MaxHerriman, IUU Fishing Drivers & Impacts

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					Chatham House, London

Drivers and Impacts of IUU Fishing
– Case Study of Malaysia

5th International Forum on Illegal, Unreported & Unregulated Fishing, 14th -16th October 2009

Introduction Overview of IUU Drivers
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Secondary sources, official statistics & interview-based primary research Done in mid-2008



Zone A - less than 5 nautical miles from shore, reserved solely for smallscale fishers using traditional fishing gear and owner-operated vessels under 20 GRT. Zone B - beyond 5 nautical miles: owner-operated commercial fishing vessels of less than 40 GRT using trawl nets and purse seine nets. Zone C - beyond 12 nautical miles: commercial fishing vessels of 40 to 69.9 GRT using trawl nets and purse seine nets. Zone C2 - beyond 30 nautical miles: deep-sea fishing vessels of 70 GRT and above.


Management controls through: • Legislation (Fisheries Act 1985 and regulations) • Control of effort through licensing (National Fisheries Licensing Policy 1981) • Control of fishing area through zonation • Control over duration/period for certain fisheries (shrimp) • Control in ports and at sea Controls challenged by uncertain maritime boundaries


Enforcement by multiple agencies: o Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) o Royal Malaysian Navy o Royal Malaysian Customs o Royal Malaysian Police o Department of Fisheries


Overview of IUU
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nature of IUU in Malaysia
• • • • • • • • • Encroachment Fishing Gear Violations Unlicensed local vessels Illegal fishing by foreign vessels Destructive fishing Fishing in MPAs Fish smuggling Subsidised fuel smuggling Human trafficking of fishing crew

some resources attacked by IUU
Small pelagic fin-fish Unregulated and unreported harvest of lobster IUU harvest and smuggling of cockle spat IUU harvest of turtle eggs and unreported bycatch of turtles • Unreported harvest of Arowana • Unreported harvest of grouper fry • Unregulated and unreported harvest of shark fins

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Lack of funding 2. Lack of data / knowledge, inaccurate data 3. Government policy to maximise fisheries production by tonnage 4. Corruption 5. Re-flagging of foreign vessels (e.g. Taiwan & Thailand) 6. Low level of awareness of IUU and detrimental impacts 7. Cultural attitudes to hierarchy and authority 8. Weak consciousness of “community” and community interests 9. Influence of ethnicity in business dealings 10. Cultural tolerance for ‘rule bending’ 11. Cuisine and cultural beliefs 12. Low capitalisation of fishing enterprise and poor workplace conditions at sea

age of Coastguard (MMEA) vessels
20-24 yrs old 8% < 20 yrs old 5% 45-50 yrs old 19%

25-34 yrs old 42%

35-44 yrs old 26%

By 2010… • 88% of legacy vessels will be >25 years old) • 95% will be >20 years old


Enforcement streamlined, new Coastguard
• Coastguard (MMEA) now has 70 vessels of various classes down to 14m in length, plus 38 units of new rigidhull-inflatable-boats (RHIB) • MMEA increased the number of days deployed at sea from 1,339 in 2006, to a total of 3,369 in 2007
Text • In 2006, there were 2,023 inspections / boardings of vessels at sea, resulting in 173 arrests. Increased to Text 4,480 inspections in 2007, resulting in 683 arrests

Source: As advised by former DG MMEA


5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2006
Vessel Operational Availability 15%

Sail Days Inspections Arrests 2007

direct correlation between vessel availability and performance

• A good outcome by a new, enthusiastic agency • However, the report described in this presentation was done in 2008, after the improved performance by the MMEA • No evidence of any significant impact, inspections and detentions mostly affected local fishing boats outside of their designated zone


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Falling catch per rate of effort. Decreasing income for fishers. Crime and drug abuse by under-employed youth in coastal communities. Relocation of fishers and their families in search of employm

overview of impacts
• Falling catch per unit rate of effort

• Falling catch tonnages / collapsing stocks • Decreasing income for fishers & losses to the industry / nation • Human-rights abuses of foreign fishing crew • Undermining of Governance generally, tolerance of corruption • Weakened planning through lack of data and incorrect data • Environmental & broader ecosystem impacts • Crime and drug abuse by unemployed youth in coastal communities • Relocation of fishing families in search of employment & weakening of coastal communities • Under-utilised post-harvest facilities & opportunity cost


Slide 80 The Business Business Context New Ventures Way Forward

Weak enforcement Inadequate fisheries surveys, lack of data, slow update of industry statistics Industry cannot afford beneficiary-pays contribution to enforcement (eg license fees) and surveys Valuable marine resources traded below importingcountry parity pricing; ‘village’ market glut & scarcity; poor int trade Low investment in storage facilities or processing capability

Industry dominated by foreign labour; foreign boats exploiting marine resources (illegal fishing, charters, sham JVs, transfers at sea) Uncertain resource base = RISK for investment Banks won’t lend, Boards won’t approve = low investment Mostly SMEs - in coastal areas; traditional marketing Low skills, low tech Poor conditions at sea: high foreign labour


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No industry or Government champion is committed to establishing a sustainable industry Low levels of human capacity for regulators and managers Low technical capacity for enforcement agencies Lack of awareness amongst fishers, regulators, managers, local communities and the general public Self-interest is privileged over the interests of the “community” or future generations Corruption and politics Foreign players = ? There will need to be a catalyst for change, e.g. undeniable collapse of the industry and / or decisive external pressure


you nk Tha

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