What is a Picture by danman21

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									 The Art and Science of Depiction

What is a Picture?


 Frédo Durand and Julie Dorsey
 MIT- Lab for Computer Science
Photoshop assignment
• Perspective
      – Converging perspective is OK in the 3D real world
      – It is not in 2D
• Distracting elements
      – Are usually not distracting in “reality”
      – But are harder to “filter out” in the picture
      – The image does not “read” as well




What is a picture?                                          2
Reading
• Photo-surrealism
      – Unable to detect discrepancy
      – Non realistic physics helps tell story
• Jet Lighter
      –   New approach to making images
      –   Photos are the new building block to make photos
      –   Very different from traditional montage
      –   The same may happen to cinema (Lucas)



What is a picture?                                           3
Discussion
• Visions of Light




What is a picture?   4
Visions of Light
• Intuition, realize afterwards
• Craft, not art
• Dominance of the actor
      – Must be beautiful
      – No shadow on faces
      – Dietrich more luminous, pops out
• Film noir
• Color in The Last Emperor
• Communication Director Photo-director

What is a picture?                         5
Visions of Light
• Formal rules / breaking rules
      – The rules are broken, not eliminated
      – Only when necessary
      – The counter-example does prove the rule
• Difficulty with new language
      – Silent to talky, Black and white to color, wide format
• Invention
      – Technological
      – Pictorial, new language
• Importance of fresh eyes
• To be “realistic”, do not use formal rules
What is a picture?                                               6
Relativism of realism




What is a picture?      7
Questions
• What makes a picture a picture
• Would a 100% faithful hologram be a picture?
• Could it be artistic
      – Would it be better than a “normal” picture
      – Would it be inferior?
• Example of cinema
      –   Static to dynamic
      –   Silent to talkie
      –   Black and white to color
      –   3D
What is a picture?                                   8
What is art
•    Craft (Painting, Cinema)
•    Religion
•    Beauty
•    Self expression
•    Emotion
•    Enhanced experience




What is a picture?              9
Plan
• The chain of representation of reality
• Duality of images 2D/3D




What is a picture?                         10
Reality
• Objective, physical
• May be imagination
      – But always references to reality
                                       Reality
                                                         Light
                                                         transferts
                                                                      Objects
                                                                      Material




                                           optics
                                           perspective


What is a picture?                                                          11
The Artist
• Visual system
      – Not straightforward!


Artist                                  Reality
                                                      Light
                               Visual                 transferts
 Context                       system                              Objects
 social                                                            Material
 historical
 artistic
              selection
              interpretation
              intention
              message
                                        optics
                                        perspective


What is a picture?                                                       12
The Artist
• Visual system
• Intention
• Context
Artist                                  Reality
                                                      Light
                               Visual                 transferts
 Context                       system                              Objects
 social                                                            Material
 historical
 artistic
              selection
              interpretation
              intention
              message
                                        optics
                                        perspective


What is a picture?                                                       13
The Picture
• Flat, limitations
• Seen in a given environment, conditions

                                              environnement
                               Picture

                                       limitations




                               optics
                               perspective

What is a picture?                                            14
The Beholder
• Visual system
• Interpretation
• Context
Beholder                                Picture        environnement

                               Visual
 Context                       system
 social                                         limitations
 historical
 artistic
              selection
              interpretation

                                        optics
                                        perspective

What is a picture?                                                     15
The Chain of Depiction
• Differences,           Artist                                 Reality
                                                                              Light
                                                       Visual                 transferts
                                                                                           Objects
  Mismatch               Context
                         social
                                                       system                              Material
                         historical
      –   Context        artistic
                            selection
                            interpretation
      –   Conditions        intention
                            message
                                                                optics
      –   Perception                                            perspective


      –   Message Beholder                                      Picture           environnement

          Selection Context                            Visual
                                                       system
                         social                                         limitations
                         historical
                         artistic
                                      selection
                                      interpretation

                                                                optics
                                                                perspective


What is a picture?                                                                             16
Context
•    Historical      Artist                                 Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                   Visual                 transferts
                                                   system                              Objects
                     Context
•    Political       social
                     historical
                                                                                       Material

                     artistic
•    Gender                       selection
                                  interpretation
                                  intention
•    Artistic                     message
                                                            optics
                                                            perspective



                     Beholder                               Picture           environnement
                                                   Visual
                     Context                       system
                     social                                         limitations
                     historical
                     artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation

                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                         17
Conditions
• Darker             Artist                                 Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                   Visual                 transferts
                                                   system                              Objects
                     Context
• Distance           social
                     historical
                                                                                       Material

                     artistic
• Etc.                            selection
                                  interpretation
                                  intention
                                  message
                                                            optics
                                                            perspective



                     Beholder                               Picture           environnement
                                                   Visual
                     Context                       system
                     social                                         limitations
                     historical
                     artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation

                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                         18
Perception
• Is the             Artist                                 Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                   Visual                 transferts
                                                                                       Objects
  perception         Context
                     social
                                                   system                              Material
                     historical
  of pictures        artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation
  different                       intention
                                  message
                                                            optics
  from the                                                  perspective

  perception
                     Beholder                               Picture           environnement
  of reality?        Context
                                                   Visual
                                                   system
                     social                                         limitations
                     historical
                     artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation

                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                         19
Perception picture/reality
• Photos usually do not
  look distorted
• Why is the photo of
  the photo distorted?




What is a picture?           20
Picture vs. Reality
• We see reality the way we see pictures
• Not the other way around

•    Make up
•    Stage lighting
•    Statues as 2D views
•    Architecture un-distortion



What is a picture?                         21
Message, selection
• How can            Artist                                 Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                   Visual                 transferts
                                                                                       Objects
  the artist         Context
                     social
                                                   system                              Material
                     historical
  transmit           artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation
  a message                       intention
                                  message
                                                            optics
  and select                                                perspective

  what the
                     Beholder                               Picture           environnement
  viewer             Context
                                                   Visual
                                                   system
  perceives          social
                     historical
                                                                    limitations
                     artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation

                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                         22
Selection
• Viewpoint selection, framing




What is a picture?               23
Selection
• Depth of field




What is a picture?   24
Selection
• Edge burning




What is a picture?   25
Selection
• Lighting




What is a picture?   26
Selection




What is a picture?   27
Message, selection
• How can            Artist                                 Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                   Visual                 transferts
                                                                                       Objects
  the artist         Context
                     social
                                                   system                              Material
                     historical
  transmit           artistic
                                  selection
                                  interpretation
  a message                       intention
                                  message
                                                            optics
  and select                                                perspective

  what the
                     Beholder                               Picture           environnement
  viewer             Context
                                                   Visual
                                                   system
  perceives          social
                     historical
                                                                    limitations
                     artistic
                                  selection
• Caption                         interpretation

                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                         28
Caption




What is a picture?   29
Caption, context
• Christina’s world, Wyeth




What is a picture?           30
Making pictures
• Simple in principle:                                      Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                                          transferts
                                                                                       Objects
  Draw or paint what you see                                                           Material




                     Artist
                                                   Visual
                     Context                       system   optics
                     social                                 perspective
                     historical
                     artistic
                                  selection                                   environnement
                                  interpretation            Picture
                                  intention
                                  message
                                                                     limitations




                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                           31
Making pictures
• Simple in principle:                  Reality
                                                      Light
                                                      transferts
                                                                   Objects
  Draw or paint what you see                                       Material


• Problem:
  what we     Artist
                               Visual
              Context          system   optics
  see is not historical
              social                    perspective


  so simple artistic selection          Picture           environnement
                     interpretation
                     intention
                     message
                                                 limitations




                                        optics
                                        perspective


What is a picture?                                                       32
Making pictures
• Previsualization (Adams)                                  Reality
                                                                          Light
                                                                          transferts
                                                                                       Objects
                                                                                       Material




                     Artist
                                                   Visual
                     Context                       system   optics
                     social                                 perspective
                     historical
                     artistic
                                  selection                                   environnement
                                  interpretation            Picture
                                  intention
                                  message
                                                                     limitations




                                                            optics
                                                            perspective


What is a picture?                                                                           33
Making vs. analyzing pictures
• Practice
• Feedback




What is a picture?              34
Making vs. analyzing pictures
• Practice
• Feedback
• Clouds,
  Constellations
• Rorschach




What is a picture?              35
Goals of pictures
• Optical vs. Haptical
• What we see vs. What we know

• What we feel/mean
• Other “channels”
      – Sound, data, etc.




What is a picture?               36
Do we always need photo-realism?




What is a picture?                 37
Plan
• The chain of representation of reality
• Duality of images 2D/3D




What is a picture?                         38
Duality of pictures
• Pictures are both
      – Flat 2D objects
      – Depictions of 3D scenes
• The dialectic between these two essences is
  crucial




What is a picture?                              39
Duality of pictures
• Magritte
• Anecdote
  Matisse




What is a picture?    40
Duality of pictures
• Magritte
• Anecdote
  Matisse




What is a picture?    41
2D/3D




What is a picture?   42
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    43
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    44
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    45
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    46
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    47
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    48
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    49
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    50
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    51
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    52
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    53
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    54
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    55
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    56
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    57
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    58
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    59
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    60
Is it 2D, is it 3D?




What is a picture?    61
What makes it 2D
• The surface of the picture is visible
• The marks are visible (brush strokes, grain,
  scratching film…)
• Absence of one visual channel (color, texture…)
• Letters
• Accidental viewpoint
• Absence of shading
• “non-realism”


What is a picture?                                  62
Interaction 2D/3D
• Celtic knots
• Islamic arabesques




What is a picture?     63
Interaction 2D/3D




What is a picture?   64
Interaction 2D/3D
• The image is 3D
• The message is in the 2D




What is a picture?           65
Do we always need photographs?
• Focusing on the 2D aspect
  emphasize the “potential” side




What is a picture?                 66
Perspective correction
• 3D verticality must be translated as 2D verticality




What is a picture?   Snapshot-Perspective-Speed, aperture-Filter-Lighting-Processing & Print-Make up-Retouching   67
Perspective distortion
• The 3D symmetric sphere
  is projected as a
  2D asymmetric ellipse




What is a picture?   Snapshot-Perspective-Speed, aperture-Filter-Lighting-Processing & Print-Make up-Retouching   68
The School of Athens, Raphael
• Sphere
  should
  project
  to an
  ellipse




What is a picture?   Snapshot-Perspective-Speed, aperture-Filter-Lighting-Processing & Print-Make up-Retouching   69
3D and 2D attributes
• Show a dice to children (~6-7)
• They usually draw a rectangle
• The rectangle can stand for one face




What is a picture?                       70
3D and 2D attributes
• Show colored or numbered dice to children (6-7)
• The still draw a rectangle
• But different colors or many points




What is a picture?                                  71
3D and 2D attributes
•    Show colored or numbered dice to children (6-7)
•    The still draw a rectangle
•    But different colors or many points
•    The rectangle stands for the whole dice
•    The notion of 3D object with corners is translated
     as a 2D object with corners




What is a picture?                                    72
Discussion
• Why is black and white photography considered
  “more artistic”




What is a picture?                                73
Assignments
•    Feedback
•    Image
•    Reading
•    Piranesi




What is a picture?   74
Reading
• Do not forget Gombrich




What is a picture?         75
Assignment
• Piranesi tutorial
      –   Demo version on the class web page
      –   Non-photorealistic rendering
      –   Tutorial 1 to 3
      –   Skip 2.4




What is a picture?                             76
Talk
• Vague decision next week




What is a picture?           77
The End




What is a picture?   78
Degree of realism
•    Non-figurative
•    Remote
•    Realistic
•    Recording
•    Photojournalism (objective, “neutral”)
•    Holography




What is a picture?                            79
Misc.
• Different techniques for the same goal
• Knots for 2D/3D, posters, trompe-l’œil




What is a picture?                         80

								
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