What is water contamination by danman21

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									Water And Health
      ESCI 274




    Drew Mitchell
    Jamie Moeller
    Michael Miller
     Mary Moore
    Megan Moores
WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT
 Without water human race would become
    extinct.
   Clean water, wholesome water is a must for
    the healthy human race
   Only .75% of the world’s water supply is
    useable to humans.
   Water is finite, which means the quantity of
    water on earth will never change.
   Water can only change state.
   The amount that is useable to humans
    might change if humans abuse the amount
    of water they use and recycle properly.
Transportation of Water
 The amount of water in the world will never change but
  water can change its formation, from water into gas or
  solid states.
 The Hydrocycle is the transfer of water around the
  earth and it’s atmosphere.
 There are 3 types of transportation of water around the
  Hydrocycle
    Evaporation
    Precipitation
    Transpiration
                Global Water use
 The Worlds water Demand
  is HIGH and is only
  INCREASING.

 With population increase
  comes water withdrawal
   increase.

 Also with in increase in technology
  the amount of assessable water will increase.

 This is not to be said for all countries because
    some countries use more water than other.
    some countries have more water than others.
All the Spatial Variations around the
World are a result of….
   Global distribution of precipitation
       Precipitation is spread around world from
        air/wind currents


   Global groundwater resources
       Different countries have different amounts of
        groundwater available to them.


   Local level of water stress
       Certain countries/cities have high levels of
        water stress than others, they don’t have the
        amount of water available to them that there
        country/city would need.
The Three Users of Water

 Agriculture = 70%



 Industry = 22%



 Domestic = 8%
Water Usage




 Were we use Water
Industrial Usage
      Canada has one of the highest usages
       of fresh water for industrial purposes
       64-80 Percent
      Europe has the highest usage of
       industrial use.
      Drastic difference in industrial water
       usage in developed nations and non-
       developed nations
      Why is this?
Problems with Industrial Usage
                   High levels of
                    pollutants enter the
                    water supply
                   This includes heavy
                    metals, solvents, and
                    toxic sludge.
                   More prevalent to see
                    these pollutants in the
                    less developed nations
                   The overall use of water
                    for industrial use cause
                    extensive water damage
Domestic Use of Water
              Most Countries that don’t
               have a lot of water to begin
               with use their water supply
               for Domestic consumption
              Countries like that are
               located in the sub-Saharan
               Africa were water supplies
               are depleted.
                 Agriculture Use
 Consumes the most water and
  accounts for 70% of water
  extracted from the earth
 With extensive over use, the fresh
  water supply becomes strained
 The soil from the irrigation
  becomes saturated and
  contaminates the soil
 The water used for agriculture
  returns to the soil contaminated
Water Usage of Power

 Canada is the leader in
  hydropower
 Hydropower represents
  19% of all power produced
 There is this room to grow
  in the hydropower,
  specifically in the South
  America
Advantages/Disadvantages of
Hydro Power
 Lowers green house gases
 The dams, themselves
  have negitive effects on
  the environment
 The effects are with the
  water and the
  surrounding area
                Personal Usage
 In urban areas a person on average uses 350 litres


 This comes from everything from washing your hand
  to taking showers

 We over use water without care
Is the pollution of water bodies such
as lakes, rivers, oceans, and
groundwater caused by too much of a
substance (chemical or
microorganism) discharged into a
water body that overwhelms the
capacity of the water body to cleanse
itself.
3 Sources of Water Contamination:
 Point source - chemical contaminants from one
  place that is easy to identify.
 Air Pollution – Any chemical, physical, or biological
  agent that modifies the characteristics of the
  atmosphere.
 Eroded soil and sediment – The detachment and
  movement of top soil by the action of wind and
  flowing water.
Chemical Contamination = Health Risks
 Heavy metals ( ie, lead, mercury,
  and copper)
Lead – at high levels of exposure
  can cause kidney damage,
  mental confusion, coma.
Mercury – toxicity in water can
  affect hormone production,
  interfere with nerve transmission
Copper - cause flu symptoms
(ie, stomach cramps, headache,
  nausea, vomiting and diarrhea)
Chemical Contamination = Health Risks
 Fluoride – (dangerous at
  moderate levels) causing
  structural tooth damage (dental
  fluorsis). At high levels can cause
  damage to skeletal muscles
  (skeletal fluorsis) also high
  sources are linked to an
  increased risk of osteocarcinoma
  (esp. in boys)
Chemical Contamination = Health Risks
 Radon – is a radioactive
 gas that comes from the
 natural breakdown of
 raduim which is a decayed
 product of uranium.
 Consuming radon over a
 long period affects
 humans drinking well
 water by attributing to both
 lung and stomach cancer.
Microbiological
Contamination

    Pathogens
Microbiological Contamination
         Pathogens

 An infectious agent or
  germ
 A biological agent that
  causes disease or illness
Pathogens
 Water travels around and through the earth
 It collects microorganisms
 Some are harmless some are deadly
Pathogens

 Animal and human fecal waste are the main
 disease causing microorganisms
 Viruses
 Bacteria
  Protozoa
Pathogens

 -Cryptosporidium
 -E. Coli
 -Hepatitis A
 -Norwalk Virus
Pathogens
Cryptosporidium, Oocyst
 Found in many types of water
                                  In the water can survive for
 Rivers                           weeks
 Streams                         Can survive without out a
 Lakes
                                   host
 Reservoirs
 Sewage
 And treaded water
Pathogens
Cryptosporidium, Oocyst
 RESISTENCE TO:
 Common disinfectants
 Chlorine
 Water purification relies upon
 Coagulation and filtration or boiling.
 Chlorine dioxide and ozone treatment.
 It is now found that ultraviolet light treatment at
  relatively low doses will also inactivate
  Cryptosporidium.
Ingestion of Cryptosporidium
                Goes into the small
                   intestine
                  The Oocysts split open
                  The sporozoites invade the
                   gastrointestinal tract
                  Infected cells cannot
                   absorb water
                  This impairs nutrients
                  More Oocysts are formed
                   inside the host and
                   continue to infect or are
                   excreted in the feces
Ingestion of Cryptosporidium
  Causes cryptosporidiosis
  The water and food
           ingested simply passes
  Through the digestive system
  Diarrhea,
  Abdominal cramps,
  Nausea
  Vomiting
  Low grade fever
  It is harmful to your health and there
   is a risk of death
Environmental Factors
 The water cycle is changing due to human
  development:

       Agriculture
       Deforestation
       Urbanization
       Chemical composition of the atmosphere
Agriculture
 Produces NOx/CH4
         Warms the planet
         Increases sea levels
         Increases occurrence of droughts/floods

 Produces NH3 (Fertilizing)
         Alters pH levels in water
         Causes acid rain/acidification
          4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
          2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2
          2 NO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HNO3 + H2
Deforestation
 Affects CO2 levels
        Less trees  more CO2
        More CO2  higher temperatures
        Higher temperatures  Less evaporative cooling


 Tree minerals affect capacity of soil to hold water
 Reduce soil moisture
 Roots allow water to enter the soil
   Industry
 Produces SO2 and NOX

       Warms the planet
       Ocean cannot allow for cooling
        effect
       Water cycle is disrupted

           SO2 (g)+ 2H2O ⇌ H2SO4 + H2 (g)
Climate Change
 Human involvement is leading to disruption to the
  water cycle:
   Rises in sea levels
   Changes in pH to precipitation (acid rain)
   Floods
   Desertification
   Contamination
Consequences
 Human Health
       Rises in sea levels can lead to dangerous levels of flooding
       Acid rain may be traced as a carcinogen
       Significantly low levels of precipitation lead to drought, dehydration
        and low crop production
       Much of the drinking water is becoming dangerous to drink, and
        reduces availability to humans
       Biomagnification in organisms
Summary
              Agriculture
               Industry
             Urbanization
             Deforestation




                             Contamination of
 Acid Rain    Droughts &
                               Fresh/Safe
 Increase      Flooding
                                  Water
Questions??

								
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