2,592 2,356 2,340 2,286 2,239 2,081 2,083 2,079 1,992 1,789 1,602 1,497 1,399 1,276

Number 514 425 532 512 596 545 571 540 615 613 642 611 581 522 568 600 578 575 545 530 583 631 611 617 655 712 832 851 821 876 895 850 808 803 877 780 826 782 825 897 828 799 788

Percent 12.0 10.2 13.0 12.9 15.1 14.2 14.5 13.8 15.3 16.0 17.1 16.7 16.0 14.4 15.5 16.4 16.4 16.3 15.6 15.1 16.4 17.7 17.0 16.8 17.6 18.4 21.5 22.0 21.7 23.5 25.5 24.6 23.9 24.2 27.3 25.1 26.5 26.2 28.8 33.3 32.6 33.0 34.5

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. Hispanics may be of any race. 1 Starting in 2003 respondents could identify more than one race. Except as noted, the race data in this table from 2003 onward represent those respondents who indicated only one race category. High school completers are people who have completed 4 years of high school or more, for 1967 to 1991. Beginning in 1992, they were people whose highest degree was a high school diploma (including equivalency) or higher. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1967 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/TableA-5a.csv

17
Table A7 College Students 14 Years Old and Over: October 1947 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 14 and older)

All Students Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 2 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1950 1947 18,632 17,956 17,232 17,472 17,383 16,638 16,497 15,873 15,314 15,203 15,546 15,436 15,226 14,715 15,022 14,394 13,898 14,035 14,057 13,621 13,180 13,116 12,719 12,651 12,524 12,304 12,320 12,308 12,127 11,387 11,380 11,141 11,546 11,139 10,880 9,852 8,966 9,096 8,087 7,413 7,435 6,801 6,401 6,085 5,675 4,643 4,336 4,208 3,731 3,570 3,340 3,242 3,138 2,883 2,379 2,175 2,311

Male 8,311 7,826 7,506 7,539 7,575 7,318 7,240 6,875 6,682 6,956 6,905 6,843 6,820 6,703 6,764 6,599 6,324 6,192 6,439 6,192 5,950 5,950 6,030 5,957 5,906 5,989 6,010 5,899 5,825 5,430 5,480 5,580 5,889 5,785 5,911 5,402 5,048 5,218 4,850 4,401 4,448 4,124 3,841 3,749 3,503 2,888 2,742 2,742 2,356 2,339 2,187 2,129 2,028 1,932 1,579 1,474 1,687

Female 10,320 10,130 9,726 9,934 9,808 9,319 9,258 8,998 8,631 8,247 8,641 8,593 8,406 8,013 8,258 7,795 7,574 7,844 7,618 7,429 7,231 7,166 6,689 6,694 6,618 6,315 6,310 6,410 6,303 5,957 5,900 5,559 5,657 5,354 4,969 4,449 3,918 3,877 3,236 3,013 2,987 2,677 2,560 2,337 2,172 1,755 1,594 1,466 1,375 1,231 1,153 1,113 1,110 951 800 701 624

White Alone 14,400 13,835 13,273 13,466 13,381 12,870 12,781 12,208 11,999 12,053 12,401 12,442 12,189 12,021 12,222 11,735 11,434 11,710 11,686 11,488 11,243 11,140 10,731 10,707 10,781 10,520 10,565 10,551 10,353 9,925 9,956 9,661 9,962 9,679 9,546 8,689 8,014 7,458 7,273 6,759 6,827 6,255 5,905 5,708 5,317 4,337 4,050 3,934 3,498 3,342 3,118 3,030 2,932 2,687 2,224 -----

Black Alone 2,481 2,501 2,334 2,217 2,301 2,144 2,278 2,230 2,164 1,998 2,016 1,903 1,901 1,772 1,800 1,599 1,545 1,424 1,477 1,393 1,287 1,321 1,351 1,359 1,263 1,332 1,273 1,294 1,335 1,163 1,156 1,175 1,284 1,217 1,099 930 781 727 680 522 492 434 370 282 274 234 286 274 233 227 222 212 206 196 155 -----

Hispanic 2,227 2,172 1,968 1,942 1,975 1,714 1,656 1,700 1,426 1,307 1,363 1,260 1,223 1,207 1,187 1,169 995 918 830 748 754 747 739 794 580 524 521 494 510 443 439 377 417 426 411 354 289 242 ---------------------------------------

Undergrads Undergrads 2-Year 4-Year 5,345 4,814 4,294 4,327 4,340 4,384 4,378 4,159 3,881 3,794 4,234 4,078 4,174 3,882 4,208 4,345 4,196 4,239 4,277 3,965 3,627 3,837 3,648 3,391 3,289 3,172 3,416 3,448 3,347 3,107 2,897 2,904 2,510 2,854 2,561 2,072 1,797 1,910 1,830 1,692 ----------------------------------9,610 9,551 9,560 9,842 9,664 8,986 9,048 8,393 8,520 8,252 8,275 8,331 8,131 8,084 8,202 7,614 7,311 7,404 7,097 7,143 7,034 6,768 6,656 6,645 6,808 6,738 6,509 6,504 6,622 6,172 6,296 6,043 5,898 6,134 5,547 5,266 4,997 5,082 5,065 4,582 -----------------------------------

Graduate Students 3,676 3,591 3,378 3,304 3,378 3,268 3,072 3,321 2,913 3,157 3,037 3,027 2,922 2,749 2,613 2,435 2,391 2,392 2,683 2,514 2,520 2,511 2,415 2,365 2,427 2,395 2,442 2,393 2,205 2,173 2,214 2,217 1,810 2,152 1,590 1,490 1,385 1,320 1,192 1,140 -----------------------------------

Public 14,740 14,072 13,466 13,435 13,651 13,109 12,833 12,421 12,009 11,659 11,984 12,090 12,014 11,372 11,693 11,317 10,910 11,065 11,081 10,753 10,295 10,333 9,961 9,579 9,694 9,592 9,422 9,495 9,267 (NA) 8,868 8,462 7,924 8,712 7,703 6,904 6,224 6,337 6,271 5,699 -----------------------------------

Private 3,893 3,884 3,766 4,037 3,731 3,528 3,663 3,452 3,305 3,545 3,563 3,345 3,212 3,343 3,329 3,077 2,988 2,970 2,976 2,868 2,884 2,783 2,758 2,822 2,830 2,713 2,946 2,850 2,906 (NA) 2,539 2,701 2,292 2,421 1,994 1,922 1,955 1,975 1,816 1,714 -----------------------------------

Full-Time 13,245 12,656 12,070 12,238 11,989 11,490 11,141 10,404 10,159 10,112 10,188 10,236 9,839 9,543 9,573 9,425 9,019 9,189 9,049 8,697 8,454 8,213 7,961 7,899 8,035 8,085 7,999 8,012 7,835 7,355 7,241 7,182 7,190 7,388 7,105 6,351 6,090 6,314 6,204 5,763 -----------------------------------

Part-Time 5,387 5,300 5,162 5,235 5,393 5,148 5,356 5,469 5,155 5,091 5,358 5,200 5,388 5,172 5,450 4,969 4,879 4,846 5,009 4,924 4,726 4,903 4,758 4,503 4,489 4,220 4,368 4,333 4,339 4,097 4,166 3,982 3,026 3,748 2,592 2,477 2,089 2,000 1,883 1,651 -----------------------------------

2

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. Hispanics may be of any race. 1 Starting in 2003 respondents could identify more than one race. Except as noted, the race data in this table from 2003 onward represent those respondents who indicated only one race category. Prior to 1994, total enrolled does not include the 35 and over population. Data for 1955 to 1963 are for Black and other races. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1947 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html.

18

Table A8 College Students 14 Years Old and Older: October 1972 to 2008
(Numbers in thousands. Civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 14 and older)

AGE
All Students Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1 1993r 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 18,632 17,956 17,232 17,472 17,383 16,638 16,497 15,873 15,314 15,203 15,546 15,436 15,226 14,715 15,022 14,394 13,898 14,035 14,057 13,621 13,180 13,116 12,719 12,651 12,524 12,304 12,320 12,308 12,127 11,387 11,380 11,141 11,546 11,139 10,880 9,852 8,966 9,096 14 to 17 241 186 212 181 198 150 195 138 149 151 123 171 237 158 150 130 123 205 132 178 183 182 239 201 262 253 260 254 232 249 311 274 274 281 293 309 295 295 18 to 24 11,466 11,161 10,587 10,834 10,611 10,365 10,033 9,630 9,451 9,260 9,323 9,204 8,767 8,539 8,729 8,630 8,193 8,342 8,172 7,964 7,804 7,791 7,693 7,477 7,537 7,591 7,477 7,678 7,575 7,226 6,991 6,995 7,142 7,181 6,935 6,316 6,055 6,257 25 to 34 4,013 3,838 3,658 3,600 3,690 3,494 3,401 3,421 3,206 3,095 3,414 3,270 3,443 3,349 3,419 3,140 3,094 3,125 3,285 3,162 3,081 2,963 2,985 3,105 3,064 3,015 3,088 2,988 2,928 2,703 2,675 2,569 2,801 2,489 2,469 2,202 1,829 1,760 35 and Older 2,911 2,772 2,776 2,857 2,884 2,630 2,867 2,685 2,507 2,697 2,685 2,791 2,778 2,669 2,725 2,493 2,488 2,364 2,468 2,319 2,112 2,179 1,802 1,867 1,661 1,445 1,495 1,389 1,393 1,207 1,402 1,303 1,329 1,189 1,183 1,025 787 783

r = Revised, controlled to 1990 census-based population estimates; previous 1993 data controlled to 1980 census-based population estimates. 1 Prior to 1994, total enrolled does not include the 35 and over population. Sources: Pew Research Center analysis of the October 2008 Current Population Survey and U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1947 to 2007, http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/school.html.