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Seminar Roads Policy, Delivery and Operation

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Seminar: Roads Policy, Delivery and Operation
Post Evaluation of Highway Construction Projects
Session Number: 1, 10:30 - 12:30

The POPE programme that has been undertaken for the last 5 years on historic projects
N MacDonald, UK Highways Agency POPE Program, Atkins, UK

The ex post evaluation for the road construction projects and its implication
H-J Cho, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, KR; K Kim, Korea Research Institute, KR In South Korea, the ex post evaluation for the road construction projects was introduced in 2001 and the first ex post evaluations were applied from 2007. After five years operation, every single road project of which construction cost is over the 50 billion won is a subject of the evaluation. The main purposes of the evaluation are to investigate whether the proposed road project plays the intended functions and the extent to which all the related estimates are reliable. The main evaluation items are difference between forecasted traffic demand and the actual traffic volumes after 5 years operation, cost and benefit ratios difference, as well as the cost difference between the forecasted and the actually spent. This study analyzed the post evaluation results conducted in 2008 in Korea. Total 22 national highway road projects were evaluated. Among them, 10 road projects were adjacent. The results showed that the extent to which difference between traffic volume and the traffic demand forecasted depended on the characteristics of the road projects. In particular, the change of the related land use around the road project is the key factor to affect the accuracy of the traffic demand forecasts. The B/C ratio comparison was difficult because of the evolution of the methodologies applied. The interesting finding related to the cost difference is that the maintenance cost was not linearly increased which used to be assumed in the ordinary B/C methodologies. The results of this study are expected to contribute the development of ex post evaluation methodologies.

Calculating Value for Money of Public-Private Partnership(PPP) Projects
Session Number: 2, 13:30 - 15:30

Public Sector Comparators for UK PFI Roads: Inside the Black Box.
R Bain, UK Using original material released by the Highways Agency for the first time, the author recreated the public sector comparators (PSCs) used for the evaluation of the first eight road projects to be promoted under the UKs private finance initiative. These spreadsheet-based recreations show the different components of the construction and operating costs assumed for each of the project roads, and the overall balance between the upfront construction and the longer-term operations obligations. They provide insight into the process of compiling the PSCs by revealing the evidence base underpinning the various cost estimates employed, and they make explicit the assumptions that were made about cost profiling over the 30 year contract terms.

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Having recreated the PSCs from first principles, the spreadsheet models allowed for the impact of alternative assumption sets to be assessed. Alternative assumptions regarding project risks were modelled using different levels of optimism-bias uplift, and the impact on value-for-money of using different discount rates was evaluated. PFI and PPP public sector comparators have attracted considerable attention in the literature as they retain a pivotal role in the policy decision to use or not use private finance. Indeed, the ex ante value-for-money expectations of using private finance derive largely from public sector comparator calculations. However the fact that their detail is usually kept confidential by public sector procuring agencies because of commercial sensitivities has restricted informed discussion and open debate. Previous authors have generally focused attention on theoretical or conceptual matters. Now the architecture of these comparators is laid bare for critical examination. It has generally been assumed that, all things being equal, any reduction in the discount rate used in PSC calculations will favour conventional procurement over PFI-type contracting arrangements. The research reported in this paper demonstrates that the relationship between the discount rate and the attractiveness or otherwise of using private finance is not as simple as has been assumed, and the outcome in terms of valuefor-money is not as predictable as has previously been reported.

VfM in CEE and SEE countries
P Snelson, Atkins, UK

Public Reaction to Innovative Operations and Maintenance
Session Number: 3, 16:00 - 18:00

Road Network Management SP Survey
R Sheldon; C Heywood, Accent, UK; C Horrell, M Wilson, H Rakoff, L Hawker, Transport for London, UK The Directorate of Road Network Management (DRNM), within TfL, is responsible for the maintenance of the TfL Road Network. Currently, DRNMs £50m annual capital works programme is prioritised according to engineering condition indicators which identify the need for treatment based on a score generated by the UK Pavement Management System (UKPMS). A whole life cost (WLC) model is in development based on direct and indirect costs. DRNM is seeking to incorporate public priorities within the WLC to ensure that investment is focussed on both customers priorities while achieving best value. To facilitate this, research was commissioned to determine the relative tolerance of users to carriageway and footway condition defects of different type, extent and severity and to the nuisance and disruption resulting from the maintenance works needed to address these defects. There were two stages to the research: accompanied journeys and a stated preference (SP) survey. The purpose of the accompanied journeys was to help define the scope and structure of the SP surveys and to aid in the selection of sites. The SP survey was undertaken in five London areas with 450 pedestrians, 150 cyclists, 150 powered two wheeler drivers and 390 other drivers (HGV, LGV, car, taxi and PHV). The talk will take the audience through the background to the project, how the surveys were designed and implemented and the key findings. The research output will not only allow DRNM to incorporate user priorities into the planning of capital renewal works in the immediate future but will also allow them, in the longer term, to develop this into a wider strategy

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for planning and prioritising maintenance to better reflect user priorities and requirements.

Evaluation of novel motorway designs using driving simulation
C Diels, N Reed, A M Parkes, Transport Research Laboratory, UK As the volume of traffic on motorways increases, the negative effects of congestion become more pressing. Increased journey times present a real cost to the economy in terms of lost productivity, increased fuel costs, and environmental impacts. Potential solutions to these challenges may lie in alternative and innovative methods for utilising the current motorway network. The UKs Highways Agency is exploring methods of maximising the capacity of the motorway network without significant changes to the existing infrastructure including novel Hard Shoulder Running schemes and Road Tolling. These schemes have a number of original features regarding signs and signals, road layout, and road markings. Major factors affecting the success of such schemes are attitudes and opinions, as well as comprehension and compliance of motorists. A lack of familiarity could present multiple barriers to the operation of such schemes. Motorists may be confused and react in unexpected ways which could alarm other drivers, or even lead to accidents. Even those who are familiar with such schemes may not choose to observe its regulations. Of course, investigating drivers reactions to and opinions of such schemes in a real-world setting would be potentially dangerous. Driving simulation provides a cost-effective means to evaluate these novel motorway designs and schemes in a safe and controlled environment. In this paper, the relevance of driving simulation technology in the evaluation of novel motorway designs will be demonstrated on the basis of recent simulation studies conducted in the TRL carsimulator. Simulation results will be discussed from a Human Factors point of view and potential implications on road safety and road network performance will be presented.

Charging: Ready To Pay?- The Road Ahead 1
Session Number: 4, 10:30 - 12:30

Integrated motorways toll schemes in the Italian region of Lombardy
D Fiorello, F Torta, R Scatamacchia, TRT Trasporti e Territorio Srl, IT The paper reports the main outcomes of a study aimed at investigating the feasibility of applying integrated motorways toll schemes in the Italian region of Lombardy. The current situation in this region, such as in the rest of national territory, is that different tolls are applied on different infrastructures just because tolls have been agreed with the concessionaires (and sometimes with local authorities) in different times and in different circumstances. Furthermore, new infrastructures are planned in Lombardy according to project financing schemes and the tolls envisaged for such new motorways bring additional heterogeneity. The study reported here focuses on a set of different issues (from the: legal, regulatory, economic, and financial points of view), as well as on the actions to be undertaken in order to introduce toll schemes that may be considered optimal. The expression optimal toll refers to a solution which is better than others according to not only economic and financial considerations, but also to environmental issues, transport related matters (such as levels of service, travel times), and fairness problems towards the users of the road network. Modelling simulations have been carried out using a transport model which has been already used to assess other Italian areas and for the DIFFERENT research project, co-funded by the European Commission DG TREN. Several relevant conclusions can be drawn from the study. First, an integrated toll scheme aimed at eliminating discrepancies between motorways is hardly neutral in terms of revenues when compared to the current situation. Namely, since tolls envisaged for new motorways are generally much higher than tariffs applied to existing roads, any integrated toll defined at an intermediate level will cause a revenue loss and make private investments unsustainable. If the integrated toll scheme is designed to protect revenues, the objective can be met for the whole network and not for any infrastructure. Therefore a distributional issue (among the various concessionaires) arises. Also, one condition for revenues neutrality is that also part of the ordinary road network is tolled, which may be politically challenging.

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Urban pricing in Paris: Lessons to be learned from abroad
C Lemoine, Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme, FR Urban pricing includes all forms of road user charges or fees applied in urban areas. In practice, application methods are variable and depend on the main objectives. Experiences from abroad had proven that urban pricing can work to get extra revenue sources, to reduce traffic, to improve modal shift, to improve air quality and to develop a sustainable transport system. Successful experiences such as Oslo, London and Stockholm had led to widespread consideration of the adoption of urban pricing schemes. Urban pricing can be classified in three categories according to their main transport policy goal : funding pricing, congestion pricing and environmental pricing. Funding pricing schemes in large urban areas have been implemented in the middle eighties in Norwegian cities in order to finance road and public transport investments and to cut out traffic congestion. On the other hand, the main aim of Singapores, Londons and Stockholms urban pricing schemes is to regulate road demand and tackle congestion without increasing supply. The environmental pricing schemes such as Milan and London LEZ are based on the polluter-pays principle: the main objective is to reduce negative impact of road user choices on the environment. This paper presents an overview of key characteristics and results of cases cited above and explores the key issues associated with implementing an urban pricing scheme in Paris. Even if urban pricing is not yet allowed by the French legislation, this paper attempts to show that implementation can not be modelled on the successful experiences cited above because of the differences in urban structures.

Managing Modern Motorways
Session Number: 7, 09:00 - 11:00

'ATM to Managed Motorways' - Delivering operational benefits to road users through the use of innovative technology solutions.
P Unwin, Highways Agency, P Marsh, L Wickham Mouchel, UK This paper considers the approach that is being developed to tackle the problems and issues surrounding safety and network capacity in the UK. The Active Traffic Management (ATM) Pilot project on the M42 between Junctions 3A and 7 commenced operation in September 2006 and became the first motorway in the UK to dynamically use the hard shoulder as a normal running lane. The Pilot project has led the way for new approaches to tackling congestion and provides effective and innovative technology solutions that can be applied internationally. The Pilot has demonstrated that hard shoulder running is successful in reducing congestion, improving the predictability of journey times and increasing motorway capacity. The success of the ATM Pilot has led to the UK Government announcing an additional 340 miles of hard shoulder running to be rolled out across the strategic road network, the concept has developed from ATM and is now known as Managed Motorways. The paper will consider how the effective use of technology, to operate the network, can be balanced with the existing highway footprint in order to address congestion, safety and environmental concerns. The paper will focus on the operational benefits that the introduction of Managed Motorways will bring to the network in order to meet customer needs for improved journey time reliability whilst also delivering Government targets for increased capacity, reduced environmental impact and maintaining, or improving where possible, the safety of all road user populations. The paper will provide evidence to support these statements from the experiences obtained through the success of the ATM Pilot and also look at how refocusing Roads investment on the enhanced use of technology will deliver tangible, value-for-money benefits to the travelling public. The paper will demonstrate that the appropriate use and operation of technology can lead to changes in driver behaviour which will also provide significant benefits.

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Monitoring of the main effects rush hour lanes in the Netherlands
R in 't Veld, CTN, Ministry of Transport, NL

Monitoring of the main effects of rush hour lanes in the Netherlands
Robert in 't Veld The central government in the Netherlands tries to achieve reliable and short travel time, for instance by shortening traffic jams. To reach that policy objective three ways are followed: to make better use of the existing roads (enhanced efficiency in the utilisation of road capacity), to let the users to pay for usage when capacity is scarce (i.e. the User Pays principle) and to build new roads (only when the need is proven). The third way contains, besides regular road extensions, the design of rush hour lanes within the given width of the road. Besides hard shoulder running in other cases the policy measure involves the creation of an additional narrow rush lane on the other side of the motorway (the left side in the Netherlands). Since 2003 the Netherlands has a special law to speed up the decision-making process. This law concerns 30 projects. The developments on those routes where the lanes concerning these projects have been designed are being monitored thoroughly. Aspects considered are traffic flow and traffic safety. Besides measurements with technical means, road users are questioned about their experience and their opinions about driving on rush hour lanes. Because of the political statement that traffic safety must remain at least the same when applying rush hour lanes, realisation of these lanes must be combined with measurements like traffic signalisation, a lower speed limit and a special application of incident management. In the paper the results of the research into the main effects of rush hour lanes will be presented. There will also be references to other research findings from the Netherlands concerning these lanes. The overall conclusion is that, on almost all realised rush hour lanes, traffic congestion (specified by vehicle loss hours) has diminished significantly. The decrease varies from 11% till 91%. Traffic safety (specified by the number of accidents with injuries) on the routes with existing rush hour lanes and with those that still need to be constructed has decreased a little bit more than on the whole network of main roads in the Netherlands (13% in stead of 12%). And last but not the least, a good majority (about 70%) of road users has a positive opinion about the flow of the traffic on rush hour lanes and almost the half of them (about 40%) considers the lanes as safe.

The Application of the RTME Within the Traffic Management Trial Amsterdam
H Taale, CTN, Ministry of Transport, NL The Regional Traffic Management Explorer (RTME) was developed in order to facilitate the sustainable traffic management (STM) method. The STM method consists of clearly defined steps to develop and implement a consistent and accepted (in terms of political objectives) set of traffic management measures. It that can be summarised as: defining policy objectives, assess current situation, determine bottlenecks and create solutions. This process helps to develop a network vision based on policy objectives, shared by all participating stakeholders. The Traffic Management Trial Amsterdam is mend to study in a real-life situation the effects of network-wide, coordinated traffic management on a regional scale. The trial uses the STM process to determine the measures. The measures vary from adjustment of weaving sections to information using a new type of VMS and ramp metering. The RTME is a sketch and calculation tool that supports the steps needed for STM and makes it possible to determine the effects of proposed traffic management services and measures. These effects can then be compared to the formulated policy objectives or other sets of measures. The RTME was used to study the effects of all the measures in the trial on the traffic flows and the traffic situation in the network. It was shown that the proposed measures have positive effects on network delay and on travel times. The paper will discuss how the model was used and what the results are. Furthermore, the paper will describe how the

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RTME will be used in the evaluation study, which will be conducted during the trial.

Roads, Prices and Incentives - Where are we now? Current State of Knowledge
Session Number: 7, 10:30 - 12:30

Towards a greener road pricing system for Heavy Goods Vehicles in Europe
John Bates, John Bates Services, UK "Background: The review of the ""Eurovignette Directive"" is a recommendation of the ""Greening transport package"", presented in July 2008 to promote an eco-friendly and sustainable transport. As the current road charging schemes for Heavy Good Vehicles (HGV) in Europe do not take into account the negative externalities of road transport, the European Commission proposes to internalize the costs linked to those effects in order to reflect the real costs they have for society and environment. It integrates three types of externalities in the charging system of HGV: air pollution, noise pollution, congestion. The cost of those externalities can vary with the environmental performances of HGV (EURO emission classes), the location (suburban and interurban roads) and the period of HGV use (off-peak, peak and night) in order to internalize the amount of costs they are responsible for. By applying this ""polluter pays"" principle, it forces users to choose between a higher price of road transport and a changing of behaviour (use of less polluting vehicles, driving during less congested periods,), what should be a good incentive to reduce polluting emissions and delays due to congestion. Common rules of calculation to value external costs are indicated in the annexes of the new directive proposal, which also imposes a maximum chargeable cost for each externality. If a Member State does not want to use the methodologies presented in the directive proposal, it can calculate the external costs with its own methods provided that its results do not exceed the maximum chargeable costs imposed. Aims of the study: The paper focuses on an evaluation of the methodologies advised by the directive proposal (calculations and maximum chargeable cost) lead by the SETRA, which is the technical department of the French Ministry in charge of infrastructures, ecology and sustainable development. It presents a study lead on a French motorway. Each externality is calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the directive and an alternative approach both derived from the French methods to internalize costs: – Weight classes are introduced for the calculation of the cost of air pollution in order to charge more representative costs to HGV. – Valuations of noise based on willingness-to-pay studies are used to calculate the costs of noise pollution and compared to the ceilings imposed by the directive. – Costs of congestion are calculated with a French methodology easier to implement. Finally the paper provides results with prices that HGV should pay for the external costs they cause. These prices are compared to usual prices on French road network, that are limited to infrastructure costs only. It also assesses earnings that could be expected with internalization and then invested in greener transport measures. Key words: Internalization Air pollution Noise pollution Congestion HGV Eurovignette directive Bibliography: – 2007, CE Delft, Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport sector. – 2001, Commissariat Gnral du Plan, Transports : choix des investissements et cot des nuisances (""rapport Boiteux II""). – 2005, Comit des Directeurs Transports, Instruction cadre relative aux mthodes d’valuation conomique des grands projets d’infrastructures de transport. – 2006, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and project assessment (HEATCO). – 2007, UNECE/EMEP Task Force, EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook. – 2007, SETRA, Production des cartes de bruit stratgiques des grands axes routiers et ferroviaires. – 2001, SETRA, Bruit et tudes routires, Manuel du chef de projet. – 2003, Conseil Gnral des Ponts et Chausses, Couverture

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des cots des infrastructures routires."

Review of evidence on the effects of road pricing
B Ubbels, NEA Transport Research and Training, NL; G de Jong, ITS Leeds, UK / Significance, NL Many national and local governments nowadays are, seriously considering road pricing as a policy measure to raise revenues or reduce congestion and emissions from road transport. A number of countries, states and cities have actually implemented such measures. This paper considers the effectiveness of road pricing by reviewing road pricing studies worldwide. The focus will be on the observed effects of schemes actually implemented. Road pricing can be effective but much depends on the objectives and the design of the scheme. The review carried out leads to the conclusion that road pricing schemes, where there are alternative routes and where the charges are likely to vary considerably by time of day, will probably cause substantial changes in route choice and departure time choice. A substantial increase in public transport use will only occur if public transport will be an attractive alternative for many of the origin-destination combinations, as in the case of the London and Stockholm Congestion Charging systems

The unexpected “yes!”: Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm
J Eliasson, Centre for Transport Studies – KTH, SE; L Jonsson, Centre for Transport Studies – VTI, SE During the first half 2006, a full-scale trial with congestion charges was conducted in Stockholm. The trial was followed by a referendum, which resulted in a majority in favour of keeping the charges. This was a very unlikely result, given the intensely negative opinion before the start of the trial. Perhaps even more unlikely, the support for the charges has contnued to increase after the reintroduction of the now permanent charges in 2007, and currently lies around 2/3 of the population. Naturally, the experiences from Stockholm and in particular the change in public opinion has attracted enormous interest from all around the world. Many cities are considering introducing congestion charges as a means of using scarce road space more efficiently, while at the same reducing emissions and raising revenues, but the main obstacle continues to be the problem of obtaining public support. Hence, explaining the uniquely and perhaps unexpectedly positive attitude in Stockholm is an important topic. In this paper, we investigate what the decisive factors are behind positive and negative attitudes to the congestion charges. We use a survey material collected after the reintroduction of the charges, which contains not only travel habits and opinions of the charges and their effects, but also attitudes, opinions and behaviour related to general environmental issues. Moreover, the survey contains questions about how the respondents anticipated and then perceived the effects of the charges, and whether the respondent changed hir or her mind during the trial period. Using ordered logit models, we are able to disentangle the influence on the attitudes to charges and their effects from various explanatory factors, such as car ownership and use, public transport availability, education, residential area and environmental attitudes. To give an example of the results, it can be noted that earlier studies in Stockholm have indicated that women, inhabitants inside the toll cordon and less educated (perhaps a proxy for low income) are more positive to the charges compared to men, inhabitants outside the cordon and more educated people. This is confirmed by the present study but surprisingly, only as long as other explanatory factors are not accounted for. In fact, once travel habits (such as car ownership and use) and environmental attitudes are accounted for, this picture is reversed: controlling for travel habits and environmental attitudes, women, inhabitants inside the toll cordon and less educated are in fact more negative to the charges. In other words, the positive attitudes among inner-city inhabitants as a group, for example, is not due to fact that they live in the inner city, but due to them travelling more by public transport and being more concerned about the environment. This contradicts the popular but erroneous statement that the inner-city people like the charges because they gain from the congestion reduction but do not pay the charges. In fact, the average inner-city resident pay much more in charges and gain much less travel time than the average outside-the-cordon resident. Further, we analyse the importance of factors such as environmental attitudes, satisfaction with public

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transport supply, car use and ownership etc. to obtain support for congestion charges. We also identify which key groups were needed to be convinced in order to turn the initially hostile opinion, and discuss the role the media played in the process. Finally, we draw conclusions for other cities: in particular, what prerequisites are need in order to gain public support for congestion charges.

Practical Applications of Innovative Construction and Maintenance
Session Number: 8, 13:30 - 15:00

Building sustainable roads :A voluntary commitment of road construction and maintenance companies
P Danzanvilliers, Sétra, FR In 2007-2008 the French government initiated an Environment Round Table, named "Grenelleenvironnement", to define the key points of government policy on ecological and sustainable development issues for the coming years. The Round Table brought together the civilian and public service representatives together around the discussion table, thus forming 5 colleges: the State, unions, employers, NGOs and local authorities. These key points involve a fight against climate change, preserving biodiversity and natural resources, prevention of environmental risks and health and promoting environmental development patterns favorable to competitiveness and employment. In the road sector, the public works companies that provide construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance of road infrastructure and urban streets(1 million km existing) are ready to face this challenge with all their clients. Three national federations of public works and earthworks companies plan to sign with the The French Ministry of ecology, energy, sustainable development and land planning a voluntary agreement for construction and maintenance of road infrastructures. Stra, Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering (Service dtudes sur les transports, les routes et leurs amnagements) was in charge of discussions and negotiations with the federations. At this planning stage, the main points of this agreement are listed below. Reuse or recover 100% of natural geological materials : By 2020, earthworks companies set the goal of reuse or recover 100% of natural geological materials excavated on sites. They also undertake to avoid borrowing or quarrying projects outside : "zero external input". According to the geotechnical characteristics of the sites, the percentage of reuse of materials is generally between 40% and 80%. Achieve a recycling 100% of the roads : The road construction companies will favor solutions that save non-renewable natural resources by encouraging better use of waste of deconstruction by opting for an increased recycling of materials and public works waste. By 2012 they undertake to pass a recycling rate from approximately today 20% to 60% of bituminous materials from the deconstruction road. Preserve biodiversity and natural environment : Under a general partnership with the owners, road construction and earthworks companies will attempt, during work operations, to preserve biodiversity and ensure the preservation of natural land and water environment. Methodologies and recommendations will be compiled and disseminated to companies later in 2012. Reduce greenhouse gases emissions and energy consumption : Road construction and earthworks companies pledge in 2020 to reduce by 33% emissions of greenhouse gases associated with earthworks, road maintenance and construction. From 2012 the road construction companies want to reduce by 10% in CO2 emissions due to the progress on transport, bituminous mixing plants and road products.

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Reduce consumption of water on earthworks sites : For reasons of safety and pollution, large amounts of water are used to prevent flying dust on the tracks of sites. Current practices are largely empirical. Reduce water consumption on site needs to rethink and codify methods of watering tracks previously used. The earthworks companies undertake to prepare recommendations for the profession. They lead on the validation of Watering Plans. Monitoring tools to measure progress and targets for reducing water consumption will be set in 2012. The ambition is to halve water consumption. Increase the environmental performance of Road companies : To facilitate the comparison of environmental solutions, an "Eco-comparator" common to companies will be established. The indicators focus on energy consumption, greenhouse gases emissions, conservation of natural resource. This tool which will come in the second half of 2009 should be validated by the public authorities. Improve road safety, workers, users and local residents safety : The signatories agree to undertake a special effort on the implementation conditions for works under traffic. They want to develop the actions for friendly and eco-driving. A Road Safety Charter incorporating these two objectives will be signed in 2009 between the profession and the public authorities. Participate in the development of research and dissemination of innovation : Ambitions in sustainable development can not be achieved without new tools, methods and methodologies preparing the technological breakthroughs of tomorrow. Earthworks and road construction companies are committed to increase research and collaboration with the technical network of the French ministry of Sustainable Development and the special Committee on Road Innovation. The French ministry of Sustainable Development will ensure the promotion and deployment of these innovations innovations through Stra, which is the technical department in charge of the dissemination of road construction and maintenance techniques. This agreement could be slightly modified before the signing.

Road sensitivity to the way HGV are loaded - Road sensitivity to the way HGV fit tyres
H Arki, Sétra, FR This article aims to lighten the consequences on road wear of two independent parameters: the number (and configuration) of tyres per axle and the way cargo is distributed on the axles. Using ALIZE and the French limits of axles load (but obviously not the total load limits), calculations were done for four kinds of roads, thirty-two possibilities combining axles types and number of tyre by axle and various way to distribute the total load on the axles. A French study on the likely consequences of allowing a total load of 52 tonnes for 5 axles-lorries and 57 tonnes for 6 axles-lorries as been used. Each combination of parameters gave an aggressiveness, which has been compared with the one of a 40 tonnes on 5 axles semi trailer Tridem used as a point of reference. The range of sensitivities to the number of tyres per axle and the number and repartition of axles can roughly go from 1 to 35. Influence of the way a lorry is loaded can multiply its aggressiveness as much as by eight. As French axles load limits differs to the ones foreseen by the European Directive 96/53/EC, this article presents the part dealing with this theme of an European study (Effect of adapting the rules on weights and dimensions of heavy commercial vehicles as established within Directive 96/53/EC). One of the conclusions is that 44 tonnes on 5 axles (semi trailer Tridem) are more aggressive for the road infrastructure than 60 tonnes on 8 axles. __________________________________________________ Stra Stra is a Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety of the French ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Town and Country Planning. As a centre of

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excellence in infrastructure and transport engineering, Stra has to produce and spread state of art knowledge and know how. Stras essential aim is to support national and local authorities in their policies to provide an efficient and safe road network for people and goods, and to develop an integrated and sustainable European transportation system. In all the strategic fields dealing with road, bridges, multimodal and intermodal facilities, it provides expertise, methodologies, guidelines, as well as software and information systems.

Roads, Prices and Incentives - Where are we now? The Road Ahead 2
Session Number: 8, 13:30 - 15:00

Behavioural impacts of rewards for avoiding peak-hour driving: Analysis of the Dutch Spitsmijden project.
E Ben-Elia, D Ettema, Utrecht University, NL The level of congestion on the Dutch road network is already quite high and predicted to increase in the next decade. Road pricing is stated by transport economists as the first-best solution to alleviate congestion externalities. However, public opinion in the Netherlands does not support more taxation. Consequently, rewards for avoiding peak- hour driving have been suggested as an alternative congestion management strategy. This approach is supported by psychological knowledge which suggests that rewarding is more efficient in the long run in sustaining wanted behaviour compared to punishments which only thwart unwanted behaviour but do not promote learning and internalization. The Dutch ‘Spitsmijden’ experiment was conducted by a public-private partnership. Its purpose was to collect a large sample of field data (RP) regarding the impact of rewards on daily commuting behavior during the morning rush-hour. During a period of 13 consecutive weeks in Autumn, 2006, 340 recruited volunteers from Zoetermeer, a satelite city of The Hague, participated in a scheme whereby they would receive daily rewards, either of money (N=232) or of credits to earn a ‘Yeti’ smartphone(N=108). Participants could avoid peak hour travel either by shifting their departure times (earlier or later) or choosing other travel modes (bike or public transport) or by working from home. Yeti users were also provided with real-time traffic information and travel times. Data was collected in three stages. Upon recruitment, participants filled a web-based survey about their home to work travel routines and socio demographic characteristics. Detection equipment was installed on the outskirts of the town and web-based personal travel log book recorder was applied in the second stage. In the first 2 weeks behavior was tracked but no rewards were given. The reward period lasted 10 weeks. Different reward schemes were assigned in different orders depending on the reward type. Participants receiving money took part in 3 consecutive reward treatments (3, 7, 3-7). They received their rewards at the end of each week. Yeti users participated in 2 consecutive treatments: accredited weeks and unaccredited weeks. At the end of the reward period Yeti users that acquired sufficient credits could keep their phone. Allocation to reward classes was another feature relating to the preliminary frequencies of commuting – the base line for reduction of peak trips. During The last week data was collected without rewards, however information was still available to Yeti users. An evaluation survey was conducted in the third stage of the study. The data was analyzed using longitudinal methods and mixed panel models. Initial results suggest that rewards can be an effective measure in changing travel behaviour. Specifically rewards reduce the shares of peak-hour driving, shift driving to early and later periods and increase the shares of non-driving alternatives public transport and working from home. However, once the rewards were terminated behaviour returned more or less to previous trends. Different behaviour trends were observed for the two different reward types. Money receivers tended to shift to earlier driving times whereas Yeti users were more likely to shift to later times and less likely to use non-driving alternatives. In addition other factors influence the behavioural impacts of the rewards. These include 5 main categories: information availability; short and long run experience; situational constraints and/or support measures and

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lastly personal characteristics. Information tends to increase the level of variability in the response: traffic information tends to increase driving shares while public transport information increases non-driving shares. Long run experience (travel habits) and attitudes about alternatives (beliefs) tend to segregate the response to particular travel alternatives or limited the level behaviour change. Practicing before commencing the trial (in the short run) also supported behaviour change. Household or work related constraints restricted behaviour change while supportive measures in the work place had a positive effect. Personal characteristics such as gender and education levels were also found to have an influence on behaviour. These results provide valuable insights into a future implementation of a reward scheme on a larger setting. Specifically, in an external study it was found that over reaction to the reward could cause significant time-loss to the road network. Thus understanding of what influences individual behaviour is quite important in this setting. Further work is being conducted now in improving the models for predicting the extent of the behavioural changes under the reward scheme.

Private roads (pricing, concessions)
E Verhoef, Free University, NL

Road pricing technology and technology cost
Speaker to be announced

Rewarding for avoiding the peak period: a synthesis of three studies in the Netherlands
M Bliemer, Goudappel Coffeng / Delft University of Technology, NL; M Dicke-Ogenia, Goudappel Coffeng; D Ettema, Utrecht University, NL Pricing in transport has been embraced by several countries as a useful instrument for alleviating congestion problems. World-wide many studies, both model based and empirical, have been done on the effects of road pricing on travel behaviour and resulting traffic conditions. Instead of a negative incentive (pricing), a positive incentive (rewarding) could be given. Rewarding travellers for good behaviour with money or other means is in itself an interesting concept and may trigger larger behavioural changes than pricing. In the Netherlands, three rewarding studies have been done and implemented on the road. They all aimed to decrease congestion (or minimize the increase in congestion due to road works), but differ in implementations and rewards. In this paper we try to give a synthesis of these three studies on the effects of rewarding on travel behaviour and on the potential effects for traffic conditions. In 2008, repairs on a bridge (Hollandse Brug) on an important 3-lane motorway corridor between Almere and Amsterdam was executed. Lanes were narrowed and the maximum speed limit was lowered, leading to a reduction in capacity and an increase in congestion on the already heavily congested corridor. The Dutch government implemented several measures to mitigate inconvenience for commuters that pass the bridge frequently. The measures that were offered included (1) a reward for avoiding the bridge during peak hours (6am-10am), (2) free access to public transport including bus and vanpool, (3) the use of a ferry for pedestrians, cyclists, heavy goods vehicles shorter than 12 meter and agricultural vehicles, and (4) provision of travel time information for alternative routes. During the repairs on the bridge 760 commuters made use of the free access to public transport option, 2,700 commuters voluntarily participated in the peak avoidance option. They were rewarded with 4 euros for each weekday they avoided the bridge during peak hours (relative to their base level, registered before the project). Registration was done by means of cameras with licence plate recognition. Travellers on the corridor are therefore encouraged with a reward (a free public transport pass or money) to (i) change trip decision, (ii) change mode, (iii) change departure time, and (iv) change route. Of the 2,700 participants, 500 to 800 avoided the peak hours each day. A survey was conducted to get insight into the travel behaviour of the participants and will be analyzed in the paper Peak avoidance was also applied in 2008 during repairs of another bridge (Moerdijk Brug) on a busy 3-lane motorway south of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, in which similar problems were expected as described for the Amsterdam region. During the reparations that lasted for almost a year measures were taken by the

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Dutch government to mitigate congestion during the repairs. These measures included (1) a reward of 4 euros each day for avoiding the bridge during evening peak hours (3pm-7pm), (2) provision of travel time information for alternative routes, and (3) extension of a Park and Ride facility to facilitate travelling by public transport. Peak avoidance was applied during 3 months using the same conditions as peak avoidance in the Amsterdam region. In total 2,700 commuters took part in the peak avoidance project. During the evening peak hour an average decrease of 920 vehicles (4.6%) was measured. Additional to observed trip changes, outcomes of two questionnaires will be discussed in the paper. In 2006 an experiment with 340 participants was conducted on the corridor Zoetermeer The Hague, where participants would receive a reward between 3 and 7 euros when they would avoid the morning peak period (7h30-9h30) by car (i.e., if they were not registered by cameras or detected using on-board units on the road). Instead of a monetary reward, participants could save up points for receiving a free smart phone with route information. All routes between the two cities were monitored, therefore changing route would not lead to a reward. Considerable changes in departure time were observed, mainly to earlier periods. Again, a more detailed discussion on the choice behaviour will be given in the paper. The paper will present a synthesis of these three studies. In particular, conclusions will be drawn regarding the types and magnitude of the behavioural responses, depending on the design of each study. Elements such as the height of the reward, the allowed responses (e.g. route change or not) and the duration of the measure will be take into account. Additional issues will concern options on the side of the traveller, such as work time flexibility, household obligations but also length of the commute trip.

Evaluation of the Benefits of Innovative Management and Operations
Session Number: 9, 15:30 - 17:30

Evaluation of the Benefits of Active Traffic Management Schemes using Microsimulation Programming
M Millard, Mott MacDonald, UK; P Unwin, Highways Agency, UK A key problem on British roads is the high level of traffic demand, which promises a steady increase into the future. A cost effective, intelligent and efficient way to ease the problems that this causes is to implement Active Traffic Management (ATM) onto the strategic highway network. ATM works by reacting to traffic conditions on the highway and changing driver behaviour according to these conditions. This involves increasing the capacity of roads during peak periods by using variable speed limits and hard-shoulder running, similar that undertaken on the M42 in the West Midlands.. The variable speed limits are triggered by a combination of flow and speed measurements at specific loop sites along the carriageway, which are processed by the MIDAS congestion control algorithm to provide suitable signals on gantries and signs in the surrounding area. The hard-shoulder is used as a live lane when the speed limit drops to a specified value. The status of the hard-shoulder is indicated on gantry signals allowing drivers to use the extra capacity and ease congestion on other lanes. ATM congestion control has been successfully implemented on the M25 and M42, and is subsequently being rolled-out around the Birmingham Box. This paper provides an insight into the design and construction of a Microsimulation model to simulate the implementation of ATM on the M6 J4-J5. The study uses a base model constructed in VISSIM and controlled by a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) program. The VBA program extracts speed and flow data from the model every minute during the simulation run. It runs this data through an algorithm to simulate MIDAS congestion control and then feeds back the results of this into the model. The inputs back into the model from the algorithm are speed limits at signal locations and the status of hardshoulder running in the vicinity of the signal. These inputs affect the model run by opening/closing the hardshoulder, changing vehicle speeds and also providing a visual representation of the signal display on the

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road. There are a number of challenges when constructing the base model and these are outlined below: The base model needs to replicate observed driving conditions and correct driver behaviour for an ATM motorway. This includes merging / diverging directly to / from the hard-shoulder when this is a live lane. It outlines the logic and assumptions behind the VBA program controlling the model, explains the observed data (flow, speed and journey time) used in the base model and the need for extra observations of speed data for the simulation of ATM. The purpose of the model is to highlight the congestion and travel time benefits of applying ATM and to pinpoint locations where these benefits are most evident. The model acts as a visualisation tool for observing the traffic effects of Variable Speed Limits and Hard-Shoulder Running. Further uses of the model include testing the impact of changes in the design of the ATM measures such as revising the locations of loops and VMS, the length of weaving sections, the use of through-junction hard-shoulder running, the positioning of Emergency Refuge Areas and the flow and speed thresholds at which ATM is triggered.

Modelling of Dynamic Hard Shoulder Running in the National Transport Model
M Jay, Department for Transport, UK Following from the success of a trial section of HSR on the Motorway network near Birmingham, the UK Department for Transport announced in October 2007 that the Department would perform a feasibility study of the potential for installing advanced signalling and traffic management systems on a wider scale, across the strategic road network, to be published in the spring of 2008. Due to its geographic scope The Departments National Transport Model was selected as being suitable to undertake such strategic modelling work however; in order to allow the modelling of dynamic HSR some bespoke development effort was required. The requirement involved providing dynamic increases to the capacity of individual links to mimic the impact of HSR activation during individual time periods, in response to forecast increases in demand. The increases in capacity were also linked to a special HSR speed flow curve which limited traffic speeds to 60mph during periods of HSR activation. Following the successful completion of this up-grade the NTM was used to analyse a number of capacity enhancement scenarios and produce a business case for extending the use of HSR across over 400km of the English Motorway network. The results of the feasibility study were published in March 2008. Since then the Department has been developing a more detailed programme for the rollout of HSR across the Motorway network and this resulted in the announcement in, January 2009, of a programme of investment of up to £6 billion. This includes plans for the provision of over 550 Lane Km of capacity through the use of dynamic Hard Shoulder Running. This paper first discusses how dynamic HSR is modelled in the NTM, including details of the capacity and speed flow assumptions used. It then describes the methods used to generate a programme of schemes and the key messages and results of the feasibility study. Finally, it presents traffic, congestion and CO2 results from the analysis performed earlier this year comparing HSR with conventional widening on the announced major schemes programme.

An investigation into the demand for Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems in the United Kingdom
S Hess, K Chorlton, S Jamson, M Wardman, ITS, University of Leeds UK Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) is a system which uses information and communications technology to provide speed limit information on a vehicles dashboard. The typical means to do this is with a digital road map of the kind used in satellite navigation systems, but with the important difference that it also contains speed limit data for very road. When the map is combined with current position information from a GPS

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(Global Positioning System) receiver, then the ISA system can display the speed limit and warn the driver if the vehicle is being driven above the speed limit. This is advisory ISA. The same information about speed limit can be linked to the vehicles engine management system to provide voluntary (overridable) ISA or even mandatory (non-overridable) ISA. This paper reports on a recent UK study looking at how to encourage increased demand for ISA systems. Specifically, we made use of a Stated Choice (SC) survey which presents respondents with a number of scenarios, each time involving the choice between a voluntary and a mandatory system. Given the results of initial focus groups, different survey designs were created for three types of vehicle purchaser. The first group contained those respondents likely to buy a mandatory ISA system, where these drivers received a SC survey where both systems were offered at a cost to the driver. The second group contained those respondents likely to buy a voluntary system, where these drivers were required to pay for voluntary system but received incentives to buy a mandatory system. The final group contained those respondents unlikely to buy either system, where both systems were offered with discounts and incentives to encourage drivers to purchase an ISA vehicle. Factors influencing decisions to buy that were investigated were purchase price, insurance discount and annual tax discount. Incentives to use voluntary ISA that were studied were a fuel rebate or cash back on a drivers insurance premium for every mile travelled with the system activated. A total of 1,487 interviews were carried out across Great Britain in randomly selected areas and at addresses randomly selected within each area. Only one driver was interviewed per household. The data collected using the different surveys were analysed using state-of-the-art discrete choice models, allowing for the anticipated large variations in preferences across respondents. The analysis showed that, as expected, the main differences were between the three groups already identified prior to the administration of the survey questionnaire. However, even within the groups, there were major variations such that models of choice between the two systems performed much better when sub-classes within the groups were considered. The final picture emerging from our study is one of some groups with very entrenched positions (both pro and con) who are not really amenable to persuasion by means of incentives. On the other hand, there are other groups who are amenable to subsidy, particularly on purchase price and fuel cost, or who would be willing to purchase an ISA system if the cost were not too high. It is interesting to note that the analysis revealed that, while there are very significant variations in sensitivities and preferences, these cannot easily be linked to socio-demographic attributes of the respondents. Thus it is not necessarily the case that young male respondents have a strong objection to ISA while older respondents with more expensive cars have a more positive attitude.

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Description: Seminar Roads Policy, Delivery and Operation