Water And Health ESCI 274 Drew Mitchell Jamie Moeller Michael Miller Mary Moore Megan Moores WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT Without water human race would become extinct. Clean water, wholesome water is a must for the healthy human race Only .75% of the world’s water supply is useable to humans. Water is finite, which means the quantity of water on earth will never change. Water can only change state. The amount that is useable to humans might change if humans abuse the amount of water they use and recycle properly. Transportation of Water The amount of water in the world will never change but water can change its formation, from water into gas or solid states. The Hydrocycle is the transfer of water around the earth and it’s atmosphere. There are 3 types of transportation of water around the Hydrocycle Evaporation Precipitation Transpiration Global Water use The Worlds water Demand is HIGH and is only INCREASING. With population increase comes water withdrawal increase. Also with in increase in technology the amount of assessable water will increase. This is not to be said for all countries because some countries use more water than other. some countries have more water than others. All the Spatial Variations around the World are a result of…. Global distribution of precipitation Precipitation is spread around world from air/wind currents Global groundwater resources Different countries have different amounts of groundwater available to them. Local level of water stress Certain countries/cities have high levels of water stress than others, they don’t have the amount of water available to them that there country/city would need. The Three Users of Water Agriculture = 70% Industry = 22% Domestic = 8% Water Usage Were we use Water Industrial Usage Canada has one of the highest usages of fresh water for industrial purposes 64-80 Percent Europe has the highest usage of industrial use. Drastic difference in industrial water usage in developed nations and non- developed nations Why is this? Problems with Industrial Usage High levels of pollutants enter the water supply This includes heavy metals, solvents, and toxic sludge. More prevalent to see these pollutants in the less developed nations The overall use of water for industrial use cause extensive water damage Domestic Use of Water Most Countries that don’t have a lot of water to begin with use their water supply for Domestic consumption Countries like that are located in the sub-Saharan Africa were water supplies are depleted. Agriculture Use Consumes the most water and accounts for 70% of water extracted from the earth With extensive over use, the fresh water supply becomes strained The soil from the irrigation becomes saturated and contaminates the soil The water used for agriculture returns to the soil contaminated Water Usage of Power Canada is the leader in hydropower Hydropower represents 19% of all power produced There is this room to grow in the hydropower, specifically in the South America Advantages/Disadvantages of Hydro Power Lowers green house gases The dams, themselves have negitive effects on the environment The effects are with the water and the surrounding area Personal Usage In urban areas a person on average uses 350 litres This comes from everything from washing your hand to taking showers We over use water without care Is the pollution of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by too much of a substance (chemical or microorganism) discharged into a water body that overwhelms the capacity of the water body to cleanse itself. 3 Sources of Water Contamination: Point source - chemical contaminants from one place that is easy to identify. Air Pollution – Any chemical, physical, or biological agent that modifies the characteristics of the atmosphere. Eroded soil and sediment – The detachment and movement of top soil by the action of wind and flowing water. Chemical Contamination = Health Risks Heavy metals ( ie, lead, mercury, and copper) Lead – at high levels of exposure can cause kidney damage, mental confusion, coma. Mercury – toxicity in water can affect hormone production, interfere with nerve transmission Copper - cause flu symptoms (ie, stomach cramps, headache, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) Chemical Contamination = Health Risks Fluoride – (dangerous at moderate levels) causing structural tooth damage (dental fluorsis). At high levels can cause damage to skeletal muscles (skeletal fluorsis) also high sources are linked to an increased risk of osteocarcinoma (esp. in boys) Chemical Contamination = Health Risks Radon – is a radioactive gas that comes from the natural breakdown of raduim which is a decayed product of uranium. Consuming radon over a long period affects humans drinking well water by attributing to both lung and stomach cancer. Microbiological Contamination Pathogens Microbiological Contamination Pathogens An infectious agent or germ A biological agent that causes disease or illness Pathogens Water travels around and through the earth It collects microorganisms Some are harmless some are deadly Pathogens Animal and human fecal waste are the main disease causing microorganisms Viruses Bacteria Protozoa Pathogens -Cryptosporidium -E. Coli -Hepatitis A -Norwalk Virus Pathogens Cryptosporidium, Oocyst Found in many types of water In the water can survive for Rivers weeks Streams Can survive without out a Lakes host Reservoirs Sewage And treaded water Pathogens Cryptosporidium, Oocyst RESISTENCE TO: Common disinfectants Chlorine Water purification relies upon Coagulation and filtration or boiling. Chlorine dioxide and ozone treatment. It is now found that ultraviolet light treatment at relatively low doses will also inactivate Cryptosporidium. Ingestion of Cryptosporidium Goes into the small intestine The Oocysts split open The sporozoites invade the gastrointestinal tract Infected cells cannot absorb water This impairs nutrients More Oocysts are formed inside the host and continue to infect or are excreted in the feces Ingestion of Cryptosporidium Causes cryptosporidiosis The water and food ingested simply passes Through the digestive system Diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, Nausea Vomiting Low grade fever It is harmful to your health and there is a risk of death Environmental Factors The water cycle is changing due to human development: Agriculture Deforestation Urbanization Chemical composition of the atmosphere Agriculture Produces NOx/CH4 Warms the planet Increases sea levels Increases occurrence of droughts/floods Produces NH3 (Fertilizing) Alters pH levels in water Causes acid rain/acidification 4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O 2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2 2 NO2 + 2 H2O → 2 HNO3 + H2 Deforestation Affects CO2 levels Less trees more CO2 More CO2 higher temperatures Higher temperatures Less evaporative cooling Tree minerals affect capacity of soil to hold water Reduce soil moisture Roots allow water to enter the soil Industry Produces SO2 and NOX Warms the planet Ocean cannot allow for cooling effect Water cycle is disrupted SO2 (g)+ 2H2O ⇌ H2SO4 + H2 (g) Climate Change Human involvement is leading to disruption to the water cycle: Rises in sea levels Changes in pH to precipitation (acid rain) Floods Desertification Contamination Consequences Human Health Rises in sea levels can lead to dangerous levels of flooding Acid rain may be traced as a carcinogen Significantly low levels of precipitation lead to drought, dehydration and low crop production Much of the drinking water is becoming dangerous to drink, and reduces availability to humans Biomagnification in organisms Summary Agriculture Industry Urbanization Deforestation Contamination of Acid Rain Droughts & Fresh/Safe Increase Flooding Water Questions??