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Dr. Ilene Ringler's Dissertation - Values Satisfaction and Participation in a Community Leadership Program

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					VALUES SATISFACTION AND PARTICIPATION IN A COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP PROGRAM: A CASE STUDY

by Ilene Ringler

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership

UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX February 2008

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© 2008 by Ilene Ringler ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

VALUES SATISFACTION AND PARTICIPATION IN A COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP PROGRAM: A CASE STUDY

Ilene Ringler

February 19,2008
Approved:

Accepted and Signed: airperson Accepted and Signe

Dean, School of Advanced Studies University of Phoenix

ABSTRACT Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing. The case study supported by a mixed method data gathering process, analyzed the relationship of personal values satisfaction and participation in the Valley Leadership program. Quantitative data was gathered through completion of the Life Values Inventory (LVI). Qualitative data was gathered through focus groups and artifacts review. Community leadership development programs should create a set of foundational core values and integrate them into all program elements. Program participants should create an individual personal values profile to use as a planning tool for increased satisfaction with program activities and build leadership capability.

v DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated to my family and friends who have supported me throughout this journey. The first person I need to thank is my wonderful husband Charlie. His support over these last few years has been the bedrock upon which I was able to build the path for my doctoral journey. His unwavering interest in my classes, papers, and ideas were inspiring for me. Alternatively his ability to provide the occasional kick in the right places kept me motivated and on track. My family also deserves a round of applause for their support and enthusiasm. My mother, Pearlene, dad, Sol, sister Carol, brother David and their families were with me every step of the way, cheering me on, and letting me know how proud they were of me. Finally, friends both old and new were always asking, “So, are you Doctor Ringler, yet? Keep up the good work, we are with you all of the way!” I will be thinking of all of them and the significant role they played in my success as I walk down the aisle to complete my journey.

vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This dissertation is dedicated to the special people in my life who have supported my decision to complete my doctoral studies. To my team members Dr. Carolyn DeLeon, Dr. William Hubbell, Eli Reiter, and Dr. Carolyn Schreeder, each of whom I was fortunate to meet during my first residency, thank you for all your encouragement and support. These team members will be on my team for the rest of my life! I am appreciative of the encouragement, support, guidance, caring, and concern provided by my doctoral mentor, Dr. Sandy Kolberg. Without her support, advice and overall wisdom during this journey, the path would have not have been as smooth as it was. My dissertation committee members, Dr. Kymn Harvin Rutigliano, and Dr. George Graham were always there with timely and valuable feedback, for which I thank them from the bottom of my heart. I am obliged to Dr. Brenda Nelson-Porter, Chief Executive Officer of Brigette’s Technology Consulting and Research Firm, for her expertise in APA editing, qualitative research, and data analysis.

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................ xii LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................xiii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 4 Problem Statement .............................................................................................................. 7 Purpose................................................................................................................................ 8 Significance of the Study .................................................................................................... 9 Significance of Study Contributions..................................................................... 10 Significance of Study to Leadership ..................................................................... 11 Nature of the Study ........................................................................................................... 13 Hypothesis and Research Questions ................................................................................. 18 Theoretical Framework..................................................................................................... 19 Definitions......................................................................................................................... 21 Assumptions...................................................................................................................... 23 Scope, Limitations, and Delimitations.............................................................................. 24 Scope..................................................................................................................... 24 Limitations ............................................................................................................ 24 Delimitations......................................................................................................... 25 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 25 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................................... 26 Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Documentation....................................... 26

viii Historical Overview .......................................................................................................... 30 Values ................................................................................................................... 30 Leaders and Leadership ........................................................................................ 39 Team Formation.................................................................................................... 45 Communities in Transition ................................................................................... 48 Current Findings ............................................................................................................... 51 Communities of Practice....................................................................................... 52 Community Leadership Programs ........................................................................ 59 Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth-Overview......................................... 70 Phase 1: Growth through Creativity and the Crisis of Leadership ................................... 75 Phase 2: Growth through Direction and the Crisis of Autonomy..................................... 77 Phase 3: Growth through Delegation and the Crisis of Control ....................................... 81 Phase 4: Growth through Coordination and the Crisis of Red Tape................................. 82 Phase 5: Growth through Coordination and the Crisis of? ............................................... 84 Conclusions....................................................................................................................... 85 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 88 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS .......................................................................... 90 Research Methodology ..................................................................................................... 90 Research Method .................................................................................................. 90 Design Appropriateness ........................................................................................ 92 Hypothesis and Research Questions ................................................................................. 93 Population, Sampling, and Data Collection Procedures and Rationale ............................ 94 Population ............................................................................................................. 94

ix Sampling ............................................................................................................... 96 Informed Consent, Confidentiality, and Geographic Location............................. 98 Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 99 Validity ........................................................................................................................... 105 Internal Validity .................................................................................................. 106 External Validity................................................................................................. 108 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................. 109 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 111 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS........................................ 113 Data Collection and Analysis Processes ......................................................................... 114 Data Collection ................................................................................................... 115 Data Analysis Methodology ............................................................................... 116 Data Results, Interpretation, and Initial Conclusions ..................................................... 117 Data Analysis and Results of Valley Leadership Board of Directors, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group.......................................................................................................... 118 Data Analysis and Results for Program Participants from the 2006-2007 Program Year, Subgroup 2, Actual Study ......................................................................... 149 Response to Research Questions 1-3 .............................................................................. 164 Research Questions 1-3....................................................................................... 164 Subgroup 1 and Subgroup 2................................................................................ 167 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 171 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS... 173 Conclusions..................................................................................................................... 174

x Core Values Profile Creation and Integration..................................................... 175 Individual Values Profile Creation and Leadership Development ..................... 180 Implications..................................................................................................................... 181 Recommendations........................................................................................................... 183 Integrating a Core Values Profile into Strategic Planning Efforts...................... 184 Integrating a Values Profile Throughout All Valley Leadership Program Elements ............................................................................................................................. 185 Increase Personal Leadership Opportunities Using a Core Values Profile......... 189 Areas for Future Research .............................................................................................. 191 Organizational Growth and Leadership Skills.................................................... 191 Team Structure and Leadership Skills ................................................................ 193 Study Applicability to Corporate Leadership Development............................... 196 Summary ......................................................................................................................... 198 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 202 APPENDIX A: LIFE VALUES INVENTORY (LVI)................................................... 223 APPENDIX B: VALLEY LEADERSHIP PROGRAM................................................. 227 APPENDIX C: PARTICIPATION LETTER................................................................. 251 APPENDIX D: PARTICIPATION AGREEMENT....................................................... 253 APPENDIX E: LETTER FROM BOARD OF DIRECTOR CHAIR ............................ 255 APPENDIX F: LADY OF LETTERS, INC., CONFIDENTIALITY ............................ 257 APPENDIX G: AGENDA FOR FOCUS GROUP......................................................... 259 APPENDIX H: LETTER OF COLLABORATION....................................................... 268 APPENDIX I: PERMISSION TO USE PREMISES ..................................................... 270

xi APPENDIX J: RAW AND SORTED RESULTS TABLES .......................................... 272 APPENDIX K: PILOT STUDY ..................................................................................... 277 APPENDIX L: RAW DATA FROM ARTIFACT ANALYSIS .................................... 353 APPENDIX M: MERGED TRANSCRIPTS FROM ACTUAL STUDY FOCUS GROUPS......................................................................................................................... 365 APPENDIX N: ACTUAL STUDY ANALYSIS BY VALUE ...................................... 392 APPENDIX O: PERMISSIONS FOR TABLES AND FIGURES................................. 469

xii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Research Questions.............................................................................................. 19 Table 2 Summary of Major Database Search Results ...................................................... 28 Table 3 Comparison of Values Models............................................................................. 34 Table 4 Challenges to Community Leadership Program Growth .................................... 68 Table 5 Sorted Data Results from Board of Director, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group, LVI Survey by Primary Values............................................................................................... 120 Table 6 Summary of Responses to RQ1 and RQ2- Most/Least Satisfy Values, Code Frequency and Example Data - Pilot Study ................................................................... 131 Table 7 Summary of Artifacts Analysis........................................................................... 138 Table 8 Trend Comparison for Primary Values-- Pilot Study........................................ 143 Table 9 Summary of Responses to RQ1 and RQ2 – Actual Study- Sorted by Primary Value ............................................................................................................................... 152 Table 10 Trend Data from Program Element – Program Days ..................................... 156 Table 11 Trend Data from Program Element – Tours ................................................... 157 Table 12 Trend Data from Program Element - Group Projects..................................... 157 Table 13 Trend Data from Program Element - Retreat.................................................. 158 Table 14 Trend Data from Program Element - Other Program Events ......................... 159 Table 15 Raw Data Results from Board of Director, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group, LVI Survey Completion...................................................................................................................... 273 Table 16 Raw Data Results from 2006-2007 Program Year Participants, Subgroup 2, Actual Study, LVI Survey Completion............................................................................. 275

xiii Table 17 Sorted Data Result from 2006-2007 Program Year Participants, Subgroup 2, Actual Study, LVI Survey Completion by Primary Values............................................ 276

xiii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Types of Study Designs .................................................................................... 16 Figure 2. Forms of Data Collection in Survey Research.................................................. 16 Figure 3. Comparison of Team Types.............................................................................. 54 Figure 4. Growth Stages of Communities of Practice...................................................... 57 Figure 5. How Companies Grow...................................................................................... 74

1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The challenges facing present-day leaders both in the corporate and community arenas are significantly more complex than those seen during the early 1900s when Taylor, Fayol, and Weber conducted their pioneering organizational effectiveness work during the beginning of the industrial age. Mass production was taking the place of small shops run by family members and the need for skilled management was outstripping the available supply (Saslow, 2005; Spalding, 2003). The growth of a global economy has continued, presenting increasingly complex challenges to leaders of all organizations. Friedman and Lambert (2002) cited the effect of the internet and its impact on business growth and stated, “It is quite evident that the World Wide Web and the rise of the global economy will change the way business is conducted and will affect many firms” (¶ 1). The results of changes brought about by the industrial revolution now reveals itself in the contemporary business model which is global and multinational, employees come with differing cultural perspectives on work and family life balance, and cycle time for new product development and launch has decreased. Continuous change brought about by the global economy and other socioeconomic factors were acknowledged by Vaill (1996, 1997), who introduced the idea of permanent white water, a metaphor indicating the world is on a rapid rollercoaster of continuous change. The rapid changes in business and socioeconomic changes in the current business climate underscored the need to continue the study of leadership and how it contributed to organizational and community growth. The emergence and rapid growth of the Internet age and global economy have changed the lives and work of many American communities. Kretzmann and McKnight (1993) offered urban centers have lost industrial

2 jobs, creating an employment vacuum for individuals who have relied on this steady employment for existence. Companies that were large-scale employers in the United States have implemented off-shoring programs to reduce costs and increase profit. The jobs lost to this effort have encompassed the entire spectrum of corporate life. Guglielmo (2004) stated, “According to Gartner research, 5% of IT jobs have gone overseas, and 25% will be ‘offshored’ by 2010” (¶ 1). The boomer generation, born between the years of 1946 - 1964, represent a large percentage of the population and their life choices impact community life. The Harvard School of Public Health–MetLife Foundation’s (2004) study referenced U.S. Census projections that by 2025 one quarter of the population, 65 million people, will range in age from 61-79. Many retirees choose to live in multiple locations, contributing to the transient population demographic and increasing the burden on local social services. Hogan and Steinnes (1996) cited these mobile seniors as snowbirds, northern residents who spend a substantial amount of time in warmer climates during winter months, and sunbirds, southern or southwestern residents who move to cooler climates during the summer months. Changes in the socioeconomic structure of today’s communities indicated the need for increased leadership (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Putnam, 2002; Saslow, 2005; Spalding, 2003). Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Saslow, 2005; Williams, 2001). Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio,

3 2003; Hiyane-Brown, 2003; Pigg, 2001; Spalding, 2003). Since the inception of the first documented program in Philadelphia in 1959 (Moore, 1998), increasing numbers of communities are creating and supporting these programs, with over 1000 in the United States and additional programs in Great Britain, Canada and Australia (Galloway, 1997). Young (2002) summarized the case for supporting community leadership growth by concluding in today’s changing climate, the leadership programs are more important than in any time in history to help communities integrate new residents, solve increasingly complex challenges, and promote diversity. Participants choose to enter these programs for many reasons. The desire to satisfy personal values may be a deciding factor in this choice. Researchers (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Argandona, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 1999, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; McLelland, 2000; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003) believed people of all ages use values as a basis for both personal and professional life choices and support the viewpoint personal values do have an important role in determining actions and goal setting. Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) stated a perfunctory research of values yielded a large number of definitions, but posited there are common features, “According to the literature, values are (a) concepts or beliefs, (b) about desirable end states or behaviors, (c) that transcend specific situations, (d) guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events, and (e) are ordered by relative importance” (p. 551), a position supported by other researchers (Aliotta, 2002; Brown & Crace, 1996, 1999, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Rokeach, 1968-1969). Currently there is little research on why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from a personal values satisfaction perspective. To

4 understand the relationship between values satisfaction and an individual’s participation in a community leadership program, Chapter 1 presents an overview of a single case study. The program selected for study is one program based in Phoenix, Arizona, the Valley Leadership program. The mixed methods data gathering approach was employed to gain an understanding of how the need to satisfy personal values is related to participation in a community leadership program. The remainder of Chapter 1 describes the research topic in more detail. Background Historically, United States citizenry have participated in civic and community engagement and leadership activities (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Hiyane-Brown, 2003). Spaulding (2003) noted “From the birth of the nation until the late twentieth century, families raised their sons to become leaders of the community, business, church and society” (p. 1). Chase (2001) cited Schaffer and Anundsen (1993) who described these communities as traditional and functional as relationships were based in large part on blood ties and location. The success of community building processes in the past rested in large part on members remaining within the community for long periods, or lasting multiple generations. The Community Leadership Association (2006) defined communities as interdependent groups who lived in proximity and relied on each other for essential goods and services. Scott (2003) named these groups collectivities and defined them as participants seeking frameworks that support shared activities, interactions, sentiments, knowledge exchange, and networking. These stable and homogeneous populations with similar value systems, created a community history knowledge base which served as guidelines for decision-making, and a foundation for

5 developing future community leaders, thereby increasing social capital. Putnam, Feldman and Cohen (2003) described social capital as “developing networks of relationships that weave individuals into groups and communities” (p. 1). Over the last few decades, community life has changed for a variety of reasons including the global economy, urban sprawl, virtual communication advances, an increase of two-career families (Elman, 2005), local community jobs lost to off-shoring efforts (Kadzik, 2006), and a rise in transient populations (Passel, 2006). Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Galloway, 1997; Saslow, 2005; Williams, 2001). Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown, 2003; Pigg, 2001; Spalding, 2003). Since the inception of the first documented community leadership program in Philadelphia in 1959 (Moore, 1998), increasing numbers of communities are creating and supporting these community leadership programs, with over 1000 programs in the United States and additional programs in Great Britain, Canada and Australia (Galloway, 1997). Young (2002) summarized the case for supporting community leadership growth by concluding in today’s changing climate, leadership programs are more important than in any time in history to help communities integrate new residents, solve increasingly complex challenges, and promote diversity.

6 Community leadership programs show a strong relationship to an organizational type researchers have named a community of practice (Bonasia, 2004; Hung, Chee, Hedberg & Seng, 2005; Uddin, 2005; van Winkelen, 2003; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000). Wenger (2007) stated, “Communities of Practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly” (¶ 1). Communities of practice at the corporate level are composed of and led by employees, and supported with resources in the form of time, training dollars, equipment, and formal sponsorship. These groups, similar to those collectivities cited by Scott, need leadership to survive and thrive. “Whether these communities arise spontaneously or come together through seeding and nurturing, their development ultimately depends on internal leadership” (Wenger, 1998, p. 31). The need to identify, groom, and train leaders who can fulfill important roles at the local community level has become critical (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Chase, 2001; Galloway, 1997; Saslow, 2005). A review of the current literature revealed little research on why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from personal values satisfaction perspective. Personal values play a large role in personal decision-making (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Krishnan, 2001; Leichtentritt & Rettig, 2001; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003). If the community leadership program managers are to continue identifying and grooming future community leaders, then studying the link between personal values and program participation may produce a valuable tool to increase program effectiveness. Looking at the roles of leadership and values fulfillment from the participants

7 within a community-based leadership program may provide information to the fields of formal leadership as well as self-leadership. Specific applications of this research may include program design and development, recruitment processes and fund raising efforts. Additional benefits of this research will be applicable to corporate communities of practice and corporate leadership development programs. Galloway’s (1997) research showed participation in community leadership programs gave participants a chance to improve their leadership skills at both the local community level as well as in the workplace, where the leadership skills gained within the program were applied on-thejob. Problem Statement While America’s metropolitan areas are indicators of economic growth and prosperity, there are problems surfacing which threaten long-term societal viability (Altshuler, Morrill, Wolman & Mitchell, 1999). The cause of the problems may rest with immense economic shifts including the decline of industrial jobs and the rise of more professional jobs, which require higher levels of education, levels which the current population, especially those from low income areas might not possess (Kretzmann & McKnight, 1993). Thus, changes in the socioeconomic structure of today’s communities indicate the need for increased leadership (Earnest, 1996; Putnam, 2002). The problem this study addressed is citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Chase, 2001; Saslow, 2005). Program managers of community leadership programs are working toward decreasing this gap by developing and implementing programs which encourage

8 individuals to take a greater community leadership role (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Williams, 2001). The goal of the single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The case study methodology was based on the premise the case study method may help researchers study a unique individual or organizational situation in a detailed and intense manner, and may produce results which are a source of new thoughts and hypothesis (Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; Yin, 1989a). The mixed methods data gathering approach provides a better understanding of the research problem than one type of data alone (Creswell, 2005). Purpose The purpose of this single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction and participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Yin (1989a) cited Schramm (1971) in defining the case study method attempts to shed light on decisions people make, why the decisions are made and what the results of those decisions are. This research project fulfills this criterion because the study is founded on an individual’s decision to enter and remain in a community leadership program based on a need to satisfy personal values. The single case study was designed using a one group post test only design. A one shot case study method requires only one group receive treatment and post test (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; Yin, 1989a). The case study focused

9 on and collected data from one group, those students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The current mixed methods data gathering approach was selected to analyze multiple data types. Creswell (2005) explained mixed methods are processes used to collect, link and analyze qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The quantitative data was obtained using a self-administered, validated, web-enabled values clarification survey instrument, the Life Values Inventory (LVI; Crace, 2006) (Appendix A). The LVI contains both a rating and ranking methodology for determining personal values, which promotes holistic thinking in the decision making process (Almeida & Pinto, 2003). Qualitative data was gathered through focus groups to gain a greater understanding of quantitative responses in relationship to values satisfaction with the experiences in this program. Additional data gathering was completed through the review of artifacts (Leedy, 1997), including program related text materials. Significance of the Study The need to groom leaders who can support organizational and community success is increasing due to a variety of factors. Continuous change brought about by the global economy and other socioeconomic factors are acknowledged by Vaill (1996, 1997), who introduced the idea of permanent white water, a metaphor indicating the world is on a rapid rollercoaster of continuous change. Contemporary organizations are complex to manage and lead requiring leaders who can engage their followers in shared problem-solving (Bolman & Deal, 2003). Young (2002) summarized the case for supporting community leadership growth by concluding in today’s changing climate, the community leadership programs are more important than in any time in history to help

10 communities integrate new residents, solve increasingly complex challenges, and promote diversity. Significance of Study Contributions Changes in the structure of today’s communities indicate the need for increased leadership (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Earnest, 1996; Putnam, 2002; Saslow, 2005; Spalding, 2003). Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Galloway, 1997; Saslow, 2005; Williams, 2001). Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown, 2003; Pigg, 2001; Spalding, 2003). Community leadership programs are on the rise across the country and world, creating leaders to fulfill community needs (Community Leadership Association, 2006; Galloway, 1997). A review of the current literature revealed little research on why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from personal values satisfaction perspective. Personal values play a large role in personal decision-making (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Krishnan, 2001; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003). Burnett (1990) underscored the economic value of community service and cited 1987 research (Kantrowitz, 1989), whereby citizenry donated 19 billion volunteer hours for a value of approximately $150 billion dollars. Using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation calculator found at the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics

11 Consumer Price Indexes (2006), this total today would exceed $267 billion dollars, representing a 5.6% increase. From a community development perspective, Pigg (2001) stated, “If communities are to create a high quality of life locally, and to compete successfully in the new global social, political, and economic realities, they must invest in the development of their people” (p. 6). If the program managers of community leadership programs are to continue effectively identifying, grooming, and producing leaders to meet growing community requirements, then studying the link between personal values and program participation may produce a valuable tool in determining future steps community leadership programs may take in increasing program effectiveness. Specific applications of this research may include program design and development, recruitment processes, and fund raising efforts. Additional benefits of this research could be applicable to corporate communities of practice and leadership development efforts. Galloway’s (1997) research showed participation in community leadership programs gave participants a chance to improve their leadership skills at both the local community level as well as in the workplace, where the leadership skills gained within the program were applied on-the-job. Significance of Study to Leadership As organizations and communities become more global, how leader’s values work toward creating strong leader follower relationships, what leadership styles are needed to encourage follower performance, and how leadership practices contribute to organizational success have been the subject of many research studies (Bass, 1990a, 1997, 1999; Sorenson, 2002). A review of the current literature revealed little research on why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from

12 personal values satisfaction perspective. If people make choices based on the need to satisfy personal values (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003), then investigating leadership and values fulfillment based on the participants’ actions in the community leadership program may provide information to the fields of formal and self-leadership for both the community-based leadership efforts as well as their corporate counterparts. Hogan and Hogan (1996) supported the need for additional study based on values by explaining if information on personal values or interests is available, a significant opportunity to advise, understand, or manage emerges. Community leadership programs develop leaders and have major costs associated with them from both a resources and hard dollar perspective. Program participation requirements are one example of time and resource costs. Azzam and Riggio (2003) indicated the typical program has a 9-12 month duration, starts with a 2 day introductory retreat, and participants are expected to attend one day long meeting or training day per month. Additional time requirements are defined by the individual program requirements, many of which included a team project which would provide benefit to the community, requiring additional hours by participants outside the monthly meeting format. Program tuition can be significant, adding to the total cost of program participation. The research results indicated tuition costs ranging from $1,000 to $4,500 per participant (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Galloway, 1997). Many participants attend these programs in addition to their full-time roles in other jobs (Galloway 1997). Burnett’s (1990) study of community leadership programs indicated an average of over 90% of participants were employed during the program timeframes. The numbers presented above show the investment in

13 developing community leaders can be substantive; supporting the premise continued research into the success of these programs is important. Armstrong-Young (1985) asserted research on program success is critical to understand the impact of the community leadership programs. Nature of the Study The results of the case study produced information about personal values and how they have been satisfied by participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. For the study, the need to focus on only one program was based on the premise while similar in vision, community leadership programs have differences and similarities in content and implementation according to location, demographic composition, desired outcomes, participants, and how the program classifies itself. These regional and individual program differences including program curriculum design, operation, and local population needs make multi-program studies difficult (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Fredericks, 1998). This single case study was supported by a mixed methods data gathering methodology, using both qualitative and quantitative data gathering. The case study methodology satisfied the one program element foundational to this study. Researchers agreed the case study method can help researchers study a unique individual or organizational situation in a detailed and intense manner, and may produce results which are a source of new thoughts and hypotheses (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990; Yin, 1989a). The mixed methods data gathering process was used to gather both quantitative

14 and qualitative data. “The goal of mixed methods research is not to replace either of these approaches but rather to draw from the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of both in single research studies and across studies” (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004, p. 14). The quantitative data gathering was conducted through a validated, web-enabled, selfadministered survey instrument, the LVI. The qualitative data gathering was completed through the use of focus groups and the review of artifacts (Leedy, 1997). Creswell (2005) discussed two different types of survey designs, longitudinal and cross-sectional. “Survey researchers use cross-sectional designs to collect data about current attitudes, opinions, or beliefs. Longitudinal designs are used to study individuals over time” (p. 355). Figure 1 shows the relationship between these two study types. As seen in Figure 1 the cross-sectional approach was well suited for the purpose because the data was being gathered from the total population within the one program under study. Neuman (2003) posited, “Most sociological research takes a snapshot approach to the social world. In cross-sectional research, researchers observe at one point in time” (p. 31). Salkind (2003) stated cross-sectional research is less expensive than longitudinal due to short timeframes. The cross-sectional surveying approach was adopted for both qualitative and quantitative data gathering processes. Data gathering processes produced both quantitative and qualitative results using surveys (see Figure 2). Participants completed the LVI questionnaire to complete the quantitative data gathering process, and focus groups were conducted as a surveying methodology to gather qualitative data.

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Figure 1. Types of Study Designs

From: “Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (2nd. ed.)” by J. W. Creswell, 2002, p. 360. Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. Reprinted with permission of the author (Appendix O).

Figure 2. Forms of Data Collection in Survey Research
From: “Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (2nd. ed.)” by J. W. Creswell, 2002, p. 360. Copyright 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. Reprinted with permission of the author (Appendix O)..

17 Survey instruments according to Neuman (2003) are widely used and “give the researcher a picture of what many people think or report doing” (p. 35). Survey research can provide valuable data in a study but there are pitfalls which must be recognized and addressed to ensure data reliability and participant safety, specifically issues with the survey design and individual question development, leading to unreliable data. The quantitative survey instrument selected for this research, the LVI is a validated and tested instrument, reducing the possibility of bias or error in question design. A second problem with questionnaires deals with the participants’ need to feel they can safely answer the questions with no fear of recrimination. Salkind (2003) cited the benefit of a self-administered questionnaire in response to this issue, “People may be more willing to be truthful because their anonymity is virtually guaranteed” (p. 140). Survey administrators need to ensure participants are not coerced in any way to take the survey questionnaire and gain participant informed consent prior to survey participation. The LVI, a web-enabled survey instrument, was self-administered, supporting the need for anonymity. The case study methodology was an effective process because it fulfilled the requirements of the study, using one program, studied within a confined period. Yin (1989a) stated there are six sources of evidence or data that can be used in a case study, “documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant-observation and physical artifacts” (p. 85). The potential population or group for this study was those students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Additional data gathering was completed

18 through the review of artifact collections (Leedy, 1997). This data was used for analysis purposes in satisfying the research questions. The mixed methods process of gathering data provided the information needed to answer the research questions. The quantitative data gathering completed through the administration of the LVI presented the numerical information needed for frequency analysis, and provided the foundation for the qualitative data gathering efforts, focus groups. Quantitative data collection method. The web link to the Life Values Inventory (LVI), a web-enabled, self-administered survey (Crace, 2006) was sent to consenting participants simultaneously with completion instructions using the email addresses supplied by the Valley Leadership program administrative staff. Salkind (2003) stated self-administered questionnaires are a time saving device for the investigator because individuals can complete them with no direct assistance from the investigator. Qualitative data collection method. The qualitative data was gathered primarily though the use of focus groups. Salkind (2003) explained focus groups have four main functions; information gathering from large groups of people in a short timeframe, insight generation into areas previously not understood, knowledge gathering by researchers on how group members reach decisions, and the creation of an environment which encourages group interaction. Additional qualitative data was gathered through the examination of program relevant text-based materials (Leedy, 1997). Hypothesis and Research Questions Values can be the foundation of decision-making for many life activities (Aliotta, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Leichtentritt & Rettig, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002;

19 Mosconi & Emmett, 2003). This single case study supported by a mixed methods data gathering process assessed values satisfaction experienced by program participants during their association with a Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program and answer the following questions; Table 1 Research Questions

1.What are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy? 2. What are the values profiles of the participants? 3. Which program elements satisfied the participants values and why? 4. How can community leadership programs incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles?

Theoretical Framework Researchers (Avolio, Bass & Dong, 1999; Bass, 1990a, 1997, 1999; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1958) have focused for many years on leadership and its relationship to organizational growth and success. Values and how leaders use them in supporting organizational performance, culture building, and determining the correct application of transformational and transactional styles is a prominent topic (Aliotta, 2002; Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Collins, 2001; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998; Posner & Schmidt, 1992). The leader’s values permeate organizational structures and work processes and management needs to understand what values are important to followers in order to identify what will

20 cause them to be willing to work towards satisfying shared objectives (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Collins, 2001; Krishnan, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Lencioni, 2002). Posner and Schmidt (1992) stated, “Interest in managerial values is stronger today as the nation’s businesses have recognized the importance of corporate culture and how shared values (alignment between personal and organizational values) make a difference” (p. 80). Argandona (2003) posited company values, which are an extension of leader’s values, are a basic structural foundation that will support company growth and increase long-term success. One of the leader’s roles is to ensure the work culture, values, systems, and processes are in concert with the value systems of the employees who will implement the goals and plans supporting organizational growth. Krishnan’s (2001) study used the Rokeach (1973) values instrument to determine the values profile for transformational leaders, hypothesizing transformational leaders will give greater importance to the terminal values of a world at peace and equality, and the instrumental values of honest and responsible. The data analysis supported Krishnan’s hypothesis and concluded the work supported the basic premise of Burns (1978) in linking transformational leadership to moral leadership. Other researchers’ work supported these results. Bass (1999) cited Williams (1994), “transformational leaders display more citizenship behaviors such as altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue, as well as imbue their subordinates with these same values” (p. 12). The study of personal values and what role they serve in an individual’s choice to enter a community leadership program may produce valuable information in determining how leaders can be better prepared to support community growth and social capital building. Schaffer and Anundsen (1993), as cited in Chase (2001), stated the functional

21 community of the past has been replaced by a more inclusive and change ready model, one where people engage in community activities to find satisfaction with shared values of other community members. An inclusive and change ready model is closely aligned to the communities of practice model. “Communities of Practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly” (Wenger, 2007, ¶ 1). Lesser and Stork (2001) offered communities of practice build social capital because individuals perceive themselves as part of a network. Community members develop a sense of trust for other members and have common interests or shared understanding of issues facing the organization. Community leadership programs are a form of community of practice. “These leadership development efforts differ in sponsorship and format, but their goals are the same--to create an active network of informed, concerned citizens to guide the future and growth of their community into the 21st century” (The Community Leadership Association, 2006, ¶ 2). Community leadership programs are growing in numbers across the United States and the world, ensuring the new leaders emerge from the programs ready to serve the community and build social capital (Galloway, 1997). A research study in the area of community leadership may add to the knowledge base about leadership and the role values play in corporate and community leadership. Definitions To further clarify the proposed case study, a list of definitions is presented to provide a common understanding. The following terms or phrases and their accompanying operational definitions are listed in alphabetical order:

22 Community or Civic Leadership Programs: “Civic Leadership programs are formal leadership development programs sponsored by local community agencies with the aim of training future and current leaders in the skills necessary to serve their communities” (Azzam & Riggio, 2003, p. 1). Community or Civic Leadership Program Management: The staff, whether paid or volunteer who manage the community leadership program process and activities. This can include program directors, course and curriculum developers, program trainers and board of director members (Azzam & Riggio, 2003). Community of Practice: “A sustained social network of individuals who share a common set of core values and knowledge, including a past history, grounded on common practices” (Hung, Chee, Hedberg & Seng, 2005, ¶ 2). Homogenous Population: “In homogeneous sampling the researcher purposefully samples individuals or sites based on membership in a subgroup which has defining characteristics” (Creswell, 2005, p. 206). The homogeneous population for this study was students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Leadership: The focus of group processes, as a matter of personality and inducing compliance, as the exercise of influence, particular behaviors, form of persuasion, power relation, an instrument to achieve goals, an effect of interaction, differentiated role, initiation of structure, and many combinations of these definitions (Bass, 1999b). Subgroups: Subgroups are created when the investigator would like to gain additional information about the population (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003). The subgroups for this study were the current Valley Leadership program Board of

23 Directors, subgroup 1, and the program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2. Transactional leadership: “Transactional leadership refers to the exchange relationship between leader and follower to meet their own self- interests” (Bass, 1999a, p. 10). Transformational leadership: “Transformational leadership refers to the leader moving the follower beyond immediate self-interests through idealized influence (charisma), inspiration, intellectual stimulation, or individualized consideration” (Bass, 1999a, p. 11). Values: “According to the literature, values are (a) concepts or beliefs, (b) about desirable end states or behaviors, (c) that transcend specific situations, (d) guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events, and (e) are ordered by relative importance” (Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987, p. 550). Assumptions Assumptions are conditions “taken for granted, without which the research situation would be impossible” (Leedy, 1997, p. 8). Based on the nature of this study, the following assumptions were made about the research, participants, and results. It was assumed the Valley Leadership program, based in Phoenix, Arizona was the target organization. It was also assumed the participants would agree to participate in large enough numbers to constitute a significant study. The final assumption rested on the premise the LVI, the chosen values clarification instrument, could be procured and administered to the participants via the Internet, and all individual response data would be

24 saved in the secure databases of the LVI creator, Applied Psychology Resources, who agreed to store the data and supply only trend data to the investigator. Scope, Limitations, and Delimitations Scope The scope of the study was limited to the participants in a Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program. The study’s findings are generalizable in the following areas: values and corresponding actions within a self-leadership context, how leadership program events impact participant actions in the pursuit of values fulfillment. The results may also be used for other community leadership programs with a desire to measure the impact of values on their program participants and within a corporate context as they try to create values based leadership programs within their environments. Limitations The case study was selected as an overall framework supported by the criteria the study focused on a single setting or event where comprehensive data gathering could be conducted (Creswell, 2005; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division. 1990, 1991; Yin, 1989a). The single setting or event in the case study were consenting participants in the Valley Leadership program. Anyone choosing not to participate in this study was excluded as participation was voluntary. The study was limited to this participant group. Any changes to the participating group would have the possibility of producing different results than those seen in this case study. In the event Valley Leadership program, based in Phoenix, Arizona, the target organization does not culminate in a formal study, other organizations in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, or New Hampshire agreed to participate.

25 Delimitations Two delimiters for the case study were the focus on one program and participants who were members of the community-based leadership program. The need to focus on one community leadership program was based on the premise while similar in vision, community leadership programs have similarities and differences in content and implementation dictated by location, demographic composition, desired outcomes, participants, and how the program is classified. The regional and individual program differences including program curriculum design, operation, and local population needs make multi-program studies difficult (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Fredericks, 1998). Summary Chapter 1 presented an overview for the single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process. The case study purpose was to understand what values based needs encouraged participants to join and maintain membership in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Chapter 1 introduced the research topic, background, and problem and purpose statements and described the organization of the study including conceptual framework and research questions. Chapter 2 presents the areas selected for a review of the literature; values, communities of practice, community leadership programs, leadership, and organizational growth, and communities in transition.

26 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of the single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Chapter 2 presents a detailed literature review resulting from research using title searches, articles, research documents, and journals on values, leaders and leadership, team formation, and communities in transition. The Historical Overview section focuses first on values. The values section includes; values definitions, categorization, longevity and measurement. Additional areas covered provide information on how values are related to leaders, teams, and community. Also included in the historical overview section is information on leadership styles, challenges facing presentday leaders, and how leadership values impact organizational performance. Results from research on team formation including types of teams, team formats and structures are presented next. A final section expands on the need for increased leadership in the context of communities in transition. The Current Findings section introduces communities of practice, community leadership programs. Leadership effectiveness and the optimal balance of transactional and transformational style in light of changing organizational conditions is explained within the context of Greiner’s (1972, 1998) model of organizational growth. The Summary and Conclusion section chronicles any relevant findings. Title Searches, Articles, Research Documents, Documentation The span of the literature research encompassed a variety of sources including scholarly journals, websites, training programs, and other doctoral dissertations in this

27 subject. The University of Phoenix, Babson College, and Keller Devry databases were used extensively in the literature review, including EBSCOhost, Infotrac, Oxford Scholarship Online, Proquest, Proquest Digital Dissertations, PsycBOOKS, SAGE FullText Collections, and WorldCat–FirstSearch. Additional sources included relevant websites and homepages of the community leadership programs as well as scholarly texts. Electronic texts supplied by the University of Phoenix rEsource were also consulted for the review.

28 Table 2 Summary of Major Database Search Results Peer Search term reviewed articles Non-peer reviewed Dissertations articles Books

Community Growth and Economic Development

144

2369

133

25

Citizen participation Challenges to growth

909 623

0

133 133

15 57

Community/Civic Leadership Programs History Program elements Measurements Benefits Challenges to future growth

20

540

20

19

Community of Practice

3446

1460

367

696

Leadership

19978

38398

32063

103037

29 Peer Search term reviewed articles Non-peer reviewed Dissertations articles Books

Styles Values Organizational growth

405 285 101

317 540 119

3435 50 13

1963 1244 153

Teams

244974

22014347

14668

33674

Team structures Life spans Effectiveness

19920 164 11051

118018 1154 30835

2115 6 1852

228 7 1297

Values

561

2075

457

3461

Assessment Instruments Definitions Categorizing Decision making

248 192 3 509

98 90 1 160

27 31 1 52

7 21 2 183

30 Historical Overview The case study focused on what values are satisfied by participation in a community leadership program, placing this topic area as the first to be discussed in the review. Researchers (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Argandona, 2003; Connor & Becker, 2003; Crace & Brown, 2002; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003) believed people of all ages use values as a basis for both personal and professional life choices and support the viewpoint personal values do have an important role in determining actions and goal setting processes even if these values are not articulated to others. Values Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) stated a perfunctory research of values yielded a large number of definitions but posited there are common features, “According to the literature, values are (a) concepts or beliefs, (b) about desirable end states or behaviors, (c) that transcend specific situations, (d) guide selection or evaluation of behavior and events, and (e) are ordered by relative importance” (p. 551), a position supported by other researchers (Aliotta, 2002; Brown & Crace,1996, 1999, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; Hague, 1993; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Rokeach, 1968-1969). Schwartz (1994) added values can provide direction and emotional intensity to actions taken, function as standards for justifying action, are acquired through group socialization and individual learning experiences, are transsituational, vary in importance, and serve as guiding principles in life. Brown and Crace’s research (1996) underscored the importance of an individual’s need to find satisfaction with personal values, and how this satisfaction plays a critical role in decision-making regardless of consequences. One case cited involved an antiabortionist who killed a Florida physician with the full knowledge that punishment

31 would follow. Another example involved a respected and well-compensated insurance sales agent who left his job and took on a role in an occupation which helped others because he felt his values were not being satisfied in his work. In light of researcher consensus that values are critical to human decision-making, researchers have sought to find sound scholarly methods of defining individual values, categorizing them, establishing causal relationship links, determining how people use values, either individually or in groups to make decisions and choices, and finally how to measure or assess values for uses in both the academic, personal and work realms. This section of the literature review discusses these topics, including gaps seen in the literature and areas for additional research. Categorizing values. There are many types of values and ways values may be grouped or categorized for research and other purposes, including the development of measurement instruments and practical applications. Schwartz (1994) stated the number of values that can be studied is almost infinite and recommends that there are advantages, both theoretical and practical to creating a limited set of values and values types which can be used to form priorities. Rokeach’s (1973) seminal work defined values according to two parameters, instrumental and terminal (Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004; McLelland, 2000; Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987). Instrumental values in Rokeach’s model examine modes of conduct. Johnston (1995) listed the instrumental values as; “ambition, broadminded, capable, cheerful, clean courageous, forgiving, helpful, honest, imaginative, independent, intellectual, logical, loving, obedient, polite, responsible, and self controlled” (p. 591). Terminal values are preferred end-states of existence. Gibbons and Walker (1993) listed the terminal values as “a comfortable life, an exciting life, a sense of accomplishment, a

32 world at peace, a world of beauty, equality, family security, freedom, happiness, inner harmony, mature love, national security, pleasure, salvation, self- respect, social recognition, true friendship, wisdom” (p. 800). Understanding the distinction is critical as the terminal values answer the question, what do people want to achieve, or the end state of existence, with the instrumental values determining the method of achieving the end state. Maslow’s (1962, 1971) hierarchy of human needs was based in large part on an individual’s desire to satisfy certain physiological and psychological needs to attain a satisfying and healthy life. The hierarchy was cumulative in design, hypothesizing that needs were satisfied in an ascending fashion. Huitt (2004) described the two groupings as deficiency, or lower order, and growth, or higher order. Within the deficiency group, there are four levels; physiological, safety/security, belongingness and love, and esteem. Each need must be satisfied before the next need can be attempted. Huitt (2004) stated Maslow’s original model (1962) contained only one growth need, self-actualization, which described self-actualized people as problem-focused, keeping an ongoing fresh appreciation of life, concerned about personal growth and being able to have peak experiences. Huitt (2004) further cited the addition by Maslow (1971) of another level beyond self-actualization, self-transcendence, and two levels below (Maslow & Lowery, 1998), cognitive and aesthetic. Maslow (1962) posited in order to achieve a high-level of satisfaction in the growth needs hierarchy levels, fulfillment of the B or belonging values must be satisfied. “I call it Being-psychology because it concerns itself with ends rather than with means, i.e., with end-experiences, end-values, with people as ends” (p. 69). These b-values can be seen a complimentary and in some aspects

33 similar to the terminal values as described by Rokeach (1973), as individual’s end state of existence are described. Schwartz and Bilsky’s (1987) research attempted to categorize Rokeach’s instrumental and terminal values by stating that there are universal types of values which include enjoyment, social power, achievement, and self-direction. Schwartz (1994) added to the original model to satisfy a hypothesis that people use goals set through values to respond to the following universal requirements, “needs of individuals as biological organisms, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and requirements for the smooth functioning and survival of groups” (p. 21). These are power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Parallels may also be drawn to some areas within Maslow’s hierarchy. Table 3 displays a relationship of the work of Rokeach, Maslow, and Schwartz, and Bilsky.

34 Table 3 Comparison of Values Models Schwartz and Bilsky Enjoyment Maslow Physiological Rokeach pleasure, a comfortable life, happiness, and cheerful Security Safety inner harmony, family security, national security, and a world at peace Social power Achievement Belongingness and Love Esteem None capable, ambitious, and social recognition Self-direction Cognitive imaginative (daring, creative), independent, intellectual, and logical Prosocial Belongingness and Love helpful, forgiving, loving, and equality Restrictive conformity Belonginess and Love obedient, polite, clean, and selfcontrolled Maturity Self actualization, Selftranscendence helpful, forgiving, loving, and equality

35

Sources: Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53(3), 550-562, by Schwartz and Bilsky (1987); Toward a psychology of being. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Norstrand by Maslow (1962); The role of values in public opinion research. Public Opinion Quarterly, by Rokeach (1968-1969).

36 Values and longevity. The research on values and longevity showed a divergence of opinion amongst researchers. Some research indicated that there are a set of core values an individual lives with throughout life which are shaped by a variety of factors, including contributions from parents, authority figures, social class, nation of origin and religion, but endure in their original form (Aliotta, 2002; Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998; Piirto, 2005; Rokeach, 1968-1969). An alternative school suggested that values do change and that they are affected by a variety of sources including external environmental factors such as social learning, changes in societal values, or from internal factors such as learning new skills, career choice or attaining new knowledge about self or organizations (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Argandona, 2003; Connor & Becker, 2003; Hague, 1993; MPG The Success Connection Workbook, 2003). Values and measurement instruments. The research results produced a list of values measurement instruments which used either a ranking or rating system or a combination of both. In the ranking category, researchers (Gibbons & Walker, 1993; Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004; Johnston, 1995; McLelland, 2000; Piirto, 2005; Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987; Shrum, McCarty, & Loeffler, 1990) cited the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) (1973) frequently. The RVS instructs participants to rank order two sets of values, named by Rokeach (1973) as instrumental and terminal, each containing 18 items, where values would be arranged in order of personal importance. The Mental Measurement Yearbook (2004) stated that the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) has served as an all-purpose tool to research human values and has been widely used in research since 1967. While the RVS and similar ranking instruments are easy to administer and produce a clearly ranked order of values, there was some concern in the research community about the efficacy of this

37 linear approach, including instrument effectiveness, the focus on linear rather than systemic tension between values, and if the values measured from this instrument are critical (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Gibbons & Walker, 1993; Hague, 1993; Johnston, 1995; McCarty & Shrum, 2000). Hague’s (1993) study chronicled participant reactions to the rank ordering process by detailing hostile reactions to the number of values to be ranked as well as some concern that multiple values could have been ranked either in the top or bottom spots causing discomfort in choosing values. “A 40 year old woman said, ‘It is not easy to order the values. A number have the same weight in that they are very important” (¶ 8). Hague suggested that the study of values must move from linear to systemic and greater research needs to be focused on interrelationships between values. Researchers identified the rating system using a numbered scale as an alternative approach (McCarty & Shrum, 2000; Schwartz, 1992), and instruments cited included the Schwartz Value Inventory (SVI) (1992). Those researchers advocating the systemic school of thought focused on instruments which worked with a rating system. McCarty and Shrum (2000) posited that survey researchers who are interested in measuring personal values use a rating method because it is easier to administer and analyze for statistical purposes. Hitlin and Piliavin (2004) stated that the Rokeach method advocated ranking, but the Schwartz rating system supporting a non-forced choice approach. Other researchers following Schwartz’ lead have developed instruments that allow participants to rate the importance of values in their lives and find ways to resolve conflicting views on their value choices. Kinnier’s (1995) instrument, the Values Conflict Resolution Instrument (VCRI), provided methodologies to encourage the participants to resolve

38 individual value conflicts and consisted of three parts; conflict description, a forced method of conflict resolution and resolution evaluation. Brown and Crace’s (1993,1996, 2002) Life Values Inventory (LVI) was one example of a dual method approach to values clarification which included both a rating and ranking data gathering method to aid people in understanding life roles. “The values measured by the LVI are Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the Environment, Concern for Others, Creativity, Financial Prosperity, Health and Activity, Humility, Independence, Loyalty to Family or Group, Privacy, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding, and Spirituality” (Crace & Brown, 2002, p. 4). McCarty and Shrum’s (2000) research supported this mixed method approach by concluding that a rating and ranking method is attractive because it allows researchers to use the information for statistical purposes and encourages respondents to make comparisons among the values for personal use. In addition to the scholarly research on values instruments, research efforts surfaced programs that the general and business public might use for values clarification and decision-making. A value based career development and employee satisfaction program developed by Blessing White, Managing Personal Growth, has been used in a business setting for a number of years. Blessing White has conducted this program worldwide for over 30 years, supporting the hypothesis that people want to understand the link that exists for them personally in satisfying personal values in all aspects of life. The program materials stated, “A firm values framework gives you a sharper sense of self-identity (you know who you are), a greater self assurance (you know where you stand), and a clearer sense of self direction (you know what you want)” (2003, p. 3). This

39 program was built on both a ranking and rating approach, with participants using the final outcomes to action plan for increased values satisfaction in both personal and professional areas. Other programs seen in the research included Values: A Foundation for Success from the Mescon Group. Introductory information in the participant materials stated, “They help us determine our goals, preferences, actions and people with whom we closely associate” (1995, p. 13), and a program created by Sturman, If You Knew…Who You Were, You Could be Who You Are! “Some values we hold strongly, others less so, and there is a scale along which we can measure our values” (1992, p. 60). Leaders and Leadership As organizations have become more global in today’s marketplace, how leaders need to create strong leader follower relationships, what role the leader’s values play in creating strong leader follower relationships, what styles leaders need to exhibit to encourage follower performance, and how these leadership practices contribute to organizational success have been the subject of many research studies (Bass, 1990a, 1997, 1999; Sorenson, 2002). Fredericks (1998) acknowledged that this has been a focus of study for over 100 years producing many different theories but no one clear definition or process for finding and developing leaders. “What developed from this vast amount of research is that there is neither a universal model nor a theory of leadership. Instead there is various terminology which is often used interchangeably but which have separate and distinctive definitions” (p. 131). Leadership challenges. The challenges facing today’s leaders both in the corporate and community arenas are significantly more complex than those seen during

40 the early 1900s when the pioneering organizational effectiveness work was conducted by Taylor, Fayol, and Weber during the beginnings of the industrial age. Mass production was taking the place of small shops run by family members and the need for skilled management was outstripping the available supply (Friedman & Lambert, 2002; Galloway, 1997; Kretzmann & McKnight, 1993; Saslow, 2005; Spalding, 2003). The results of changes brought about by the industrial revolution now reveals itself in the contemporary business model which is global and multinational, employees come with differing cultural perspectives on work and family life balance, and cycle time for new product development and launch has decreased. The growth of a global economy has continued, presenting increasingly complex challenges to leaders of all organizations. These rapid changes in business and socioeconomic changes in the current business climate underscore the need to continue study of leadership and how it contributes to organizational and community growth. Friedman and Langbert (2002) cited the effect of the internet and its impact on business growth stating, “It is quite evident that the World Wide Web and the rise of the global economy will change the way business is conducted and will affect many firms” (¶ 1). The study of personal values, and how they influence an individual’s choice to enter a community leadership program, can produce valuable information in determining how transformational leaders can be identified and groomed for the future. If values do drive choices, a position supported by Brown and Crace (1996), “Values with high priorities are the most important determinants of choices made, providing that the individuals have more than one alternative available which will satisfy their values” (¶ 6), then a leader’s most important values will guide an organization’s behaviors and choices.

41 Krishnan (2001) cited Donaldson and Werhane (1988) and Sekhar (1997) by stating the leader’s ethics, beliefs and values guide the behaviors and choices of employees in the organization. Leadership effectiveness. In this research, one major trend seen that affected leadership effectiveness is the need to account for situational and environmental factors when determining appropriate leadership styles, including the balance of transformational and transactional leadership styles (Avolio, Bass & Dong, 1999; Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Collins, 2001; Conger, 1999). Bass’s (1997) research stated, since the 1980s the best leaders need to be both transactional and transformational, positing that there is universality in the transactional--transformational leadership paradigm which “views leadership as either a matter of contingent reinforcement of followers by a transactional leader or the moving of followers beyond their self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or society by a transformational leader” (p. 130). Transactional leaders are concerned with supporting the everyday performance of the organization. Often referred to as management, the terms became interchangeable because transactional leaders are concerned with the daily work of the organization. They are task focused and often use reward and coercive power to encourage high performance. The transactional leader works with the organization to create good performance by clarifying performance expectations and goals, providing direction on how to achieve the desired goals, communicating performance measurement criteria, giving performance feedback on goal achievement, and ensuring that appropriate rewards are present when acceptable performance is achieved. “Task-oriented leaders supervised groups in which workers made fewer errors in their work and exhibited lower rates of

42 absenteeism and tardiness than was true for groups with leaders who did not have such a task orientation” (Bass, 1990b, p. 342). Transformational leadership referred to the exchange between leaders and followers’ self interest. Bass (1990a) stated superior performance in transformational leaders occurs when they are able to increase employees’ awareness and acceptance of the group’s purpose, and are able to look beyond their own self interests toward the interests of the group. The four central forms of transformational leadership include; charismatic, inspirational, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Bass, 1990a, 1990b, 1999; Conger, 1999; Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn, 2003). Charismatic leaders inspired followers through the communication of a compelling future vision, create a sense of enthusiasm for their ideas, and express a high degree of confidence that their followers will achieve superior performance (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Bass, 1990a, 1999; Friedman & Langbert, 2000). Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (2003) cited the example of Apple Computer founder Steve Jobs who showed charisma by stressing the importance of the Macintosh computer as a radical new way to compute. “Inspirational leadership involves the arousal and heightening of motivation among followers” (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000, p. 3). Other verbal messages the inspirational leader will send included visions of higher personal bests, or new personal value systems which are in greater alignment with the value system the leader is advocating. The component of intellectual stimulation in the transformational leadership process encourages the follower group to see themselves as part of the new future. The leader must be able to rouse the imagination of the team or individual to break down old

43 thought processes and paradigms. The team is then free to start co-creating the new future with the leader. Bass (1990a) stated, “Leaders can be intellectually stimulating to their employees if their own jobs allow them to explore new opportunities, to diagnose organizational problems, and to generate solutions” (p. 30). The final component of transformational leadership is individualized consideration. Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1999) posited leaders who employ individualized consideration will focus on understanding each follower’s need and work with them to develop their full potential. Individualized consideration ensures the leader has paid personal attention to all followers. This individualized attention ensures that the follower develops personally and feels like an integral part of the group. By spending this one-on-one time with group members, the leader is able to assess both team and individual growth for and make change plans if necessary. The degree to which leaders share power though autocratic and democratic styles change according to organizational need and individual situational requirements. Bass (1999) stated, “Transformational leaders can be directive or participative, authoritarian or democratic” (p. 14). Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s (1958) work defined stages of leadership decision-making along a continuum of autocracy and democracy. “Each type of action is related to the degree of authority used by the boss and to the amount of freedom available to his subordinates in reaching decisions” (p. 96). At the most autocratic end, the manager will make all the decisions and tell the employees. At the most democratic end the manager permits the group to make decisions within certain limitations. Vroom (2000), expanded on Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s work by defining leadership stages definitions as decide, consult individually, consult group, facilitate and

44 delegate and posited that the language contained in the continuum can be used as a starting point for managers to determine which style to use in any given situation. Values and leadership. Values, and how leaders use them in supporting organizational performance, culture building, and determining the correct application of transformational and transactional styles was a prominent topic (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Collins, 2001; Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Meglino & Ravlin, 1998; Posner & Schmidt, 1992). The leader’s values permeate organizational structures and work processes and management must understand what values are important to followers in order to identify what will cause them to be willing to work towards satisfying shared objectives (Banerji & Krishnan, 2000; Collins, 2001; Krishnan, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Lencioni, 2002). Posner and Schmidt (1992) stated, “Interest in managerial values is stronger today as the nation’s businesses have recognized the importance of corporate culture and how shared values (alignment between personal and organizational values) make a difference” (p. 80). Argandona (2003) suggested that the process of values definition, analysis and communication be repeated at regular intervals, including times of internal or external change. Krishnan (2001) posited that there is a standard profile for transformational leaders and used the Rokeach (1973) values instrument to show that transformational leaders will give greater importance to the terminal values of a world at peace and equality, and the instrumental values of honesty and responsibility. The data analysis supported Krishnan’s hypothesis for both terminal and instrumental values and concluded that the work supported the basic premise of Burns (1978) in linking transformational leadership to moral leadership. Collins’ (2001) work posited successful transformational

45 leaders demonstrate modesty, set up successors for next generation’s greatness, and take personal blame and responsibility for failure, but attribute success to others. Team Formation Working groups take many forms and structures within organizations. There are many factors which dictate how these working groups are structured including, but not limited to the core capabilities which the organizations want to create and master to achieve business success. As the organizational capabilities are defined, then the organization can create different forms of working groups to satisfy the new task requirements. There are many team formats and structures. Thompson, Aranda and Robbins (2000) described the most traditional format as one that is manager led. Self-managing teams receive performance objectives from a manager or team leader but have the freedom to achieve goals by methods they select. Self-governing teams are usually comprised of senior managers who are responsible for executing a task, managing workflow, selecting team members, and designing the organization context. (Thompson et al., 2000). Teams can work together either virtually or in a face-to-face environment depending on the circumstances and team member location. In either setting, teams are structured as work teams, task teams, and management teams. Quarterman (2001) supported Thompson et al. (2000) above and stated there are two major types of working groups, those that are formed to solve particular problems and disband when the problem is resolved, similar to the task teams described above, and secondarily, work teams, similar to those described above, whose ongoing tasks are to perform the daily work associated with running a group or department.

46 Working groups and teams have life stages, which include growth, maturity, and decline. Tuckman’s (1965) seminal work chronicled the lifecycle of teams in a four stage model, forming, storming, norming, and performing (Beddoes-Jones, 2004; Smith, 2003; Thompson et al., 2000). The forming stage is characterized by initial orientation where group members learn about each other and the tasks that need to be accomplished. Smith (2003) described this stage as one where individual members test each other to determine where individual behavioral boundaries exist. The second stage, storming, was described as a time when group members seek to establish their own roles within the group, and create a hierarchy. This stage often does produce intra-group conflict as members determine their individual roles and may often resist the need to define work tasks (Beddoes-Jones, 2004; Smith, 2003; Thompson et al., 2000). Norming, stage three, was described by Tuckman (1965) as the time when group members start to trust other group members, personal opinions are offered with greater openness and the individual members start to become a team. Tuckman’s (1965) original work ended with the performing stage, where the team group members supported each other to ensure the tasks are accomplished through constructive work. The results derived from Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 work added a fifth stage, adjourning, representing the termination of the group formal task activities. Beddoes-Jones (2004) expanded on this terminology and called this stage mourning, explaining that groups may go through this stage whenever the group dynamic changes, i.e. in the case of a member departure. When this occurs, the group may need to revisit an earlier stage, either storming or forming to integrate the new member into the group. Rickards and Moger (2003) worked with Tuckman’s model in the study of project teams and produced conclusions that supported Beddoes-Jones’ (2004)

47 work. “However, empirical observations of specific teams reveal complexities which cannot be explained in a simple stage sequence. Teams may never attain a norm of performance, or may regress to an earlier stage of development” (p. 277). Communities of practice are ongoing teams who are representative of Beddoes-Jones’ (2004) explanation of Tuckman’s model. Community membership changes and new members are routinely integrated into the community’s practices and internal structures, which result in teams which may be constantly cycling through all the model stages. Wenger (1998) stated that the lifecycle of a community is driven by the value it provides members versus a task or project orientation, and may live on after the official team has been disbanded. Other researchers have used Tuckman’s earliest works as a basis for their own observations. Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) work cited Lacoursiere (1974), who identified four stages, orientation, dissatisfaction, production, and termination. Orientation was characterized by some fear and anxiety, but team members had positive expectations. Team members in the dissatisfaction stage were frustrated and angry toward the management who chartered the team, rather than being angry with other team members. Stage three, production, occurs when members began to create realistic work expectations and perform the work tasks. The final stage, termination was characterized by sadness and group self-evaluation. Rickards and Moger (2000) studied both Tuckman’s 1965 model, and Tuckman and Jensen’s 1997 revision in relation to successful project team performance and concluded that in order for teams to work successfully through Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) model, several interpersonal barriers needed to be identified and resolved. They

48 first identified the behavioral and interpersonal forces which would need to be surmounted between the storming and norming stage. If the barrier between these stages were weak, then teams could move forward into normed performance. If the barrier were strong, teams might never achieve a productive status by reaching the performing stage. Rickards and Moger acknowledged that the performing stage as originally described in Tuckman’s work did not adequately describe what teams needed to do to become highly innovative and creative, in their model called outperforming. The performance barrier was described as strong and difficult to overcome due to external or environmentally imposed constraints as well as internal or socially constructed barriers. Rickards and Moger concluded that training in creativity and group problem-solving aids team members in moving past the first barrier between storming and norming and lays the foundation for teams to reach the outperforming stage. Quarterman (2004) acknowledged Tuckman and Jensen’s work and added that “Teams form a ‘Virtuous Cycle’ in which actions trigger effects in a cycle which reinforces the original action” (p.8). The cycle components were training, competence, pride, and performance. Teams could start anywhere within the cycle and continue through it to gain increasingly greater levels of productivity. Communities in Transition For the majority of American history, communities, whether rural or urban remained fairly stable. Chase (2001) cited Schaffer and Anundsen (1993) who described these communities as traditional and functional in that relationships were based in large part on blood ties and location. The success of community building processes in the past rested in large part on members remaining within the community for long periods, or

49 lasting multiple generations. These stable and oftentimes homogeneous populations with similar value systems drew the community together, creating a community history knowledge base that served as guidelines for decision-making, and a foundation for developing future community leaders, thereby increasing social capital. Putnam, Feldman, and Cohen (2003) described social capital as networks which create a community from individual relationships. Over the last few decades, community life has changed for a variety of reasons. The emergence and rapid growth of the Internet age and the global economy have changed the lives and work of many American communities. Kretzmann and McKnight (1993) offered that urban centers have lost industrial jobs, creating an employment vacuum for individuals who have relied on this steady employment for existence. Companies that were large-scale employers in the United States have implemented offshoring programs to reduce costs and increase profit. The jobs lost to this effort have encompassed the entire spectrum of corporate life. Guglielmo (2004) stated, “According to Gartner research, 5% of IT jobs have gone overseas, and 25% will be ‘offshored’ by 2010” (¶ 1). Kadzik (2006) cited Fried (2004) who posited that the recent downturn in the United States economy has caused many companies to outsource and offshore their legal work to countries where the cost of labor is lower including India, New Zealand, and South Korea. Displaced workers may leave the community to seek other employment opportunities, or join a growing demographic group described by Vogel (2006) as the informal economy. “Not only are workers being displaced as companies move their operations offshore in search of lower labor cost, but an increasing number of U.S. corporate start- ups are overseas ventures” (p. 30). The informal economy demographic

50 includes the undocumented worker population, also on the rise. Passel (2006) stated that during the period of 2000- 2005 the numbers of unauthorized migrants rose from an estimated 8.4 million to 11.1 million, accounting for approximately 4.9% of the civilian labor force in March 2005. Economic impact to communities with large numbers of informal workers is large. Vogel’s (2006) study produced results from Los Angeles County showing that many social services were negatively impacted due to loss of over two billion dollars in payroll taxes that supported social services for all workers. The boomer generation, born in between the years of 1946 - 1964, represent a large percentage of the population and their life choices impact community life. The Harvard School of Public Health–MetLife Foundation (2004) study referenced U.S. Census projections that by 2025 one quarter of the population, 65 million people, will range in age from 61-79. Force (2006) stated, “CNN/Money.com reported that the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts 35 million boomers will retire between 2000 and 2020. Another 23 million will retire between 2020 and 2030” (¶ 2). Many retirees choose to live in multiple locations, contributing to the transient population demographic and increasing the burden on local social services. Hogan and Steinnes (1996) cited these mobile seniors as snowbirds, northern residents who spend a substantial amount of time in warmer climates during winter months, and sunbirds, southern or southwestern residents who move to cooler climates during the summer months. While formal demographic data on the numbers of retirees who choose to live in seasonally related locations was sparse, one only needs to look at the plethora of advertising and media space devoted to this topic to realize how important the impact of mobile boomers are in local economies.

51 The changes described above represent a sample of the changing demographics of contemporary American communities. These changes have supported an increased need for continued building of social capital through an increase in community participation and leadership activities. These needs, according to researchers have not been met in the rise in community members increasing their social participation. Elman (2005) posited, “In today's context, the many social and economic changes and the advances in technology that have occurred in recent decades have resulted in a striking erosion of social capital” (p. 6). Putnam, Feldman, and Cohen (2003) supported Elman by stating beginning in the 1960s a dramatic dip in social participation was seen, as much as 2550%. To reduce the gap between need and fulfillment mechanisms, how community leaders are recruited, trained, and supported need to be reexamined, using other group and leadership development models. Current Findings The changing community conditions showed a need to change the way in which communities are built, leadership capability developed, and social capital maintained and increased. The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky report (1996) stated that leadership in the civic context must be seen as one where leaders use a collection of skills and actions to encourage participation by all members, share responsibility, develop new leaders and enable groups to work toward effective goal achievement. In light of the changing community demographics, community-building activities must not rely merely on the long-range commitment of members, but on other methods, including increased respect for the positive impact heterogeneous populations can have on community growth. The Harvard School of

52 Public Health - MetLife Foundation (2004) report introduced the idea that communities should place an increased emphasis on recruiting boomers to participate in community life to tackle local problems. Kretzmann and McKnight (1993) described a multiple component strategy for developing communities using all possible resources. The first component was to recognize the current talent that is present in the community for all residents. The authors also recommended that the development efforts must be focused on encompassing the efforts of all residents, institutions, and associations, “this strong internal focus is intended simply to stress the primacy of local definition, investment, creativity, hope, and control” (¶ 26). The final component suggested by the authors was that communitybuilding efforts relationship driven and posit that community developers must constantly be focusing on building relationships between and among residents, associations and institutions. Communities of Practice People have worked together in an organized way throughout history to achieve common goals, share knowledge and the practice is still prevalent today. Scott (2003) stated, “Organizations were present in older civilizations - Chinese, Greek, Indian-but only in modern industrialized societies do we find large numbers of organizations engaged in performing many highly diverse tasks” (p. 3). Groups of employees working together and sharing knowledge in different ways plays a large role in accomplishing an organization’s work. A form of work group seen as important to organizational growth and success in the contemporary world is known as a community of practice, defined as self-organizing groups of people, who are informally bound together by shared passions

53 and expertise to build subject and individual knowledge capacity, solve problems and create leadership capability (Allen, 2005; Bonasia, 2004; Bond, 2004; Hung, Chee, Hedberg, & Seng, 2005; Uddin, 2005; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007). van Winkelen (2003) stated many large companies have focused on communities of practice for increased knowledge management and organizational collaboration. The literature review produced findings on communities of practice that exist mainly at the corporate level, but the research also showed a strong link with civic community building efforts and community leadership programs, both of which are discussed in greater detail in other sections of this chapter. This section discusses communities of practice by providing information on types of working teams, describing the community of practice as a particular type of team, chronicle why they are perceived as valuable by corporations, and some best practices for developing them within the corporate environment. The final section chronicles any other relevant information and provides conclusions. Wenger (2007) stated, “The term community of practice was coined to refer to the community which acts as a living curriculum for the apprentice” (¶ 14). Bond (2004) cited examples of communities in ancient Greece and arts guilds in medieval Europe where apprentices learned from master craftsman with the eventual goal of attaining master status themselves. Hung, Chee, Hedberg and Seng (2005) stated a community of practice is an ongoing network of people who share common values, knowledge and history and posited, along with other researchers (Allee, 2000; Allen, 2005; Lesser & Stork, 2001; van Winkelen, 2003) that these communities have been on the rise in recent years.

54 Communities of practice often exist outside the boundaries of a traditional work team and are not necessarily task or project driven. Allee (2000) stated communities of practice exist in a continuum of working groups bounded by how tightly they are controlled by management. Work teams and project teams are the most tightly controlled, with management driven predetermined goals and memberships. At the other end of the spectrum, where control is the loosest, business and knowledge networks exist. This form of work group will form and disband when there is no reason for the members to come together on a more permanent basis. Allee (2000) contended communities of practice exist in the space between these two spectrum ends, but did state that a community of practice may form when project teams who are working on similar projects need to work together and share knowledge and resources. Wenger and Synder (2000) provided an overview of working team types seen in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Comparison of Team Types
From “Communities of Practice: The Organizational Frontier,” by E.C. Wenger & W.M. Snyder (JanuaryFebruary 2000). Copyright Harvard Business Review. Reprinted with permission of the author (Appendix O).

55 Wenger (1998) affirmed communities of practice differentiate themselves from other working groups by three dimensions; they are a joint enterprise which is member regulated, they come together from mutual desire to be a social group, and they are dedicated to creating a shared bank of resources which include knowledge, vocabulary and work styles. These dimensions allow for the creation of communities at many levels of the organization, working within business units, across units and across limitations created by company boundaries, such as professional organizations. Wenger and Synder (2000) described communities of practice as self-selecting and organizing. Other researchers presented additional viewpoints on group formation and structure. Nichols (2004) supported Wenger’s definition of self-organization and self-governance, with group members creating self-driven forums for discussion and learning, but added that there is value in communities of practice which are chartered and sponsored by management. Chartered communities are expected to produce measurable results within approved timeframes. Allen (2005) provided more detail on chartered communities by describing a structured six step organizing framework; identifying the purpose of a community of practice, evaluating its success, crafting infrastructure, developing a sound business plan, educating members on community roles and expected behaviors and deliberately modifying group membership regularly. Vestal (2006) suggested all types of corporate communities of practice should have a clearly defined charter or business case to clarify their purpose, reviewed and revised yearly to ensure that the group is still working toward meeting the company’s goals and needs. Wenger (1998) stated that communities of practice are governed by life cycles and predictable stages of growth. Figure 4 presents these stages in overview. Comparing

56 Wenger’s and Tuckman’s five stage model shows several similarities and differences. Wenger’s potential stage would precede Tuckman’s forming stage, as members are without any group affiliation in Wenger’s model and Tuckman’s forming stage starts at group formation. Tuckman’s storming stage was not present in a direct comparison fashion to Wenger’s model. A potential reason for this was due to the differences in team charter and sponsorship. Communities of practice are bound together by shared interests with participants voluntarily contributing to the group’s success. Tuckman’s model oftentimes is used to create teams similar to the project teams researched by Rickards and Moger. The compulsory membership of project teams supported the requirement of Tuckman’s storming stage as group members worked toward creating an acceptable task orientation and leadership hierarchy. Tuckman’s norming and performing stages were strongly linked to Wenger’s coalescing and active life stage, as group members vigorously work toward group productivity. The adjourning stage in Tuckman and Jensen’s 1997 work were compared to Wenger’s dispersed and memorable stages, where group members have completed the primary goals and are moving onto other group membership activities.

57

Figure 4. Growth Stages of Communities of Practice
From: “Communities of Practice Learning as a Social System,” by E. Wenger (1998). Copyright 1998, The Systems Thinker Newsletter published by Pegasus Communications. Reprinted with permission of the author (Appendix O).

Communities of practice benefits. The literature review results supported the premise that communities of practice in the corporate world add value and can be an integral tool in aiding company success. Lesser and Storck (2001) stated, “We argue that the social capital resident in communities of practice leads to behavioral changes, which in turn positively influence business performance” (p. 833). Communities of practice create a knowledge legacy for the organization by encouraging the transfer of tacit knowledge, much of which is lost when the person whom possesses this knowledge leaves the organization. Knowledge transfer, specifically tacit knowledge, described as the undocumented and difficult to articulate information, is regarded as important to organizational success, as individual members in communities of practice become the owners and caretakers of knowledge thereby reducing the impact of business cycle and membership changes (Lesser & Storck, 2001; McDermott, 2001; Wenger & Synder,

58 2000; van Winkelen, 2003; Vestal, 2006). Transfer of knowledge also produces a valuable venue for the development of leaders. The Harvard Management Update (2004) stated that we learn to lead through the course of reflecting with others and that what leaders learn was just as important who they learned from. The update cites Kilner by stating, “Only by making a connection with others who’ve shared your experience can some lessons become a part of your art—a part of who you are” (p. 3). Allee (2000) described three benefit levels; the corporation, the organizational community, and the individual. Corporate or business benefits focus on building organizational capability, more rapid problem solving, innovation and sharing of best practices. Community benefits include creation of an enterprise knowledge base, especially valuable when employees leave the company, increased power and influence sharing across the organization, and the building of a common methods and communication language. Individuals gain a more stable sense of a larger community connection with others within the workplace, experience increased job efficiency, and have more opportunities to learn and contribute to the organization’s goals. This concept of shared leadership is seen as critical in community of practice success. Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002) described the concept of a community coordinator who performs a variety of leadership activities and acknowledged that others take on leadership roles when necessary. Vestal (2006) cited an example from the Air Products and Chemicals company where the leadership role is regularly rotated, resulting in groups with a greater degree of success in meeting goals. Corporate communities of practice. Communities of practice have been described by researchers (Allee, 2000; Bonasia, 2004; Uddin, 2005; van Winkelen, 2003; Vestal,

59 2006), as a primary driving force that companies devote resources to in an effort to connect people who could use shared knowledge to solve issues and improve business processes. Corporate communities of practice are growing at a rapid pace as organizations recognize their value and reward those who participate. Allee (2003) stated, “Recent surveys by The Conference Board and the American Management Association show that at least one-half of U.S. companies, and up to 72% of overseas firms, have some kind of knowledge management initiative underway” (¶ 1). Communities of practice at the corporate level are composed of led by employees, and supported with resources in the form of time, training dollars, equipment, and formal sponsorship. These groups, similar to those cited by Scott need leadership to survive and thrive, “Whether these communities arise spontaneously or come together through seeding and nurturing, their development ultimately depends on internal leadership” (Wenger, 1998, ¶ 31). Vestal’s study (2006) described the benefits of strong leadership by stating that a strong leader will help the communities of practice keep their focus in order to achieve results. Community Leadership Programs The literature research process on community leadership programs produced a large amount of information from a variety of sources including; doctoral dissertations, article and book reviews, program materials and websites, and meetings with program leaders. An overview devoted to these programs, their historical foundations, their unique structures, goals and some examples of program types is presented first. To understand why these programs have become popular and are growing, the business needs, and perceived benefits are discussed from both a program and individual perspective. A final section addresses other relevant information about these programs including future

60 challenges to program growth. The span of the literature research encompassed a variety of sources including scholarly journals, websites, training programs, and other doctoral dissertations in this area. Galloway (1977) identified the growing need for community leaders by asserting that it is these leaders who can help attract new business investments and retain existing businesses. Young (2002) believed that the community leadership programs which groom leaders are more important today than ever before and provide a stimulating change to corporate politics. Those who participate in the programs can help increase diversity efforts, support the integration process of new residents into community life, and bring a new sense of ethics into the community as a whole. As stated in Chapter 1, the need to identify and develop community leaders is rising but the level of participation of leaders is decreasing. Community leadership programs are working toward decreasing this gap by developing and implementing programs which encourage individuals to take a greater community leadership roles. The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky (1996) study supported the need for growth in community leadership but added that leadership is not just for the famous or those whose names are commonly recognized. The authors suggested the idea that anyone can be a leader, and can add value to the community from an individual contributor perspective, “When we look at leadership in communities we see many leaders who may never become famous but whose leadership is essential to the life of the community. We begin to see leaders all around us” (¶ 17). Formally organized community leadership programs are a relatively recent phenomenon. Moore (1998) stated that the first program started in Philadelphia in 1959

61 was important, but offered that one of the most influential programs was Leadership Atlanta, formed in 1969, which was created to fill a leadership void resulting from a plane crash which killed many young city leaders. Leadership Atlanta’s (2004) mission statement stated: It is the mission of Leadership Atlanta to build a better community for everyone in the Atlanta region by imparting to our members what makes Atlanta unique and by inspiring them to take on and exercise real leadership committed to serving the common good. (¶ 1) While there are numerous types of community leadership programs, the research confirmed that many have similar missions and goals, most relating to contributing to the common good. Hiyane-Brown (2003) cited Jaworski’s (1996) statement of the American Leadership Forum’s (ALF) mission “dedicated to joining and strengthening established leaders to serve the public good” (p. 9). Armstrong Young (1985) described the Family Community Leadership (FCL) program goals as increasing participation in community decision-making and strengthening problem solving networks. Pigg’s (2001) study of the EXCEL (Experiment in Community Enterprise and Leadership) program cited the program goals as devoted to increasing the number of leaders who can work together to achieve common goals which benefit the community as a whole. Leadership Rhode Island’s website (2005), a program in continuous operation for 25 years stated that its vision and mission are to create a legacy of leaders for the state and provide them with resources and knowledge that will help them positively impact their local communities. Chase’s (2001) research supported the Community Leadership Association’s statement that there are many different types of programs and designs, in part due to their

62 sponsors, government, or private affiliations and local community requirements. Sponsors and affiliations can include chambers of commerce, government agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Programs, local universities and other quasi-public agencies including the Urban League. Staffing models can range from all volunteer to various combinations of salaried and volunteer staff. Leadership Atlanta is an independent nonprofit organization with a small salaried staff coordinating the activities of volunteers, many of whom are program graduates. University of Missouri-Columbia Community Development Extension Program supports the EXCEL program in Missouri. Leadership Rhode Island’s efforts are supported by a paid staff of six, with numerous volunteer efforts from alumni and other community leaders. There are many types of programs that fulfill local needs; although the research showed that many community leadership programs contain common elements. These essentials often include an initial two day retreat at program inception, followed by a six to 12 month program year with one classroom day per month, a requirement for participants to work within the community on improvement projects and a recommendation that alumni remain involved after program completion to pass along knowledge and support future efforts (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001). Azzam and Riggio (2003) cited Day (2000) by stating a large majority of leadership programs, over 85%, use the traditional classroom model as their core method of instruction. Galloway (1997) described common program elements which include one full class day per month with sessions lasting anywhere between 8 and 12 hours. These classroom experiences were spent listening to speakers, participating in exercises and discussions and in some

63 cases, taking field trips for further study on specific topics. Leadership Atlanta’s program employs a classroom and community service model by creating a 6-month program format designed, led, and supported by alumni, where participants met monthly, participated in additional study groups, and worked on community projects during the program year. The EXCEL program was created on a flexible model format geared toward meeting local requirements and resources. The J.W. Fanning Institute for Leadership (2003), located within the University of Georgia created a 10 to 12 month program that is offered to Community Leadership Programs for use in training. This program can be tailored to support both traditional classroom as well as a classroom and community project formats. Hiyane-Brown (2003), described how the ALF program was conducted during a 12-month period with a focus on experiential learning, risk taking, teamwork, and collaboration. While most programs follow a yearlong format, others have evolved with longer and shorter timeframes. Azzam and Riggio (2003) cited Leadership Clovis, which offers a 2-year program. In this model, the participants gained an in-depth understanding of their community and used their experiences in the second year to work on a solving a community problem they had uncovered. Pigg (2001) cited one example of a flexible application using a 16-week program with meetings once per week, and include several intensive weekend meetings. Participant profiles, recruitment practices, and class sizes of many programs follow similar guidelines with some extenuating factors. Azzam and Riggio’s (2003) study shows that the typical number of participants per class was 24 although the number could range from nine to 54 due to funding, community involvement, and the local economic profile. Spalding’s (2003) study described the two-phase selection process,

64 which has retained its basic formula since the program’s 1977 inception. In the research conducted, the model Spalding described was seen to be the most common. The first phase starts with active candidate recruitment. As many programs start in the fall, the recruitment process begins in the spring. Candidates are actively solicited from many areas within the community with a goal of gaining a cross functional mix of age, gender, race, education and income levels in the final participant list. From this initial list, candidates are selected for interviews. The interview team may be composed of program staff, alumni, and board of director members who discuss the interviews and select the final candidates. Pigg (2001), described a typical participant blend for the EXCEL program, “Participants are drawn from a broad spectrum of local interest sectors and include people of all ages (although participants are typically adults), ethnicity and gender” (p. 4). Galloway (1997) described a typical class size as 30 participants, with the selection process and includes both new and emerging leaders with a focus on ensuring diversity in the areas of race, age, gender, and profession. Program benefits. Regardless of program type, location, or structure, researchers and authors endorsed community leadership programs for the numerous benefits they provided at both the individual and community level (Armstrong Young, 1985; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown; 2003; Pigg, 2001). Galloway (1997) acknowledged that the link of program participation to community improvement has been difficult to assess, but asserted that many community problems have been completely or partially solved by those involved in these programs. This was due in part to the ability of participants to look for specific problems and identify remedies using the new skills and networks gained from program participation, and described areas where program

65 graduates were able to discern major problems which had been previously undiscovered and resolve them. Pigg (2001) recognized community leadership development is valuable because it will create a group of local leaders who can mobilize others to address community problems. Pigg’s evaluation of the EXCEL program in Missouri stated that programs produced significant benefits to the communities that sponsored them, and further posited that participation in the programs produce the benefits without regard to age, income level, and gender or education demographics. Armstrong Valdes’ (2001) study concluded that participation in the programs did encourage more involvement in community affairs regardless of demographics. “Furthermore, these volunteer efforts involved a substantive commitment of hours of work. None of the variables-volunteering, number of organizations, number of hoursshowed any difference by gender, race, education, job rank or job sector” (p. 134). A 1996 report published by the Civic Leadership Working Team of the Kentucky Appalachian Commission stated, “In the past decade, leadership development programs have had a remarkable impact on Appalachian Kentucky. The impact is evident in projects accomplished, in the rising level of civic capacity and in the budding reemergence of a culture of participation” (¶ 3). The report identifies benefits more important and longer range than the projects worked on within the programs that included a growing number of well-educated citizen leaders who can make a difference in many areas of public participation and set a new paradigm of participation as the normal mode of behavior for all citizens. Citations in the literature described participants’ views of program benefits. Rohs (1988) stated that participants felt they had developed new skills in basic community

66 leadership, took a more active role in community life, and gained a broader perspective on what local issues were present within their areas. Armstrong Young’s (1985) study concluded that almost all the participants viewed the program as a beneficial growth and learning experience, increased their leadership abilities, self-confidence, and enhanced both their family relationships and their ability to work in groups and in the community. One of Spalding’s (2003) doctoral study conclusions showed that, “Most participants valued CLP membership as a course of friendships, connections and self-esteem, which enabled them [sic] develop a diverse community and sense of common good” (p. 193). Earnest’s (1996) study results of the EXCEL program supported Pigg’s (2001) work, with participants stating that the program gave them the confidence to take risks and challenge accepted status quo practices, broadened their vision of leadership, gave them the skills to change their leadership styles to meet changing conditions and gave them a greater ability to work in teams and collaborate with others. Galloway (1997) summarized the business drivers and benefits of community leadership programs by stating that rapid worldwide program growth and increasing investments of time and money by individuals, governments, and corporations prove the value they bring on many levels. “These programs have the potential for participant learning that can be taken back to the workplace to noticeably improve job performance” (¶ 35). Challenges to future program growth. The literature review revealed challenges facing community leadership programs in general. Azzam and Riggio (2003) stated that there are obstacles to growth and cited funding as the primary challenge. The researchers collected information on funding sources for community leadership programs and the

67 study results identify sponsors as the primary funding source. Sponsor funding was described as in kind donations from local business owners, corporations, and individual contributions. This type of funding is contingent on many socioeconomic and political factors, which could have a negative impact on program stability and longevity. Table 4 shows the challenges based on Azzam and Riggio’s (2003) study. Other funding models also dependent on socioeconomic factors included those programs dependent on state budget allocations. The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky (1996) report cited funding as a major challenge to continued program success. Programs within the Kentucky area are grant funded, subject to changing economic and political conditions and are not conducive to long-term program stability. Rohs (1998) acknowledged a similar issue and promoted the creation of proactive marketing campaigns to gain greater income from other sources, most specifically increased program tuition. The communities of practice model in civic community building. Kretzmann and McKnight’s requirements for asset based community building are supported by the community of practice model as described by Wenger (1998, 1999, 2007) as selforganizing groups who come together to share knowledge, solve problems, and increase leadership capability, which results in the building of social capital. Lesser and Stork (2001) offered that communities of practice build social capital because they fulfill these dimensions; individuals perceive themselves as part of a network, they develop a sense of trust for other members, and they have a common interest or share a common understanding facing the organization.

68 Table 4 Challenges to Community Leadership Program Growth

Note: From “Community Based Civic Leadership Programs: A Descriptive Investigation,” by T. Azzam and R. Riggio (Summer 2003). Copyright Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. p. 59. Reprinted with permission of the author.

While the literature review on communities of practice detailed earlier in this chapter mainly focused on corporate based efforts, Wenger (1998) suggested communities of practice are pervasive throughout people’s daily lives with membership in multiple communities a common occurrence. Wenger (1999) posited, “Communities of Practice are an integral part of our daily lives. They are so informal and pervasive which they rarely come into explicit focus, but for the same reason they are also quite familiar” (p. 32). Involvement in communities of practice from civic involvement perspective according to Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky (1996) study was seen to have three levels with increasing leadership responsibilities incurred at each level. Participation was described as the initial entry into civic life and identified as the entry point for future leadership roles, “However, even a cursory examination of the level of participation in civic life (low voter

69 turnout, poor attendance at public meetings, declining organizational membership) tells us that the opposite of civic leadership is nonparticipation” (¶ 22). Group leadership was described as the next step, with the caveat that the leadership role may be formal or temporary and could entail smaller leadership roles, such as speaking on behalf of the group. The third level and final level was defined as community leadership, where leaders hold roles that are more formal such as an elected office. The authors presented a caveat by stating that in most cases, leadership in the community is an informal activity and most who lead within the community do not ever hold public office, but will consistently play a crucial role in their communities by applying the skills of communication, networking, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Community leadership programs as leadership development support. Pigg (2001) stated, “In summary, community leadership development education is supposed to address the central driving force in community development: leaders who can address community problems effectively by mobilizing the human and social capital in the community to achieve common purposes” (p. 4). Williams (2001) posited communities can craft a desired future state of success by supporting community leadership programs. The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky report (1996) stated during the past decade, leadership development programs have had a positive impact in Appalachian Kentucky. “The impact is evident in projects accomplished, in the rising level of civic capacity and in the budding reemergence of a culture of participation” (¶ 4). Community leadership programs are one source of identifying, training, and supplying leaders to the community. These programs follow the community of practice model in that participants come into the programs voluntarily to

70 share knowledge and solve problems, specifically within the community. If a new model for building communities can be based on the community of practice model then it is appropriate that the community leadership programs are also based on this model, thereby producing leaders who will make an easy transition into community participation at whatever level they find appropriate. Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth-Overview Leadership effectiveness and the optimal balance of transactional and transformational styles in light of changing organizational conditions is explained within the context of Greiner’s (1972, 1998) model of organizational growth. The original 1972 model, updated in 1998, was created as a predictor of organizational growth stages, and provided a foundation to illustrate what leadership styles would be optimal at each growth stage. While the model focuses on the business and company growth, principles and process described by Greiner can be applied community growth and leadership practices. Chapters 1 and 2 addressed the changing community demographics and the impact of these changes on building a community. These changes are similar to those faced by companies described in Greiner’s (1972, 1998) model, and result in similar leadership challenges. Community leaders can use the Greiner model to help predict the next wave of community changes and make corresponding leadership style modifications to reduce the negative impact of change. The role of employee work teams, specifically communities of practice, during each of Greiner’s growth stages is discussed in the context of supporting organizational leadership through the challenges of each growth stage. A final section discusses the

71 relationship of leadership roles within the community and how community leadership programs can aid in leadership development. Greiner (1997) maintained that growing organizations move through five distinct phases of predictable growth. Each phase starts and ends with a management crisis and enjoys a period of calm in-between crisis stages. These stages are defined as evolution, where prolonged periods of growth occur with no major upheaval in the organization’s practices, and revolution, which denotes periods of turmoil in the organization. Jones (2004) added, “Many organizational life cycle theorists believe that organizations encounter a predictable series of problems that must be managed if organizations are to grow and survive in a competitive environment” (p. 350). Kramer (1999) supported Jones and Greiner by asserting that companies pass through a series of sequential stages in accordance with their age and development and adds that these growth stages are driven by two fundamental goals set by senior management, growth and the increase of shareowner value. Greiner (1998) posited that each phase is strongly influenced by the previous one and if an organization’s leadership understands these concepts then they can proactively plan for the next phase of growth. “For instance, centralized practices eventually lead to demands for decentralization. Moreover, the nature of management's solution to each revolutionary period determines whether a company will move forward into its next stage of evolutionary growth” (Greiner, 1972, p. 38). Using Griener’s model and Bass’ (1997) conclusion that successful organizations require a balance of transformational and transactional leadership as a framework, this review looks at the growth model and described what leadership styles might be optimal for organizational success at each stage of growth.

72 Greiner (1998) cited five major factors which impact the rate of organizational growth: age and size, stages of evolution and revolution and the industry growth rate. Kramer (1999) added to Greiner’s model by identifying three industry related factors which influence the evolutionary stages of a company, development, rate of change and market environment. Development stage was defined as emergent, evolving, or mature. Rate of change was described as slow, moderate, or rapid. Market environment included the factors of geography, cross cultural spread, and market demand. Greiner contended that all organizations will experience the periods of evolutions and revolution but age, size and growth factors may mitigate the impact of these changes, resulting in differing growth curves for organizational leadership. In the case of mature companies in a low growth industry, where organizational size does not increase dramatically, the need for change in leadership styles might not be seen as critical to success. Examples of these types of companies may include businesses whose growth plans are controlled, companies who operate niche market businesses with little competition, and organizations that operate within a small marketplace where no changes are occurring to change the operations, universities and government institutions. In the face of increasing world competition through the growth of a global economy, these businesses may experience the need for proactive change in leadership, to reduce the impact of the revolutions and to combat the potential changes in market conditions. Companies in medium growth industries seem to experience longer periods of evolution between revolutions, but Greiner (1998) warned against management indifference to needed changes in leadership due to factors like profitability. “For instance, companies that make grievous errors in a prosperous industry can still look

73 good on their profit-and-loss statements; thus, they can buy time before a crisis forces changes in management practices” (p. 57). Companies that experience the shortest cycle time between evolution and revolution are those within a high growth industry whose size grows rapidly and has not leveled off. These organizations have the need to be proactive in determining which leadership styles will move the organization forward and prevent decline. Examples of rapidly growing industries include high technology companies that have a high degree of competition, rapid technological breakthroughs, and a short product development cycle time. Greiner’s model supported the notion that each phase of growth will require different management practices and processes to move the organization forward. Kramer (1999) stated that achieving growth goals and increasing shareholder value depend on management’s ability to cope successfully with the crisis that occurs at each growth stage. “Companies unable to overcome the crisis plateau fail or are acquired. Thus, evolution is not automatically assured. It requires learning new sets of skills as well as orchestrating change” (p. 26). Greiner (1972, 1998) summarized the five-step model by stating that each evolutionary period is characterized by how the management style is used to achieve growth during that evolution, and the prevailing management issue which must be overcome in order to continue growth characterizes each revolutionary phase. Figure 5 shows an overview of Greiner’s model.

74

Figure 5. How Companies Grow
From: “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow,” by L.E. Greiner (1998), Harvard Business Review, 76(3), 55-67. Copyright 1998 by Harvard Business Review. Reprinted with permission of the author (Appendix O).

Acknowledging Bass’s (1997) views on the need for a combination of transformational and transactional leadership throughout the organization’s life span, each phase is described from an organizational requirements perspective including the combination of transformational and transactional leadership styles, and autocratic versus democratic decision-making styles. During the evolutionary phases, leaders will change styles to meet specific requirements. During the periods of revolution, transformational leadership is required, specifically those behaviors exhibited by the charismatic leader. Charismatic leaders may be seen as a magic elixir to change the course of organizations by communicating and relentlessly promoting a compelling future vision, encouraging creativity and expressing a concrete confidence in their followers’ abilities to achieve the vision (Bass, 1990; Conger, 1999). Employee work groups, specifically communities of

75 practice, aid leadership in achieving organizational growth goals in each phase. The role of communities of practice within each phase is also detailed. Phase 1: Growth through Creativity and the Crisis of Leadership Creativity is seen at the beginning of the model when the organization is in its infancy. In the creativity phase, the emphasis is on creating both a market and a product. Jones (2004) explained that the organization’s founders work long hours to ensure that future profits await their efforts. “In the creativity stage, the norms and values of the organizations culture, rather than the hierarchy and organizational structure, control people’s behavior” (p. 351). Core leadership values are determined in this phase, ones who will guide the growth of the organization throughout its life span. A major challenge for the leaders during this formulative stage is to ensure that the business continues to grow. According to Knaup (2005) the rates of failure for businesses during the first four years of formation rise by over 50%, which puts many fledgling companies at risk. Malone (2004) posited less than 20% of business failures are due to factors outside the leader’s control. “That means that in the vast majority of failed firms, the owners and leaders could have done something to reverse the downward spiral” (p. 18). In light of these statistics, leadership skills during this time may play a critical role in the life or death of the fledgling company. During this growth phase, leadership styles are completely focused in the transformational realm and decision-making is almost completely democratic. In the creativity phase, the common values of the participants and the need to share knowledge quickly and efficiently shows how the organization can resemble a community of practice as defined by Wenger and others. van Winkelen (2003) cited Hubert, Newhouse, and

76 Vestal’s (2001) in stating that communities of practice, whether face-to-face or virtual are composed of people who come together on an ongoing basis to learn about each other, share problems, tools, best practices and experiences. Company leadership practices during this stage are similar to leadership requirements of a community of practice. The majority of roles within the community encourage community support through informal or self-leadership. Houghton and Yoho (2005) cited Manz (1986), Manz & Neck (2004), and Manz & Sims (2001) in stating, “Self-leadership is defined as a systematic set of strategies through which individuals influence themselves toward higher levels of performance and effectiveness” (p. 65). Wenger (1998) defined this concept as internal leadership and discussed many types of roles including inspirational and day-to-day leadership which have traditionally been seen as belonging in the realm of formal leadership. The growth through creativity phase reaches its pinnacle in the first crisis, defined as the Crisis of Leadership (Greiner, 1972, 1998; Jones 2004). In the creativity phase, successful growth is founded on leadership roles which are both formal and informal, and when communications are rapid and spontaneous. Greiner (1998) defined the factors as ones which can cause the first crisis in this model and states that the informal communication processes used for small employee groups cannot be as successfully employed when there is an increase in staff size. Jones (2004) stated the leadership skills required during the creativity phase are not adequate to the new organizational requirements needed for continued growth, which include efficiency goals and costs to produce the product or service. “Thus, after securing a niche, the founding entrepreneurs are faced with the task of managing their organization, a task to which they are often not

77 really suited and for which they lack the skills” (p. 351). Greiner (1997) described the founding leaders engaging in increasingly intense conflicts as the organizational business requirements require a more structured type of leadership. To survive the crisis of leadership in anticipation of growth into the next growth stage, growth though direction, Greiner (1972) posed the following questions, “Who will lead the company out of confusion and solve the managerial problems confronting it? Obviously, a strong manager is needed-one who has the necessary knowledge and skills to introduce new business techniques” (p. 42). To end this crisis and ascend into the next growth phase, strong management with a business focus will need to assume the formal leadership roles in the company (Greiner, 1972, 1998). Phase 2: Growth through Direction and the Crisis of Autonomy The new leaders, those who can continue to guide company growth within Greiner’s model, phase 2: growth through direction will require proficiency in elements of the transactional leadership style. Jones (2004) stated that the new management team will be responsible for directing the ongoing strategy and start the process of creating functional roles for mid-and lower level managers. Greiner (1998) described the key organizational elements of this phase as functional organizational structural development leading to the specialization of job roles and assignments, the creation of accounting and inventory and the development of more formal and impersonal communication processes. While transformational leadership styles are not abandoned in this stage, greater detail is starting to focus on how to run the company profitably, and the core elements of transactional leadership support these new requirements. Bass (1999) cited House, Spangler, and Woycke (1991) in positing that transformational leadership adds to the

78 effectiveness of transactional leadership; transformational leadership does not substitute for transactional leadership. Transactional leaders are concerned with supporting the everyday performance of the organization. They are task focused and often use reward and coercive power to encourage high performance. “Task-oriented leaders supervised groups in which workers made fewer errors in their work and exhibited lower rates of absenteeism and tardiness than was true for groups with leaders who did not have such a task orientation” (Bass, 1990, p. 342). The transactional leader works with the organization to create good performance by clarifying performance expectations and goals, providing direction on how to achieve the desired goals, communicating the performance measurement criteria, giving performance feedback on goal achievement, and ensuring that appropriate rewards are present when acceptable performance is achieved. During this phase, leaders will function more comfortably within the autocratic decision making realm due to the need to create and implement organizational structure and working processes. The definition of both management and individual contributor roles and responsibilities start in this phase, in accordance with the creation of formal organizational structures and process efficiencies. The concept of determining formal roles and assigning the work to the most qualified individual originated in the work of Taylor and contemporaries, Fayol, and Weber during the beginnings of the industrial age. Taylor hypothesized that each worker had the capability to be suitable at some type of work, thereby ensuring that all workers would be able to earn a good wage and believed that management was responsible for finding that suitable job-person match. (Wren, 1994). Taylor identified the need to create a specialized management role called

79 functional foreman to ensure that the appropriate leadership was there to encourage superior performance of factory and employee and saw widespread application of this vision of scientific management and the respect for the individual worker (Wren, 1994). Depending on the growth rate of the company, the balance of transformational and transactional leadership activities will change. In reviewing Greiner’s model, those organizations with a rapid growth rate in highly competitive industries, will experience shorter times of evolutions between crisis stages. For these companies, transformational leadership behaviors to keep the employees engaged and productive during the rapid growth periods will remain the dominant style. For those companies with longer periods of evolution, the transactional behaviors will play a larger role to aid the company in creating formal organizational structures and processes. Organizational and leadership values during this phase and those following it will undergo some review and possible change. Argandona (2003) recommended a multistage process for values clarification be implemented to ensure that cultural values are understood and integrated enterprise wide. Within this participative process, the current values are identified; changes in values needed to support growth are defined and communicated throughout the enterprise, and integrated into all work processes and leadership activities. Communities of practice during this second phase can still exist and provide a valuable service to the company. If one of the leadership goals in the second phase is to create organizational efficiency and continue to grow the company’s profitability, then the functions served by communities of practice support these goals. In phase 1, growth through creativity, the community of practice existed to share knowledge and create the

80 initial products or services the company needed for initial launch. In this phase, the leadership will need to start the process of creating an organizational knowledge base and use the skills of the community’s members to ensure that operational efficiencies continue to receive focus. The company may formally charter the communities in this stage, and roles and responsibilities become more clearly defined than those that existed in phase 1. Jones (2004) cited one of the benefits gained during this evolutionary phase is the adoption of formalized and standardized rules and structures, but posited that these benefits also are drawbacks to the continued growth due to frustration employees and lower level managers may face in decreased opportunities for innovation and decisionmaking. “The structure designed by top managers and imposed on the organization centralizes decision making and limits the freedom to experiment, take risks, and be internal entrepreneurs” (p. 352). Greiner (1998) added while the structures created in phase 2 help direct the energies of employees more efficiently, they simultaneously create restrictions which inhibit employees to take initiative in decision-making. Jones (2004) cited Cooper (1986), and Jones and Butler (1992) in stating one ramification of not resolving the crisis of autonomy may be the departure of internal entrepreneurs who are frustrated with bureaucracy, and leave to start companies of their own. These departures limit the ability for an organization to continue growing and create competition within its industry. To end this crisis and ascend into the next growth phase, Greiner (1972, 1998) stated that many companies will seek to create a culture that supports greater delegation of tasks and increased decision making ability for employees at lower organizational levels. This change in organizational leadership style from

81 autonomy to delegation causes problems for those managers who were considered successful in the prior phase and must now change to conform to the new model of shared power. Additionally, those employees and managers who had not been given the ability to make decisions must now make decisions and be responsible for the results of their actions, without the necessary skills and support by managers who were more comfortable within the previous style. Phase 3: Growth through Delegation and the Crisis of Control Jones (2004) described the growth through delegation phase as one where the need for professional management needs to be balanced equally with the need for innovative practices so that the organization can continue to grow, improve processes, and create new products and services. Greiner (1972, 1998) described this phase as one where managers are given greater responsibilities for decision making with less daily supervision from the higher leadership, communication from the top is infrequent and often occurs by telephone or visits to field locations, and organizational structures may start to become decentralized. In phase 2, growth through direction, the predominant leadership style was focused on transactional behaviors, which resulted in reduced innovation and localized decision-making. Leaders in phase 3 will employ a balance of autocratic and democratic leadership styles. In phase 3, communities of practice may expand given the additional freedom of decision-making and emphasis on innovation supported by management. As the organization grows in size and possibly moves into regional and international locations, if this has not occurred already in prior phases, the communities may become virtual and in this sense can serve to increase interorganizational communication, teamwork and help define new markets.

82 The growth through delegation phase gives organizations the freedom to grow but this type of growth does have limitations as the organization’s needs change, resulting in the next crisis, defined by Greiner (1972, 1998) as the crisis of control. Jones (2004) stated, “Once again, however, the organization’s very success brings on another crisis: Explosive growth can cause top managers to feel that they have lost control of the company as a whole” (p. 353). The crisis of control is seen in organizations through the struggle by top and functional managers for power. In looking back at the model, the crisis of autonomy drove the need for additional delegation and expanded freedom for functional management to make decisions regarding their own work. The leadership challenge in the crisis of control involves ensuring that management retains the appropriate level of localized decision-making power, but still work in alignment with the company goals and objectives. The next phase of growth, defined by Greiner (1972, 1998), as growth through coordination, defines the leadership role as one where “Top management takes on the role of coordinating different divisions and motivating divisional managers to take a companywide perspective” (Jones, 2004, p. 353). Phase 4: Growth through Coordination and the Crisis of Red Tape Organizations entering the growth though coordination phase are characterized by the use of formal systems, developed in phase 2 – growth through direction, in concert with the freedom of decision-making, developed in phase 3 – growth through delegation (Greiner 1972, 1997, 1998; Jones, 2004; Kramer, 1999), to achieve greater coordination of efforts throughout the enterprise. During this period of growth, increased emphasis is placed on formal planning for increased return on resource utilization, and all managers are encouraged to look beyond their own units and think about their local decision-

83 making powers to provide gains for the entire organization. “Although these managers still have a great deal of decision-making responsibility, they learn to justify their actions more carefully to a watchdog audience at headquarters” (Greiner, 1998, p. 62). In viewing the leader’s responsibility from the transactional vs. transformational balance, the formal systems implementation supported by the retention of localized decisionmaking shows that the organization must be flexible enough to accommodate the need for individualized, localized leadership, which supports a more transformational and democratic approach, while still retaining control of profit goals, deadlines, consistent application of policy and procedure, which is more indicative of a transactional and autocratic approach. During this period of growth, a danger arises if the organization is unable to successfully maximize the advantages of an organization that is supporting a balance of transformational and transactional leadership roles. Greiner (1972, 1998) posited that employees and management start to exhibit a lack of confidence with the systems and processes in place and begin to believe that these systems have outlived their usefulness. The lack of confidence results in the onset of the crisis of red tape. This crisis is characterized by increased emphasis on rules, procedures, bureaucracy, and decreased emphasis on entrepreneurship and innovation (Greiner, 1972, 1997, 1998; Jones, 2004; Kramer, 1999). In organizations where the community of practice model is valued and communities are proactively grown, phase 4 provides an opportunity for these communities to contribute substantively to profit and growth, and possibly reduce the organizational upheaval associated with the next period of revolution- crisis of red tape. While the crisis of red tape is ongoing, many communities of practice operate outside the

84 confines of formal policy and bureaucracy, continue to meet, share knowledge, and increase opportunities for innovative products and services when and if the company attains the next growth phase. Additionally, continued membership in the communities may serve as a retention technique, reduce turnover often seen during the revolutionary phases, and ensure that talent is retained for the future growth efforts. Phase 5: Growth through Coordination and the Crisis of? Organizations who successfully navigate the crisis of red tape emerge into the final growth phase, growth through collaboration. Leadership styles and behaviors in phase 5 are similar to styles and behaviors presented in phase 1--growth through creativity. The main goal is to increase the ability of the organization to meet customer demands and create new products and services quickly. Leadership roles are characterized by a distinct emphasis on transformational practices and democratic decision-making. The organization increases productivity through greater use of teams and informal leadership, highlighted emphasis on spontaneity and innovation, decreased emphasis on multiple formal control systems, and improved use of technology for information sharing and decision-making using real-time systems (Greiner, 1997, 1998; Jones, 2004). Phase 1- leadership through creativity encouraged self leadership, team work and creativity and innovation. Achieving similar results in phase 5 presents unique leadership challenges due to organizational size, complexity, and historical practices. Communities of practice are a critical support system during phase 5 and can support the goal of achieving phase 1 creativity and teamwork within the confines of phase 5 complexities. If the communities have successfully existed throughout the organization’s evolutionary

85 and revolutionary phases, they have been working in a self-led environment sharing information and creating knowledge repositories for future use within the organization. Completing these tasks required cross-functional networking and knowledge sharing; key facets of success in both phase 1 and phase 5. Greiner (1998) had not identified a formal name for the final crisis in his model at the time of this research. He posited that the crisis “will center around the psychological saturation of employees who grow emotionally and physically exhausted from the intensity of teamwork and the heavy pressure for innovative solutions” (p. 64). Conclusions Chapter 2 presented research findings for this study topic, understanding what values based needs drive participants to join and maintain membership in one Phoenix, Arizona based, community leadership program and focused on values, communities of practice, community leadership programs, leadership, and communities in transition. The results of this review suggest that communities need to continuously identify and train leaders who will be able to grow the community and create social capital in light of changing community demographics and growth needs. The community of practice model is a sound foundation for both community-building practices as well as community leadership program development. Schwartz and Bilsky (1987) acknowledged that the study of human values is of interest to researchers and state that there are many benefits to studying values as independent variables in the study of human attitudes and behaviors, social structural variables and cross-cultural comparisons. If Schwartz and Bilsky’s statement is valid, the literature review supports the benefits, with the caveat that the amount of research on this

86 topic should be more robust. The amount of scholarly work representing differing viewpoints on this subject is scarce. A review of the literature revealed a large body of work in the 1970s and 1980s, followed by a gap until the late 1990s. “As popular as values clarification was throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s, within a few years it had fallen from popular esteem” (Kirschenbaum, 2000, ¶ 18). At the time this research was undertaken, only one doctoral dissertation was found that focused on the topic under study, Armstrong Young’s (1985) work on values in relationship to community leadership programs. Brown and Crace (1996) further supported the identified deficiency in scholarly literature around values clarification and conceptual frameworks for measuring them, “Values are widely viewed as central to the selection of, and subsequent satisfaction with, life roles. But because no conceptual framework has been advanced to guide the work of practitioners and researchers, values are widely ignored by both groups” (¶ 1). Other researchers (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004), believed an additional problem with values clarification work was due to the lack of instruments that are easily administered and scored. Kirshenbaum (2000) posited that the decline in the popularity of values study and clarification was due to factors, which include the changing political climate of the 1980s, a faddism approach to education reform, an inconsistency in the implementation of values clarification programs and insufficient attention to research on values. In contrast, Hitlin and Piliavin’s (2004) study showed the field of values clarification and associated research is experiencing an upsurge due to advances in values measurement. They posited that work on values has grown vastly since over the past 20

87 years and suggested areas for additional future research include how values transfer across generations, why values might change over an individual’s life span, and to counteract the perceived lack of information and scholarly research on diverse groups, greater study should be focused on how individuals react with different social groups. They concluded with this benefit, “Many of our discipline’s original thinkers engaged the concept of values. Recent improvements in the conceptualization and measurement of values may allow us to profitably re-engage some of the core issues of the discipline” (p. 384). Building social capital for today’s communities was cited by Putnam, Feldman, and Cohen (2003) as having many benefits; crime will be reduced by the increase in community members who know each other by name, children who are born into areas where residents volunteer and spend more time with friends will be less likely to be born underweight and drop out of school. In light of this hypothesis, community-building activities should continue, with the understanding that prior models of community building must now accommodate the changes caused by socioeconomic trends. Chase (2001) cited Schaffer and Anundsen (1993) in stating that the functional community of the past has been replaced by a more inclusive and change ready model, one where people engage in community activities to find satisfaction with shared values of other community members. This new community model is supported by the communities of practice model chronicled earlier in this section and other areas of the literature review. The community leadership program is also a community of practice, preparing future community leaders for service at both a formal and informal level, ensuring that the new leaders emerge from the program ready to serve the community and build community

88 social capital. The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky report (1996) posited community leadership programs must not only make certain that capable leaders are developed, they must also ensure that the values of the leaders are reflected in their daily behaviors by respect for different viewpoints due to racial, cultural, gender, and diversity, along with the willingness to develop other leaders to carry on the community’s work. Summary Chapter 2 research results on values was placed first in this review as the decisions people make using values will support their participation in group activities, such as community leadership programs. Communities of practice and other types of working and social groups were also analyzed to determine where community leadership programs fit as an organizational type. Information contained within this section included the background, history, and definition of communities of practice, why they are perceived as valuable within the corporate context, why people join them, and how they relate to other types of organizational groups. The review of community leadership programs included; an overview of the history of community leadership programs supported by specific examples of current programs, different program types and designs, what the business needs were that drove the creation of these programs and what benefits have resulted from programs at the local community level, recommendations for future study and gaps that have occurred within the literature. Leadership, leader values, and how leaders need to change due to situational and environmental factors were presented using the Greiner (1972, 1998) predictor model of organizational growth. Leadership styles within each phase were presented and the roles of communities of practice were

89 discussed as an aid to organizational goal attainment. Communities in transition discussed why American community life is changing and what the ramifications are on community leadership. Chapter 3 presents a detailed explanation of the research methodology, the data gathering and analysis process, information on the validity of the instrument selected for the quantitative data gathering, the LVI, and the demographic and program information for the group under study, participants in the Valley Leadership program.

90 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS Chapter 3 presents the methodology of the study topic, to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Spaulding (2003) stated, “CLP’s seek to provide leadership training by introducing information, building awareness, and stimulating discussion on issues that are vital to the community” (p. 5). Participants choose to enter these programs for many reasons. The desire to satisfy personal values may play a role in this choice (Armstrong Young, 1985; Crace & Brown, 2003, Chase, 2001). Research Methodology Values and how they are satisfied by participation within a community leadership program was the primary goal of this research. All data gathering and analysis processes were dedicated to the understanding of how personal values are satisfied for program participants. Cooper and Schindler (2002) asserted the design creates a blueprint for the researcher to use in answering questions and fulfilling objectives. In developing the research process and finalizing the study design, a comprehensive study was conducted to ensure that the final design was appropriate. Research Method A case study approach supported by a mixed methods data gathering process was selected. Yin (1989a) stated the study design is the action plan that allows the original set of questions to be answered through the creation of conclusions about these questions. “Case studies do, however, reveal a diversity and richness of human behavior that is simply not accessible through any other method” (Salkind, 2003, p. 213). In this study,

91 both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered in support of the research questions (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990, 1991; Yin, 1989a). The case study was selected as an overall framework supported by the criteria that the study focused on a single setting or event where comprehensive data gathering could be conducted (Creswell, 2005; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division. 1990, 1991; Yin, 1989a). This study fulfilled the criteria listed above as only one group was studied, those students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. For the case study, the need to focus on only one program was based on the premise the while similar in vision, community leadership programs have differences and similarities in content and implementation according to location, demographic composition, desired outcomes, participants, and how the program is classified. These regional and individual program differences including program curriculum design, operation, and local population needs make multi-program studies difficult (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Fredericks, 1998). A case study methodology was chosen over other research methods supporting Yin (1989a) who stated that a case study is used when either a how or why question is asked about a current set of circumstances that the researcher has little or no control over. The case study fit Yin’s criteria for several reasons. A research goal is to gain an understanding of why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from a personal values satisfaction perspective. No interface with the program

92 participants was made prior to the research fulfilling the requirement of no investigator control over the circumstances. Design Appropriateness The mixed methods data gathering process, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data gathering methods, is an example of the multiple data source method to increase credibility and validity (COLMR, 2006; Creswell, Fetters, & Ivankova, 2004; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher & Pérez-Prado, 2003; Yin, 1989a). Quantitative data techniques produce condensed data, while qualitative data enhances the data, making it possible to gain more direct information on factors that may be important to the study such as values and politics (Neuman, 2003; The United States General Accounting Office, 1990). The quantitative portion of the data collection obtained values data from the Life Values Inventory (LVI), which provided a foundation to gather additional qualitative data through focus groups and triangulation activities. A qualitative data-gathering element was necessary for this study given the complexity of the data to be gathered. “The focus of qualitative research is to understand and explain the relationships between complex data ensuring that there is multidimensional picture of the data” (COLMR, 2006, ¶ 6). One qualitative data-gathering element was formulated based upon the results collected from the focus groups that used the LVI instrument. Researchers (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Neuman, 2003; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990) have described focus groups as a process whereby interviewers ask open-ended questions, listen to, and record the comments of the respondents for analysis. The qualitative data collection process was based upon the need to gain additional information on the respondent’s thoughts when

93 respondents answered the self-administered quantitative survey. Additional qualitative data supporting the focus group information was gathered through collection and analysis of text based information about the program. Text based written program materials included, publicity and marketing brochures, newspaper and magazine reporting, recruitment brochures and applications, and any other text based information uncovered in the research (Creswell, 2005; Neuman, 2003; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher & Pérez-Prado, 2003; Yin, 1989a). The use of both quantitative and qualitative data gathering and analysis further fulfilled the research requirements (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990; Yin, 1989a). The case study method can help researchers study a unique individual or organizational situation in a detailed and intense manner, and may produce results that are a source of new thoughts and hypotheses. The mixed methods data gathering process is used to gather both quantitative and qualitative data increasing the detail orientation and strengthening findings. “The goal of mixed methods research is not to replace either of these approaches but rather to draw from the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of both in single research studies and across studies” (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004, p. 14). Hypothesis and Research Questions Values can be the foundation of decision-making for many life activities (Aliotta, 2002; Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Argandona, 2003; Crace & Brown, 2002; Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004; Kirschenbaum, 2000; McLelland, 2000; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003). Connor and Becker (2003) cited Posner and Schmidt (1996) who asserted values lie at the

94 core of an individual’s personality, influencing their choices and the way they invest their time and energy. This case study supported by a mixed methods data gathering process assessed values satisfaction experienced by program participants during their association with a Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program and answered the research questions (see Table 1). Population, Sampling, and Data Collection Procedures and Rationale Population The Valley Leadership Program was founded on November 3, 1978, when a group of community leaders identified the need for high quality and informed leaders from a broad range of companies to support the rapid growth forecasted for the Phoenix area (2004). Mallery, a program founder stated, “Our strongest leaders who emerged during the 1940s are in the twilight of their careers. A new generation of leaders has not yet established itself. We are approaching rapidly a leadership vacuum” (2004, ¶ 3). Valley Leadership’s website states the current mission statement is to “enhance the abilities of individuals to serve and strengthen our communities” (2004, ¶ 1). The goals are as follows: 1. Foster commitment to the community by understanding key community issues 2. Build individual leadership skills and capacities 3. Develop a deeper understanding of community trusteeship 4. Cultivate appreciation of the value of diverse groups These goals are carried out through our central themes: Connecting, Learning and Leading. In addition to working with each year's class, we form strategic partners on an ongoing basis to convene alumni and the larger community on critical

95 issues that impact the Valley and the state. (2004, ¶ 1) Valley leadership selection process. Fifty participants are chosen each year for the 10-month Leadership Institute program, which starts in September. Each class comprises a broad array of backgrounds, work experiences, and cultures. The Leadership Institute Application stated the following: Any established or aspiring leaders who live and work in Maricopa County are encouraged to apply. Ideal candidates should meet the following qualifications: a) Volunteer service and/or leadership in one or more community organizations unique perspectives about different aspects of issues facing our community and b) A desire to commit time, talent, or resources to improving the Valley’s quality of life. (2006, Selection Process) The selection process starts with an application form which includes applicant data such as name and address, two letters of reference, and a brief essay answering the following questions: 1. What community activities have been the most meaningful to you and why? 2. What is one significant issue facing the Valley and how would you address it? 3. Why would you like to be selected for the Leadership Institute and what strengths and/or unique perspectives would you bring to the class? (2006, Leadership Institute Application Form) Applications are available in January. Completed forms are submitted by the end of April with a $30.00 fee and reviewed by the selection committee, composed of former program graduates. The selection committee interviews candidates and participants are

96 notified if they have been accepted during the May timeframe. The program cost is $2,750, including all materials and supplies. Valley leadership program elements. The program includes an orientation and two day retreat in September, program days held on the first Friday of each month, and graduation is conducted in June. Program days, held at sites in the Phoenix, Arizona area explored a wide variety of issues, from the changing face of education in Arizona to the economy and the status of social services (Appendix B). In addition, participants were required to sign up for at least five tours that provide an up-close look at some of the organizations directly impacting Valley issues. Class members also completed a group project (Appendix B), which gave them a rare opportunity to look at a selected issue indepth, and from a variety of viewpoints, a book reading, two book reading discussion meetings (Appendix B), and an evening for the arts (Leadership Institute Application, 2006). Program objectives are: 1. Enhance understanding of key issues impacting the community 2. Further develop leadership skills 3. Foster appreciation of diverse groups and their viewpoints 4. Instill a passion to serve our community in various volunteer capacities. (2006, Leadership Institute Application) Sampling The purpose of this case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership

97 program. The potential population or group for this study was those students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. This population was homogeneous as each member completed the Valley Leadership program (Creswell, 2005; Salkind, 2003). This method of data gathering, targeting the entire population reduces the possibility of sampling error because the sample size is large and more representative of the population under study (Creswell, 2005; Salkind, 2003). Participation in this study was voluntary, and all participants were contacted by mail to determine their interest and willingness to participate. The two subgroups or population elements were the current Valley Leadership program Board of Directors, subgroup1, and the Valley Leadership program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2. Researchers (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003) have identified the need for subgroups when the investigator would like to gain additional information about the population. The subgroups were created to serve specific functions in fulfillment of the study requirements. Subgroup1, the Valley Leadership Board of Directors, was the pilot study population. Pilot testing determines whether respondents understand question validity (Collins, 2003; Leedy, 1997). Information was gathered from the current program Board of Directors, subgroup1, with specific goal of answering the first research question, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy. Data gathered from subgroup 1 also contributed information to satisfy the second research question, what are the values profiles of the participants, the third research question, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why, and the forth research question, how can community

98 leadership programs incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles. Information was gathered from subgroup 2 with the goal of answering the second, third and forth research questions (Refer Table 1), Subgroup 2 is called the actual study. Informed Consent, Confidentiality, and Geographic Location Informed consent. Informed consent from study participants is a core component of study success. All study participants received a letter of informed consent (Appendixes C and D). The American Association for Public Opinion Research (2005), stated that the main elements required for consent include information on the study purpose, time required for participation, a description of participant duties, explanation of possible risks and benefits, a statement about confidentiality, and the voluntary nature of participation. Confidentiality. All study participants received an informed letter of consent, which informed them of procedures, intent of the study and potential risks. Participants also received a letter from the Chair of the Valley Leadership program Board of Directors encouraging active participation in this study (Appendix E). Anyone opting not to participate in the study was excluded, as participation was voluntary. Consent documents were returned to the investigator via a self-addressed, stamped envelope and placed in a locked storage cabinet at the residence of the investigator. The consent documents and any other identity sensitive information will be shredded 3 years after the completion of the study. Individual quantitative data results will be maintained in the secure database of the web-enabled survey company, Applied Psychology Resources. Each survey subject

99 who agreed to participate in the study was given a research access code, which was used to access the online survey. The survey site states that Applied Psychology Resources will maintain the data indefinitely. Respondents did not provide names during the survey. Any identifying information such as e-mail addresses were separated from survey results. Once the research was completed, Applied Psychology Resources sent the investigator the dataset for those who had completed the survey under the assigned code. The Board of Directors, subgroup 1, raw data information was included in one dataset, participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2, raw data was included in another dataset. Qualitative data results gained from focus group information was transcribed by the third party data transcription and analysis service, Lady of Letters Inc., who supplied a letter of confidentiality and assigned a staff member to transcribe all notes (Appendix F). Lady of Letters destroyed the files after final copy was returned to the investigator. Geographic location. The location for the study was Phoenix, Arizona. Quantitative data gathering efforts using the LVI were conducted at the respondents’ computers. The focus groups were conducted using teleconferences with an audio recording done for each conference. Teleconference focus groups have been cited by researchers as an effective qualitative data gathering methodology offering benefits that traditional face to face cannot including ease of recruitment, lower cost, and increased level of anonymity for participants (Aungst, 2003; Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Kuniavsky, 2003;Tolhurst & Dean, 2004). Data Collection Yin (1989a) stated there are six sources of evidence or data that can be used in a case study, “documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant-

100 observation and physical artifacts” (p. 85). There were three primary sources for data gathering in this mixed methods research methodology. Information was gathered from the current Board of Directors, subgroup1. The second data source was the program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2. Additional data gathering was completed through the review of artifact collections (Leedy, 1997). This data was used for analysis purposes in satisfying the research questions. Pilot process. The data gathering tools were tested with the Valley Leadership Board of Directors subgroup, subgroup 1. Members responded to the LVI, and focus group(s) were conducted according to the script seen in Appendix G. The teleconference focus group meetings were digitally recorded and transcribed. Transcribed data was coded and analyzed for trends using the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 software, which also demonstrated the reliability of the qualitative instrument (Collins, 2003). Quantitative data collection method. Using the email addresses supplied by the Valley Leadership administrative staff, the weblink and completion instructions for the Life Values Inventory (LVI), a web-enabled, self-administered survey was sent to all consenting participants (Appendix A). Researchers (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003) stated that self-administered questionnaires are a time saving device for the researcher because individuals can complete them with no direct assistance from the researcher. The LVI questionnaire process instructs respondents to rate a set of value items, then rank the values based on the rating results. The results of this process produced a current values profile. The respondents were provided planning tools for respondents to use for increased satisfaction with values in their current life through additional documents listed on the website. No personal demographic information was

101 collected from the respondents. The values profile became the foundation for the qualitative data gathering in focus groups. The quantitative data collected using the LVI survey was initially analyzed. Using the trend data supplied by Applied Psychology Resources, the data was sorted by frequency of responses to the number one value, the priority numbers, 1 through 5, identified as primary values, and values most likely to guide behavior (Crace, 2006). The analyzed quantitative data was reviewed for accuracy prior to the collection of qualitative data and presented to the participants prior to the start of each focus group discussion (Appendix G). Qualitative data collection method. The qualitative data was gathered primarily though the use of focus groups. Focus groups are a process in which the interviewer asks open-ended questions from a group of participants and will listen to and record the comments of the respondents for analysis (COLMR, 2006; Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Neuman, 2003; Yin, 1989a). Salkind (2003) explained focus groups have four main functions; information gathering from large groups of people in a short timeframe, insight generation into areas previously not understood, knowledge gathering by researchers on how group members reach decisions, and the creation of an environment that encourages group interaction. This qualitative data gathering was based upon the need to gain additional information on the respondent’s thoughts when answering the self-administered quantitative survey. Multiple focus groups were conducted with each subgroup. Similar basic processes were used for each group (Appendix G). Using the data collected from individual LVI responses, the focus group facilitator followed a general process, which included the LVI results focusing on values trends, a discussion of program elements that have satisfied or not satisfied values, and

102 presentation of the next steps in the process. Appendix G provides detailed information on focus group process and content. Any specific requirements noted by subgroup, are also described in Appendix G. All focus group meetings were digitally recorded and results transcribed by the third party data transcription and analysis service. Artifact collections were used as a secondary source of collecting qualitative data. Materials included publicity, general background information derived from the program website. The vision and mission statements, recruitment information and processes, and other relevant documentation were retrieved as needed to support interview findings. Researchers (Creswell, 2005; Creswell, Fetters & Ivankova, 2004, Johnson Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Neuman, 2003; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher & Pérez-Prado, 2003) advocated defining specific parameters for data collection and analysis including what priority will be given to each data form, how the data will be collected, i.e., concurrently or sequentially, and how the data will be used for analysis. The LVI, a web-enabled, selfadministered quantitative instrument, was administered to all consenting participants as the initial step. While first in the sequence for all groups, the LVI results were primarily used for trend comparison purposes and as a foundation for the higher priority qualitative data gathering process, the focus group results. The artifacts examination, supporting a comprehensive triangulation process, provided additional qualitative data. Instrument- Life values inventory (LVI). The quantitative data was gathered using a web-enabled, self-administered, validated survey instrument, the LVI (Crace 2006). The instrument is shown in Appendix A. “The values measured by the LVI are Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the Environment, Concern for Others, Creativity, Financial Prosperity, Health and Activity, Humility, Independence, Loyalty to Family or

103 Group, Privacy, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding, and Spirituality” (Almeida & Pinto, 2003, p. 29). The instrument contains both a rating and a ranking component supporting the ranking system used in the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) (1973), and the rating system seen in the Schwartz Value Inventory (SVI) (1992). In the rating component, individuals used a Likert style scale in rating 42 beliefs to determine how much any belief guides behavior. The lowest end of the scale, a 1 rating is defined as “Seldom Guides my Behavior” (Crace, 2006), with the high end of the scale, a 5 rating defined as “Frequently Guides My Behavior” (Crace, 2006). These results are automatically scored, and respondents are then requested to rank their results to produce a prioritized list of values. Acknowledging that this process may produce difficulties for some, instructions are included to ease the choice by stating “Hint: If you have trouble breaking tied scores, think of your current behavior. If someone followed you around for a month, which of those tied values would they see more frequently?” (Crace, 2006). The Life Values Inventory (LVI) was selected for a number of reasons. The theoretical underpinnings of the LVI promote holistic decision making, important to this study as participants are joining community leadership programs in addition to other life activities. Almeida and Pinto (2003) stated that the LVI is a superior instrument as it can be used to aid people in making decisions on how they can satisfy their values in a combination of work, leisure, education and other life roles. The LVI contains both a rating and ranking system to aid in decision-making. McCarty and Shrum’s (2000) research supported the rating and ranking approach when the authors concluded that a rating and ranking method is attractive because the method allows the information to be used for statistical purposes and encourages respondents to make comparisons among the values for personal use. The

104 LVI is a web-enabled quantitative instrument, providing benefits to both the respondent and researcher. For the respondents, survey completion instantly produces a prioritized scoring of the values and includes links to other planning tools. For the researcher, the data generated by the survey completion activities can be easily analyzed for values and demographic trends. The individual responses to the questions listed on LVI were able to be completed from any web-enabled computer. All individual response data were saved in the secure databases of Applied Psychology Resources. LVI reliability. The reliability of an instrument refers to the consistency of test results or “scores resulting from past use of the instrument” (Creswell, 2005, p. 158). The original LVI was created in 1993 with the most current LVI instrument (2006), derived through a series of validation procedures. The 334 high school student sample was derived from a population of over 1500 in a Raleigh, North Carolina high school. The selected respondents were representative of the student body when the research was conducted. The 342 adult sample population included respondents from California, North Carolina, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Virginia (Brown & Crace, 2002). The reliability testing encompassed two areas, internal consistency, and stability. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency for both adult and high school sample respondents. Results showed that “Ten of the coefficients for the adult sample exceeded .70 and 12 of the coefficients for the high school sample were at .70 or above, demonstrating adequate internal consistency for both samples” (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 12). The temporal stability testing of the LVI scales utilized a test-retest reliability coefficient scale. The test group included 72 adults and 51 high school students from the original sample group.

105 The retest coefficients on all scales for both samples were significant at p <.0001 over an interval of about 18 days (adult mean interval in days =18.9, SD = 6.0; high school mean interval in days = 18.02; SD = .24). (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 13) Validity Salkind (2003) stated, “Validity is the quality of a test doing what it is designed to do” (p. 116). Inadequate or incomplete experiment design can produce threats to internal and external validity which may decrease the efficacy of research results (Creswell, 2005; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher, & Pérez-Prado, 2003; Yin, 1989a). Internal validity was summarized by researchers as a sign of control that the research design has no errors, can show the cause and effect relationship of an inquiry, and will produce the results identified within the research parameters (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; GAO, 1991; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; Yin, 1989a). High internal validity will ensure few or no errors, versus low internal validity where the possibility of errors is more prevalent. External validity was cited by researchers as the ability of the study to be generalized from specific settings within the experiment or study, to broader settings of people, times, and settings. (Creswell, 2005; Cooper & Schindler, 2002; GAO, 1991; Salkind, 2003). High external validity ensures more ability for study results to be generalized, and low external validity decreases the ability of the study to have general applications. Neuman stated, “If a study lacks external validity, its findings hold true only in experiments, making them useless to both basic and applied science (p. 255).

106 Internal Validity Researchers (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003) have identified several threats to internal validity which included; a history threat due to the study taking place over an extended period opening the possibility of participants experiencing life changes, where the study takes place over an extended time, study participant maturation during the research process timeframes, the process of selecting individuals for study based on extreme pretest scores, known as regression, researcher based study participant selection bias, and mortality, a case where follow up with original study participants is difficult. This study design reduced the internal threats associated with history, maturation, pre and post test instrumentation changes by using the one shot case study method (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; Yin, 1989a), requiring that only one group receive treatment and post test. In this study, administering the treatment, LVI as quantitative instrument and focus group as qualitative data gathering to the entire population fulfills this requirement. The selection of the LVI as the quantitative instrument reduces threats to internal validity due to the high degree of rigor applied to construct validity testing. Salkind stated, “Construct validity is the extent to which the results of a test are related to an underlying psychological construct. It links the practical components of a test score to some underlying theory or model of behavior” (2003, p. 117). The construct validity of the LVI was established by the comparison of sample population results to the Rokeach Values Survey (Rokeach, 1973) and the Vocational Preference Inventory, Form B (Holland, 1985) using Pearson Moment correlations. The adult sample was asked to

107 complete an additional instrument, the Crown- Marlowe Social Desirability Scale (Crown & Marlow, 1960) (Brown & Crace, 2002). The adult sample responses, (N=326), were examined using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, “yielding a coefficient of .784, deemed middling (Kaiser, 1974)” (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 11). The student sample responses, (N=316), were also examined using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, “which yielded a coefficient of .82343, deemed meritorious (Kaiser, 1974)” (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 11). Convergent validity was assessed by correlating LVI scale scores with items from the Rokeach Values Survey (Rokeach, 1973) using Pearson Moment correlations. Crace and Brown selected the Rokeach Values Survey because it traditionally had been the most broadly used and respected instrument regarding values measurement (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 11). Thirty predictions were made regarding correlations between the RVS and LVI with 27 of the adult and 24 of the student predictions significant ad in the expected direction (Brown & Crace, 2002). The adult sample population was the basis for discriminant validity testing by correlating LVI scale scores with the Crown- Marlowe Social Desirability Scale. The prediction was that impact would be minimal and result in low correlations (Brown & Crace, 2002). Results showed that the “impact of the social desirability response set is minimal, accounting for a small amount of the variance in the LVI scores” (Brown & Crace, 2002, p. 12). The solution to the regression and selection bias threat was to include the total population as study participants, in effect creating a homogeneous group. Salkind stated, “In this way, most sources of differences (e.g., racial or ethnic backgrounds, education,

108 political attitude) might automatically be controlled for” (2003, p. 235). The mortality threat is not actively addressed in this study. External Validity Researchers (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005; Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003) have identified several threats to external validity. Reactivity or multiple treatment interference is a threat because participants may react differently to the study than they would in real life, due to researcher interference or extensive pre and post testing. An environmental threat described was mundane, a situation where the experiment parameters would not be generalizable to real world situations and included reducing special circumstances, i.e., completing an experiment in a way that would produce different results if completed during a different time span or geographic setting. The inability to generalize beyond the demographic group(s) involved in the experiment was also cited as a threat. This study design reduced the external threats of reactivity or multiple treatment interference through the one shot case study design. The investigator interacted only once with the study population, through a single focus group. The mundane threat, including generalization to real world situations and reducing special circumstances i.e., completing an experiment in a way that would produce different results if completed during a different time span or geographic setting, was reduced because the study environment was an ongoing program, operating consistently for 27 years in the Phoenix, Arizona community. The threat associated with the inability to generalize beyond the demographic group(s) involved in the experiment was reduced due to the ability of this

109 research design to be exactly duplicated in other geographies and demographic groupings. Researchers (COLMR, 2006; GAO, 1990; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher & PérezPrado, 2003; Yin, 1989a) cited specific remedies for reduction of case study validity threats, which included incorporating multiple sources of evidence, also known as triangulation, tape recording of interviews, real time data entry, and processes for ensuring that missing, unusable, or incomplete data is corrected immediately upon discovery. This case study adopted several of these remedies. The data collected from the focus groups and an analysis of the relevant program materials, which included the vision and mission statements, recruitment information and processes, and other relevant documentation, were retrieved as needed to support interview findings were the basis for triangulation activities. Creswell (2005) stated that the triangulation process enhances the accuracy and credibility of the study because there are multiple sources of information gathered which can be used for trend analysis and theme support. Data Analysis Quantitative data analysis was conducted when all surveys from those participants who agreed to participate were completed. The quantitative data gathering and analysis process used for this study is indicative of descriptive statistical methodology. Creswell (2005) stated, “Descriptive statistics will help you summarize the overall trends or tendencies in your data, provide an understanding of how varied your scores might be, and provide insight into where one score stands in comparison with others” (p. 182). The LVI produces an ordinal result at the individual participant level. Data shown in an ordinal format may describe simple numerical relationships but also show indicators

110 of order or ranking (Cooper & Schindler, 2002; Creswell, 2005, Salkind, 2003). The webenabled LVI questionnaire produced trend data for each subgroup. The trend report data gained from analysis of subgroup 1 prior to focus group completion was compared to those seen from subgroup 2. The qualitative data analysis process was more complex as data from multiple sources was used to satisfy triangulation requirements using nonnumeric formats. For the qualitative data analysis, the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 tool was selected. This product supports analysis from multiple sources including text, audio, video, and pictures. This ability to analyze data within multiple formats gives researchers enhanced ability to code and analyze data in varying degrees of complexity (Alexa & Zuell, 2000; Creswell, 2005; Hesse-Biber, Dupuis & Kinder, 1991). To accomplish the case study’s goal, a coding process was employed to assist in the data analysis. Brigette’s Technology Consulting and Research Firm (Appendix H), the external research firm used the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 software, an electronic coding tool designed by Research Ware Inc, to assist in the following protocol: 1. Delineate the coding categories 2. Analyze patterns 3. Emerge codes to theme 4. Generate reports to show the frequency of each code The triangulation process encompassed multiple data gathering points, necessitating the use of an analysis method which can support these venues. The trend reporting from the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 tool was compared to the quantitative data gained in the administration of the LVI. The results of the quantitative and qualitative

111 data gathering were examined for trends with the final outputs to include both statistical and trend based data. The trend analysis information was derived from the qualitative data gathering efforts. Data reporting focused on data collected though all focus groups, trends discovered within analysis of written and oral materials, followed by analysis of these individual data points, and finally a gap analysis, describing where points of data differ from each other. The final process provided the information in answer to the first three research questions, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy, what are the values profiles of the participants, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why? The results of this analysis helped to determine if the set of foundational core values determined by the Board of Directors was present in materials that prospective participants in the program would read or see. If participants join based on the need to satisfy personal values, then the various types of program information would provide a data point for their choice. Summary Chapter 3 described the research methodology as a case study, supported by a mixed methods data gathering process. The population or group for this study was the students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. This population was homogeneous as each member completed the Valley Leadership program (Creswell, 2005; Salkind, 2003). The two subgroups or population elements were the current Valley Leadership program Board of Directors, subgroup 1, and the program participants from the 2006-2007 program

112 year, subgroup 2. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the current Board of Directors and program chairperson (Appendix I). The quantitative data gathering was conducted through the administration of a web-enabled validated survey instrument, the LVI to all consenting participants. This quantitative information was the foundation of focus groups where qualitative data was gathered comparing values and program elements. Additional qualitative data was gathered through artifacts review, which included publicity, general background information derived from the program website. The vision and mission statements, recruitment information and processes, and other relevant documentation were retrieved as needed to support interview findings. Data analysis and reporting include simple statistical reporting on quantitative data and detailed comprehensive reporting on qualitative data to include an analysis of where individual data gathering points compared and contrasted with each other. The next chapter describes the study’s results.

113 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Chapter 4 consists of the analysis and results of findings of the single case study supported by a mixed methods data gathering process. The problem addressed in the research is the decrease in citizen involvement in leadership efforts and the increase in the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Chase, 2001; Saslow, 2005). The purpose of the single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The population or group for this study was the students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The two subgroups or population elements were the current Valley Leadership program Board of Directors, subgroup1, and the program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2. The data gathering process assessed values satisfaction experienced by program participants during their association with a Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program and answered the research questions (Table 1) Chapter 4 is organized to provide a logical presentation of information and includes: (a) an overview of data collection and analysis processes, (b) data results, (c) analysis and initial conclusions, (d) a summary, and (e) conclusions and recommendations. Data reporting and analysis focuses on data collected from the LVI values survey, all focus groups and interviews, and trends discovered from the artifacts analysis. The overall data analysis process provides the information that answers the first

114 three research questions (see Table 1). Data Collection and Analysis Processes Values and how they are satisfied by participation within a community leadership program was the primary goal of this research. All data gathering and analysis processes were dedicated to understanding how personal values are satisfied for program participants. The Data Collection and Analysis Processes section provides a review of the quantitative and qualitative data collection methods used in this study, detail on specific data gathering methods, surveys and other tools, and describes the processes whereby themes emerged during the analysis. Researchers (Neuman, 2003; Salkind, 2003; GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990; Yin, 1989a) posited that a case study helps researchers study a complex or unique instance and analyze that instance as a whole and within its context. Collecting the appropriate amount of data to adequately answer the research questions is critical to the success of the study. One school of thought (Marshall, 1996; Patton 2001; Sandelowski, 1995) posited there is no predetermined adequate sample size. The researcher ultimately determines how much data to gather based on how the information answers the research questions. Other researchers (Boyd, 2001; Crabtree & Miller, 1999; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2001; Morse, 1994) advocated sampling a small amount of the population which could range from two to 10 participants. The data gathering process used in this case study fulfilled the requirements of a small sample size but also allowed for additional data to be gathered in support of answering the research questions in a comprehensive manner. Study participants received an informed letter of consent, which informed the participants of study procedures, intent of the study, and potential risks (Appendixes C

115 and D). Participants also received a letter from the board chair of the Valley Leadership program encouraging active participation in this study (Appendix E). Any participant opting not to participate in the study was excluded as participation was voluntary. Consent documents were returned to the investigator via a self addressed stamped envelope and placed in a locked storage cabinet at the investigator’s residence. The consent documents and any other identity sensitive information will be shredded 3 years after the completion of the study. Data Collection The mixed methods data collection methodology was used to collect both numerical and textual data. Three primary sources of data collected for analysis were: Valley Leadership program board of director members, subgroup 1, Valley Leadership program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2, and the artifacts of program materials. The artifacts of program materials included publicity, and general background information of the association. Quantitative data collection method. The quantitative data gathering process, conducted and completed prior to any qualitative data collection, involved the completion of the Life Values Inventory (LVI) values survey simultaneously by all consenting participants. While first in the sequence for all groups, the LVI results were primarily used for demographic comparison purposes and as a foundation for the higher priority qualitative data gathering process, the teleconference focus groups. Each survey participant was given a research access code which was used to access the online survey. No personal demographic information was collected from the respondents. Individual quantitative data results will be maintained in the secure database of the web-enabled

116 survey company, Applied Psychology Resources. Subgroup 1 was grouped in one dataset, and subgroup 2 was grouped in a second dataset. Once the research was completed, Applied Psychology Resources sent the investigator the dataset for those who had completed the survey under the assigned code. The raw dataset report for subgroup 1 and subgroup 2 are given in Appendix J. Qualitative data collection method. The qualitative data were gathered primarily though the use of focus groups employing a teleconference process (Appendix G). Each teleconference focus group was digitally recorded and results transcribed by the external transcription firm. Multiple focus groups were conducted with each subgroup. This qualitative data gathering was based upon the need to gain additional information on the respondent’s thoughts when answering the self-administered quantitative survey. Using the data collected from individual LVI responses, the focus group facilitator followed a general process, which included; LVI results focusing on values trends, a discussion of program elements that have satisfied or not satisfied values, and presentation of the next steps in the process (Appendix G). Artifact collections were used as a secondary source of collecting qualitative data. Materials included publicity, and general background information derived from the program website. The vision and mission statements, recruitment information and processes, and other relevant documentation were retrieved as needed to support interview findings. Data Analysis Methodology In this case study, supported by a mixed methods data gathering process, quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. The Data Analysis Methodology

117 section provides an overview of the preparation and understanding of the multi data collected. The quantitative data collected using the LVI survey were analyzed according to the trend data supplied by Applied Psychology Resources (Appendix A). The data was sorted by frequency of responses to the highest priority value, and then by priority numbers 1 through 5, identified as primary values and those most likely to guide behavior (Crace, 2006). The analyzed quantitative data was reviewed for accuracy and presented to the participants prior to the start of the qualitative data gathering, the focus group discussions (Appendix G). Qualitative data gathered from the teleconference focus group(s) provided the primary source of contextual data. The focus group meetings conducted according to the script seen in Appendix G were digitally recorded and transcribed by the external transcription firm who destroyed the files after the final copy was returned to the investigator. The external research firm used the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 software, an electronic coding tool designed by Research Ware Inc, to assist in the following protocol: delineate the coding categories, analyze patterns, emerge codes to theme, and generate reports to show the frequency of each code. Information gathered from the analysis of artifacts was used to support thematic values that emerged during the analysis of data collected during the interviews. Data Results, Interpretation, and Initial Conclusions Data presentation, analysis, results and conclusions will be discussed in total for each subgroup. The Board of Directors, subgroup 1, information will be presented first. Overall participation statistics opens the section, followed by the presentation of the

118 quantitative results from LVI survey. Subgroup 1 was selected as the pilot group, and results from the pilot analysis of the teleconference focus is discussed. Artifact review results in support of the triangulation process will be presented as a final data source. A data summary, initial conclusions and the response to the first research question in this study, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy will be presented. Subgroup 2, program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, called the actual study, will follow a similar format to subgroup 1; overall participation statistics, results of the LVI, results from the teleconference focus groups, a summary, conclusions, and the results of the second and third research questions, what are the values profiles of the participants, and which program elements satisfied the participants values and why? A specific section which addresses areas of similarity and discrepancy between pilot and actual study is presented. Final conclusions end the chapter. Chapter 5 will recommend solutions to strengthen areas of similarity and reduce areas of discrepancy. Data Analysis and Results of Valley Leadership Board of Directors, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group The Valley Leadership program Board of Directors (BDs), subgroup 1, were selected as the pilot group. Pilot testing determines whether respondents understand question validity (Collins, 2003; Leedy, 1997). The 19 BD members were contacted by mail (Appendixes A, B, and C) to determine their willingness to participate. Twelve board members responded affirmatively. Quantitative Data Collection Analysis and Results The responses to the LVI survey provided the quantitative data results. Applied Psychology Resources provided trend data in a spreadsheet format. Eleven board

119 members completed the LVI (Appendix A). Data sorting was used to identify trends for additional analysis. Table 15 (Appendix J) presents the raw data from the survey. Table 5 presents data sorted by frequency of responses to priority numbers one through five, identified by the LVI as primary values and ones most likely to guide behavior (Crace, 2006). Analysis showed that Responsibility was chosen as the most important value by 36% of the respondents. Achievement and Concern for Others were both chosen by 18% of the respondents as their most important value, and Creativity, Health and Activity, Independence, and Spirituality were chosen by 7%.

120 Table 5 Sorted Data Results from Board of Director, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group, LVI Survey by Primary Values Value Responsibility Achievement Concern for Others Health and Activity Independence Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Spirituality Creativity Financial Prosperity Belonging Privacy Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Humility Concern for the Environment 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 1 4 5 Total Values 9 9 6 6 5 5

1

1

4 3 3 2 1 1

1

1 0

121 Analysis of the frequency of responses for primary values closely followed the trend set for the most important value. Responsibility and Achievement remained the most important with Responsibility showing the greatest concentration in the first three importance slots, and Achievement responses spread throughout the primary values. Concern for Others, and Health and Activity were third, with Concern for Others concentrated in the first three importance slots and Health and Activity spread throughout the primary values. Independence and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) filled the final rows, even though no respondents selected Independence or Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) as first in order of importance. Qualitative Data Collection Results The Qualitative Data Collection section presents the results from the pilot study derived from the analysis conducted by the external research firm and the investigator. The responses to the teleconference focus groups provided the primary qualitative data results. As consenting board of director members scheduled teleconference times, each received the specific agenda (Appendix G), LVI demographics and the questions to be addressed during the teleconference. Eleven Board of Directors participated in the qualitative data gathering in a series of six teleconferences. Due to scheduling constraints and conflicts with scheduled focus groups, a few single interviews were also conducted employing the same teleconference process used for the focus groups. The teleconferences were audio taped, and results transcribed by the external transcription firm. The collection of artifacts by the investigator provided additional data for analysis. Qualitative Data Analysis and Results The analysis of the data collected from the pilot interviews conducted by the

122 external consulting firm aimed to determine whether the virtual focus group was the most effective method to use for the actual study. The analysis also aimed to determine which cognitive interviewing techniques, such as probing and think-aloud, might be the most effective technique to use in the actual study if one-on-one interviews are conducted (Collins, 2003). Data obtained from one-on-one and focus group pilot interviews were systematically organized into phrases, sentences, or whole paragraphs and classified into categories (codes) (Appendix K). The transcribed data were merged by the approach used to obtain the data whereby common responses emerged (Leedy, 1997). Before uploading the merged document into the HyperRESEARCH™ 2.8 software, the data were carefully read, semi-edited, and bracketed (Appendix K). Bracketing involves placing defined ideas within brackets ([]) and disregarding the analyst’s ideas and feelings to keep the investigator focused on the content (Poggenpoel, 2005). The unstructured data from the modified transcript were manually dissembled. The data were then assembled under codes (Appendix K). The codes, whereby themes and patterns emerged, derived from the construct of the research questions and creditable sources that center on personal values (Crace, 2002). Using HyperRESEARCH™ 2.8 software and interpretations, the validity and reliability of both research questions and the questionnaire were tested (Creswell, 2005; Leedy, 1997). Through a series of interviews with 11 pilot participants (PP), known as Board of Directors (BDs), two research questions (RQ1, RQ2) were assessed to determine the flow, salience, and ease of administration of the questions as well as the responses (Collins, 2003). RQ1 explores the most fulfilling experiences in the program and describes what values did these

123 experiences satisfy for them and why. RQ2 explores the least fulfilling experiences in the program, and describes what values did these experiences least satisfy for them and why. Two BDs participated in the one-on-one interviews, and 9 BDs participated in the focus group (FG) discussions. Methodology and Trend Analysis The assessment and efficiency were made based on comparing common responses (Leedy, 1997). An assessment concerning the research questions asked in the current pilot interviews were made. The efficiency of the questionnaire and the rationale for using the conference system were also investigated (face validity). After analyzing the findings, three premises emerged concerning the (a) telephonic conference system, (b) cognitive interviewing techniques, and (c) research questions. Telephonic conference system The environment and instruction for the discussion was initiated prior to the start of the interviews. Participants were familiar with using the telephone conference system. No extraneous distractions were apparent to the investigator or the analyst. Participants seemed to remain focused based on most of the interactive responses. The conference system provided real-time group dynamics and proved to be an effective infrastructure to use in the actual study (Turney & Pocknee, 2005). Cognitive interviewing techniques Based on the responses, providing the list of values prepared BDs to relate their and other participants’ experiences. Research questions were posed in the manner whereby the investigator had originally written the questions. When BDs experienced difficulties sharing personal experiences in the one-on-one interviews, the investigator

124 read the question again or probed for additional experiences (Collins, 2003). The probing technique was employed throughout the one-on-one interviews and seldom employed during the focus group discussions. During the focus group discussion, BDs “had a choice of responding to question or deciding to withhold response, thus providing a noncoercive and truly democratic discursive environment” (Turney & Pocknee, 2005, p. 7). Based on the flow of information, the think out loud approach is the most effective approach to conduct the actual study to achieve a consistent measure to compare and contract experiences. The think-aloud method is often concurrent and involves participants self-guiding the discussions (Collins, 2003). One-on-one interviews--research questions The following section discusses the trends from the one-on-one interviews, followed by the focus group teleconferences. RQ1 in relation to the most fulfilling experiences in the Valley Leadership program and the values that have been satisfied from the experiences was asked in two one-on-one interviews, and respondents did not provide immediate responses. In both one-on-one interviews, the investigator repeated RQ1, and values derived from the data center on Achievement, Belonging, Responsibility, Financial Prosperity, Concern for Others, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), and Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence). Responsibility is a common value that reflects participants' experiences. PPBD1 feels a sense of achievement for being a part of the history of the program by assisting with the development of the program. The program stimulates networking opportunities that prompt belonging. Belonging is achieved when members interact, dialogue, and have conversations with other members. As a leader in the institute, PPBD1’s most important

125 values are being satisfied. The knowledge acquired in the program prepared PPBD1 to take on the responsibility to achieve goal when a need arose. PPBD2 also takes the position that leadership skills have been enhanced through the program. PPBD2 has been able to acquire knowledge concerning the pros and cons of issues that impact the community. Issues include learning about immigration or anti-immigration, the business aspect and creativity of the military, and the responsibilities of law enforcement concerning domestic violence. Responses to RQ2 in relation to the least fulfilling experiences in the Valley Leadership program and the values that have been least satisfied from the experiences was asked. Values derived from the data center on Independence, Concern for Others, Belonging, and Financial Prosperity. Although PPBD1 had difficulty identifying a specific experience that is least fulfilling, PPBD1 desired to achieve Independence while participating in the program. PPBD1 indicates presenters was not concerned and did not provide the opportunity for members to acquire new leadership experience. PPBD2’s claim that centers on Belonging reject’s PPBD1’s claim. PPBD2 indicates that networking opportunities were not beneficial. PPBD2 implies, “the class days were filled with basically listening to people [50 participants in the group] and sharing your opinion if you had one around it.” Business opportunities that might lead to financial prosperity and relationships that might create a sense of belonging are limited in the program. Building bond, rapports, trust, and friendship usually occur during the retreat. Focus group discussions--research questions RQ1 in relation to the most fulfilling experiences in the Valley Leadership program and the values that have been satisfied from the experiences were also asked in

126 three focus group sessions, and discussions commenced immediately. Two BDs participated in PPFG1. Values derived from PPFG1 center on Belonging, Achievement, Interdependence, Concern for the Environment, Responsibility, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Belonging is a common value that reflects participants’ most fulfilling experiences. Some BDs talked about a sense of pride (Achievement) at participating in a 29-year-old program that promotes personal and professional networking opportunities with influential members (e.g., chief of police for Phoenix, county board of supervisors, secretary of state, and city councilman). Meeting outside of the classroom in sweat lodges and for lunch stimulates belongingness. Responsibility involves finding avenues to decrease isolation and stimulate belongingness. Independence is achieved through training and objective analysis on how the program stimulates a concern for the environment (community). Other possible avenues include taking tours (alumni) and road trips. Two BDs participated in PPFG2. The interactive discussion gives insight into how the Valley Leadership program impacts the lives of residents (prisoners, teens, immigrants). Common values that reflect participants’ most fulfilling experiences derived from PPFG2 center on Independence, Achievement, Concern for Others, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), and Belonging. Common values are displayed during personal observations, participations, and networking opportunities. Tours to various locations (prisons) allow class participants to perform objective analysis that gives insight about certain situations. Reading about disparate groups (immigrants) and situations (i.e., in the paper) can lead to inaccurate evaluations and ineffective decisions. Listening to the

127 experiences of others who have insight enhances leadership skills. The Concern for Others is displayed when BDs foster the Valley Leadership program and desire to assume the responsibilities to serve the community. As a result of developing, participating, or chairing the teen program, a sense of achievement is accomplished. Loyalty is displayed when BD’s continue to volunteer services to enhance the teen program. Teens also feel a sense of achievement when adults in the community participate in and support the program. Five BDs participated in PPFG3. The interactive discussion presents how the Valley Leadership program has enacted a learning environment. Common responses derived from PPFG3 that reflects participants’ most fulfilling experiences center on Independence, Belonging, Achievement, and Concern for Others. Additional responses include Responsibility, Health and Activity, Spirituality, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Independence is achieved through firsthand exposure, hearing and openly sharing diverse opinions, and understanding individual role and positions in the whole community dynamic. Exposure to various views reinforces the importance of participating in community projects that steward responsibility and the concern for others. Faith-based organizations and the Body Positive tour provide some class participants the opportunities to learn about HIV and AIDS. Achievement is satisfied when an opinion is shared, the liberty to make decisions is exercised, and a responsibility is fulfilled. Two BD’s who were formally in the media were limited to gathering and communicating facts and not having the liberty to share opinions. The Joint Leadership Day organized by Hispanic Leadership Institute (HLI) and Valley Leadership provided class participants the liberty to hear a large number of diverse voices. A sense of

128 belonging is inherited when diverse groups who seldom network develop an understanding about the community, become empathic, and can contribute to the community. RQ2 in relation to the least fulfilling experiences in the Valley Leadership program and the values that have been satisfied from the experiences was also asked during three focus group sessions. Some BDs experienced difficulty identifying specific experiences that are least fulfilling. Once the experiences were captured, the other BD’s was able to support and elaborate on the claim. Responses derived from PPFG1 center on Independence, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Independence is a common value that reflects participants’ least fulfilling experiences. Achieving independence in the program is difficult when presenters (the panel) have limited time to answer many questions. Attempting to decipher the vast amount of information presented in a particular section usually results in class participants experiencing fatigue and not comprehending the information. Carpooling has become a means whereby objective analyses of the development of the program are discussed. Simple discussions cover time contrasts and class participants’ experiences and thoughts. Values derived from PPFG2 center on Achievement, Privacy, Concern for Others, Belonging, and Creativity. Achievement and Privacy are common values that reflect participants’ least fulfilling experiences. Two BDs felt that certain aspects of the program caused former class participants to become insulated. During orientation, the class participation was limited due to presenters delivering historical information concerning Phoenix a conservative city. Presenters failed to provide contemporary knowledge that

129 centered on situations that affect the Valley community. The program also failed to stimulate a sense of achievement for class participants who were involved in creating one-on-one projects (video about small schools initiative, interviews, and state coalitions). Individual projects are often presented internally but have the capacity to achieve national recognitions. Feedback has been effective in improving the orientation process and organizing group projects (legacy) that may bring additional social recognition. Two BDs participated in FG3. Responses derived from PPFG3 center on Creativity, Responsibility, Concern for Others, Belonging, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Responsibility, Creativity, and Belonging are common values that reflect participants’ least fulfilling experiences. Responsibility involves taking on different projects that impact the community in a positive manner and moving the groups forward to complete the projects. Challenges that BDs experienced during team projects included selecting topics that add to the body of knowledge and keep groups involved in the projects and finding a balance between the numbers of class participants who can create interactive dialogue. The loyalty of class participates and alumni become questionable because from year-to-year, the connection is not consistent. Both research questions were restructured to limit probing and elicit more think out load responses that may present additional experiences to compare attitudes, perceptions, and opinions. 1. Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?

130 2. Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values? Trend Results The results from the HyperRESEARCH™ 2.8 coding provided the external research firm the basis for trend analysis. The core themes (Appendix K) that emerged during the interpretational analysis of pilot data center on Belonging, Responsibility, Independence, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) and Achievement. Table 6 summarizes the qualitative data analysis by listing the value, code frequency (f) for values most and least satisfied, and trends that emerged from the source data and the edited teleconference transcripts. The primary values for the pilot group were, Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). The frequency of citations for most satisfying experiences in the qualitative data showed a strong supporting trend to the primary values; Achievement (14), Concern for Others (14), Independence (11), and Responsibility (10). There was a single citation for Health and Activity. Belonging, not a primary value, had 15 citations, more than any of the primary values. The frequency of citations for the least satisfying experiences showed that the primary values of Independence (6), Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) (5), Responsibility (4), Concern for Others (4), were not satisfied by the program. There was a single citation for Health and Activity and a low frequency of citations for Achievement (3), which may indicate that the program experiences did satisfy the need for achievement. Belonging, not a primary value, had 11 citations, more than any of the primary values.

131 Table 6 Summary of Responses to RQ1 and RQ2- Most/Least Satisfy Values, Code Frequency and Example Data - Pilot Study Value Achievement Most Examples Satisfy 14 Part of history [Growth of Valley Leadership Program]. Being engaged on a peer level with other emerging leaders. Able to freely give opinions Keeping in touch with classmates over time. Continuing to be involved in program post graduation Belonging 15 Opportunity to interact with others not normally seen in daily life. Being more of the inner circle regarding how those issues or values occur in our community 11 Inadequate opportunity to bond and build rapport and long range friendships. Group Project- project selected did not really make an impact. Least Satisfy 3 Examples Group projects not recognized appropriately Some program/ classroom days not structured well.

132 Value Most Examples Satisfy Just being connected to what, at that time, I thought was a powerful and influential group with the potential of doing more for the community. Keeping in touch with classmates post graduation. Tours Concern for Environment 3 Training others who can contribute to a better community. Concern for Others 14 Access to organizations or entities otherwise unavailable. Working with the teen program Teaching others about important issues (HIV). Creativity 3 Tours 3 Group Projects, i.e., not 4 Some program/ classroom days not structured well. 0 Least Satisfy Examples

133 Value Most Examples Satisfy Least Satisfy Examples being able to work on project post graduation, did not get a lot of satisfaction from the work. Financial Prosperity 1 Certain tours i.e., Luke Air Force base experience 1 Program not a networking opportunity. [Lost business] Health and Activity 1 Teaching others about important issues (HIV). 1 Exhaustion, (mental and physical) from too much information presented in classroom days Humility 1 Teaching others about important issues (HIV). Independence 11 A pause from daily life, to not deal with minutia. Tours- an opportunity to do and see things not in normal daily life. Awareness of the 6 Program/classroom days - to rigid in delivery Not having enough time to get more out of a particular program. 0

134 Value Most Examples Satisfy different aspects of the community. Exposure to experiences and individuals that are outside of normal sphere. Networking Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdepende nce) 6 Developing relationships with class mates. Training others to help move toward a better community. Loyalty to the Valley Leadership program as a whole (Adult and Teen Program). Privacy 0 2 Some program/classroom days not structured well. Responsibility 10 Fulfillment has come after program completion [Being part of the Board 4 Group Project- project selected did not really make an impact. 1 Least Satisfy Examples

135 Value Most Examples Satisfy of Directors]. Being able to create change and community betterment Consistent dedication to community service. Networking. Total program experience. Scientific Understandin g (Objective Analysis) 5 Tours i.e., Luke Air Force. Thinking at a more scientific level. 5 Lack of time to talk with others and assimilate what is learned. Group Project- project selected did not really make an impact. Spirituality 2 Developing relationships with others on a deep level. 0 Least Satisfy Examples

136 Review of Artifacts The results of the analysis of appropriate artifacts that support the qualitative analysis are presented. Artifact review completes the triangulation process whereby many different data sources are examined to enhance the validity and accuracy of the study (Creswell, 2005; Rocco, Bliss, Gallagher & Pérez-Prado, 2003; United States General Accounting Office GAO Program Evaluation and Methodology Division, 1990). The results of the artifacts analysis helped determined which values were present in materials reviewed by prospective participants in the program. Values and how they are satisfied by participation within a community leadership program was the primary goal of this research. Reviewing artifacts for imbedded values language both stated and implied provided additional validation for results obtained from the quantitative and qualitative results presented earlier in this section. As participants consider the option to join the Valley Leadership program based on the need to satisfy personal values, then the various types of program information containing values information could provide data points for their choice. A search conducted for materials created or published from 2003-2007 resulted in the identification of the following for additional analysis; The Valley Leadership Website (2004), Valley Leadership Mission Statement and Goals/Objectives (2004), Valley Leadership Application form, and two newspaper articles, Pathways to Change (Brill-Wagner, 2003), and Man of the Year Sees Leadership in All Success (Post, 2007). The website, mission statement and program application form were all developed with input from Valley Leadership Program board members. The Valley Leadership Mission Statement and Goals/Objectives were present in multiple locations including the website and the program application. The Pathways to

137 Change (Brill-Wagner, 2003) article was written by an employee of the Valley Leadership Program, and the Man of the Year Sees Leadership in All Success (Post, 2007) was written by a staff reporter. The analysis process consisted of key word search and concept identification using the expanded values definitions list (Appendix K). Raw data from this analysis is presented in Appendix L. Table 7 describes the synopsis of this analysis, presented by frequency though materials reviewed.

138 Table 7 Summary of Artifacts Analysis Values representation by frequency and specific material Values represented throughout all materials analyzed: Value identification and trends Achievement-- Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; enhancing individual’s ability to lead others, and delivering and accomplishing results and solutions through leadership.

Belonging-- Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; connecting and uniting diverse, talented groups of individuals in representing all business and non-profit sectors, Valley Leadership alumni continuing to meet and work together for community benefit, forming strategic partnerships, bringing people together to achieve common goals, building long range relationships.

Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)-Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; learning and developing a deeper understanding of critical issues that impact Phoenix

139 Values representation by frequency and specific material

Value identification and trends and the state of Arizona, appreciating the value of diverse groups and differing viewpoints, using intelligence to be able to look at the big picture.

Values represented in: Valley Leadership Website, Mission Statement and Goal/Objectives, Application Form, Pathways to Change (Brill-Wagner, 2003)

Concern for Others--Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; strong service orientation and commitment to serve, desire to make a difference in the [Phoenix] community and the entire state

Values represented in: Valley Leadership Website, Mission Statement and Goal/Objectives, Application Form, Man of the Year Sees Leadership in All Success (Post, 2007).

Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence)-Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; Valley Leadership alumni continuing to meet and work together for community benefit, Valley Leadership program ensuring that sense of community is not lost.

Responsibility--Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; making or delivering significant contributions, community trusteeship

140 Values representation by frequency and specific material Values represented in the Valley Leadership Application form only.

Value identification and trends Independence--Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; Mandatory program participation requirements.

Privacy- Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; A significant amount of time is involved to participate.

Values represented in Man of the Year Sees Leadership in All Success (Post, 2007) only.

Humility- - Examples of key words and ideas represented for this value included; humbling to be recognized and fortunate to work with Valley Leadership program participants.

Values not represented

Concern for the Environment, Creativity, Financial Prosperity, Health and Activity, Spirituality

141 Summary of Pilot Study The LVI was the primary quantitative data-gathering instrument. Trend data from the 11 board members who completed the LVI showed that the primary values for the pilot group were; Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). The trend information was provided to the pilot group participants in preparation for the primary qualitative data gathering, the teleconference focus groups. The focus groups were asked to provide examples of program elements that satisfied their values and program elements that did not satisfy their values. The trend data from the pilot group indicated that the values satisfied in the program were; Belonging, Achievement, Concern for Others, Independence, and Responsibility. The trend data indicated that the values not satisfied in the program were; Belonging, Independence, Objective Analysis (Scientific Understanding), Concern for Others, and Responsibility. Artifact analysis results indicated that the values of; Achievement, Belonging, Concern for Others, Independence, Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Responsibility, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) were present in at least one artifact reviewed. The focus groups were asked to provide examples of program elements that satisfied their values and program elements that did not satisfy their values. Program elements most frequently cited that satisfied values were dedication to community service, long term relationship building or networking, tours, working with others not normally encountered in daily work or home life, teaching others, and meeting and learning from recognized community leaders. Elements that were dissatisfying included lack of time to build relationships, classroom structure, and group projects not making an

142 impact. Table 8 presents a summary of all data sources using the LVI primary values as a comparator. Strong trends were seen in the relationships of the primary values identified in the LVI, and information gained from the focus groups and the artifact analysis. Crace and Brown (1993, 1996, 2002) asserted that people’s values are satisfied when they participate in activities they think are important. The results of the focus group data support this assertion as seen by the results of the focus group analysis. Summary analysis by primary value is presented below.

143 Table 8 Trend Comparison for Primary Values-- Pilot Study Value Quantitative (LVI) # 1 or 2 QualitativeMS (Focus Group) 10 citations QualitativeLS (Focus Group) 4 citations Artifact Review

Responsibility

All except program staff member article

Achievement Concern for Others

# 1 or 2 # 3 or 4

14 citations 14 citations

3 citations 4 citations

All All except staff reporter article

Health and Activity Independence

# 3 or 4 # 5 or 6

1 citation 11 citations

1 citation 6 citations

Not represented Application only

Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

# 5 or 6

5 citations .

5 citations .

All

144 Responsibility Responsibility was cited as the most important value and was also seen as one of the top two primary values by the pilot group. Crace and Brown defined responsibility as “Responsibility - It is important to be dependable and trustworthy” (1993, 1996, 2002, p. 4). Respondents felt a strong sense of responsibility to ensure that the Valley Leadership program continued to help community improvement and betterment efforts as seen in the trustworthy and dependable aspect of the definition cited above. The group project is an integral part of both the Valley Leadership Program and community betterment efforts. Respondents who cited the group project as dissatisfying due to lack of impact might have been expressing a lack of feeling trustworthy as the project was part of their ability to better the community. The artifact analysis results also support the strong position that Responsibility holds in the program. All artifact elements except the program staff member article contained references to responsibility. These artifacts included the information on the Valley Leadership web pages, references to program mission, goals and objectives, and the application process, artifacts all composed or controlled by the Valley Leadership board members and staff. Achievement Achievement, which represents the importance to challenge self and to work hard to improve self (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002), was the second primary value identified by the pilot group. Respondents felt a strong sense of achievement with their efforts in the program. Results from the focus groups indicated that Achievement was satisfied primarily by the ability to build long-range relationships and learn from recognized community leaders. The group project, identified as dissatisfying in the

145 Responsibility value, was also noted by some respondents as a negative experience in the Achievement value. For this value, the dissatisfaction was experienced due to the lack of recognition seen after the project was completed. Respondents cited dissatisfaction with some program or classroom days, due to structure constraints (i.e., listening to speakers for the entire day without any goal accomplishment). Crace and Brown asserted that stress or dissatisfaction occurs for those who value Achievement when they feel unchallenged (1993, 1996, 2002). This lack of challenge due to the classroom structure cited above may have contributed to the dissatisfying experiences cited by some respondents. The artifact analysis results support the strong position that Achievement holds in the program. All artifact elements contained references to Achievement. Concern for Others Concern for Others, “[t]he well being of others and helping others are important” (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 3), was identified as the third or forth primary value, and while it shares the same overall score as Health and Activity, it is listed as third due to the greater number of respondents who identified it as a first choice value. The fourteen satisfying experience citations seen in the source material centered on how the tours enabled respondents to see organizations and groups who they would never have had access to without the program, giving them a greater understanding of others’ needs, which in turn increased their ability to show their concern. One possible explanation for this response has been identified by Crace and Brown. “Roles in which they can heal, teach, help, mentor, or otherwise advance the welfare of others are the most satisfying to people holding this value” (1993, 1996, 2002, p. 3). The program or classroom days were cited as dissatisfying by some respondents. The source material

146 identified the locus of the dissatisfaction with the Valley Leadership program leadership not showing concern for participants and their desire for interaction and goal achievement in the program/classroom days. “However, a great deal of interpersonal frustration may occur with others who act in an uncaring or selfish manner” (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 3). While different in value identification, the Concern for Others value dissatisfaction is strongly tied to the Achievement value when it relates to the program/classroom days. The artifact analysis results support the strong position that Concern for Others holds in the program. All artifact elements contained references to Concern for Others with the exception of the staff reporter article. The staff reporter article was the only artifact examined that did not have direct input from Valley Leadership staff. Health and Activity Health and Activity, which represents the importance to be healthy and physically active (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002), presents a departure from the strong trends seen in the results already discussed. Health and Activity was identified as the third or forth primary and is listed below the Concern for Others value due to the lesser number of respondents who identified it as a first choice value. In view of the importance in the primary values list, the source data did not support this choice by respondents. In the source data, there was one example of a satisfying event and one example of a dissatisfying event. Teaching others about important issues (HIV) was cited as a satisfier. While this experience was not directly related to the value definition cited above, Crace and Brown stated, “Stress may also be experienced when people who value Health and Activity see others engage in unhealthy activities” (1993, 1996, 2002, p. 3). The

147 respondent cited may have sought to reduce stress in the Health and Activity value by increasing others’ ability to be more healthy through teaching the about HIV. The one citation in the dissatisfying category related to the program or classroom days and the exhaustion seen from the overabundance of information presented. This experience relates strongly to the dissatisfaction cited in the Achievement value, which identified an over reliance on lecture and the Concern for Others value, which identified a lack of concern by the Valley Leadership staff for the program participants. The artifact review revealed no specific links to the Health and Activity value. Independence Independence, which represents the importance of making decisions and doing tasks one’s own way (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002), held equal value (fifth or sixth) with Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) in the primary values list. While not identified as a top value by any respondent in the pilot group, it is listed as the fifth value due to a respondent noting it in second column for importance, while Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) had notations starting in the third column for importance. The 11 citations in the source data for positive experiences focused on meeting and working with others outside of the normal sphere of daily work and family life, tours and the knowledge gained from them, and the classroom experiences that encouraged independent thinking. The tours and the classroom experiences were also sited by respondents as areas for dissatisfaction, focusing primarily on the rigidity of the program structure and the lack of time to talk with others about the concepts being presented. The artifact review revealed that the Valley Leadership application contained the only reference to this value, indicating mandatory participation for program elements

148 (Leadership Institute Application Form, 2006). Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) is the final primary value to be discussed. “It is important to use logical principles to understand and solve problems” (Crace & Brown 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 4). Crace and Brown stated that people who value Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) perceive themselves as intelligent, creative, analytical, and curious (1993, 1996, 2002). The five citations from the source data indicated that the tours provided many opportunities for respondents to find satisfaction with this value as the tours encouraged analytical and deep thinking. The five citations on dissatisfying experiences identified the tours and program/classroom days for many of the same reasons identified above, an overabundance of important information with a program structure that did not allow for assimilation and application. All artifacts examined contained references to this value. First Research Question. The Valley Leadership programs Board of Directors, subgroup 1, were selected as the pilot group. The data provided by the pilot group was also used to satisfy the first research question, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy? Refer to Appendix G for the process used by the investigator to obtain information from the board members. The investigator attended the Board of Directors meeting on November 6, 2007, reviewing the trend information that had been provided to the board members prior to the meeting. The board members discussed the information in an open forum and provided general support to the findings produced from the analysis of the primary values; Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis).

149 An upcoming strategic planning session caused the board members to agree that they could not unilaterally support these values as the only ones to be used in determining what values the program is meant to support, but did agree that the primary values have been integral to the program throughout its history. The board members agreed to use the primary values as data within the strategic planning session. Reviewing the data from the pilot group produced these initial conclusions. Overall the pilot group felt that their participation in the Valley Leadership program was a positive experience, and their continued participation as board members has also satisfied their values. Specific areas for improvement that the pilot group identified were the program or classroom days, and the group projects, cited as non satisfying experiences for all primary values. The analysis of the program participant data will determine if these dissatisfying experiences are still present in the current program structure. The Health and Activity value was of importance to the pilot group, and the program as it was structured did not provide any direct opportunity for fulfillment of this value, nor was it present in the artifacts review. The analysis of the program participant data will determine if Health and Activity are in the primary values profile, and if so, what qualitative data showed for results. Data Analysis and Results for Program Participants from the 2006-2007 Program Year, Subgroup 2, Actual Study The Valley Leadership program participants from the 2006-2007 program year, subgroup 2, served as the actual study group. The 48 class participants were contacted by mail (see Appendixes A, B and C) to determine their willingness to participate. Twentyseven class members responded affirmatively.

150

Quantitative Data Analysis and Results The responses to the LVI survey provided the quantitative data results. Twenty class members completed the survey. Applied Psychology Resources provided raw trend data in a spreadsheet format (Table 16; Appendix J). Data sorting was used to identify trends for additional analysis. Table 17 (Appendix J) presents data sorted by frequency of responses to priority numbers 1 through 5, identified by the LVI as primary values (Crace, 2006). Analysis showed that Responsibility and Concern for Others were chosen as the top primary value by 75% of the respondents. The Responsibility value is seen in the number one slot due to a higher number of notations as a most important value. Creativity and Achievement were third and forth values in the primary list, both at 60%. Creativity was listed before Achievement due to the number of responses as the most important value. Creativity was identified by 35% of the respondents as the most important value. The Creativity value received the highest number of notations for the most important value. Spirituality was the final value in the primary list selected by 40% of respondents. Qualitative Data Collection Method The responses to the teleconference focus groups provided the primary qualitative data results. Twenty class participants participated in the qualitative data gathering in a series of five teleconference calls, using the same process as the pilot study (Appendix G). The external research firm analyzed the focus group data using the HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 software (Appendix M). Data obtained from five focus groups’ discussions were systematically organized and classified into categories, phrases,

151 sentences or whole paragraphs, which were linked by common codes (Leedy, 1997). The transcribed data were merged into a single document (Appendix M). The core categories centered on the following values: Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the Environment, Concern for Others, Creativity, Financial Prosperity, Health and Activity, Humility, Independence, Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Privacy, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), and Spirituality (Crace, 2002). The subcategories derive from the construct of the two research questions. Seventy-two codes were used to classify the experiences of the class participants (Appendix M). Table 9 shows the results of the coding analysis. “Fulfill” in the codes denotes the experiences of the class participants. “Satisfy” in the codes denotes and highlights the value or the attributes of the values that are most and least satisfied in relation to the experiences.

152 Table 9 Summary of Responses to RQ1 and RQ2 – Actual Study- Sorted by Primary Value Value Responsibility Concern for Others Most Fulfill 4 14 Most Satisfy 6 7 Least Fulfill 16 18 Least Satisfy 8 11

Creativity Achievement Spirituality Belonging Independence Privacy Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

7 22 6 32 12 4 19

5 6 3 24 6 2 9

19 11 0 8 8 11 18

21 2 0 1 6 5 5

Health and Activity

6

0

2

1

Loyalty to Family or Group

4

0

3

1

153 Value (Interdependence) Most Fulfill Most Satisfy Least Fulfill Least Satisfy

Financial Prosperity

2

0

3

0

Humility Concern for the Environment

9 4

1 1

1 2

0 1

154 The third research question in this study sought to determine which program elements satisfied the participants’ values and why. Providing data to answer this question required the researcher to review the source data generated by HyperRESEARCH ™ 2.8 software, review the edited focus group transcripts (Appendix M), and analyze these results against specific Valley Leadership program elements. The Valley Leadership program includes an orientation and 2-day retreat in September, program days held on the first Friday of each month through May, and graduation in June. Program days, held at sites in the Phoenix, Arizona area, explored a wide variety of issues, from the changing face of education in Arizona to the economy and the status of social services (Appendix B). In addition, participants were required to sign up for at least five tours that provide an up-close look at some of the organizations directly impacting Valley issues. Class members also completed a group project, which gave them a rare opportunity to review selected issue in-depth, and from a variety of viewpoints (Appendix B), a book reading, two book reading discussion meetings , and an evening for the arts (Leadership Institute Application, 2006). Qualitative Data Analysis and Results The LVI was the primary quantitative data-gathering instrument. The second research question in this study, what are the values profiles of the participants is seen in the trend data from the 20 subgroup 2 members who completed the LVI (Appendix J). The primary values were; Responsibility, Concern for Others, Creativity, Achievement, and Spirituality. Primary values guide behavior most frequently (Crace, 2006) and the core analysis in answer to the third research question, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why, focused on how the primary values were satisfied or

155 dissatisfied within the Valley Leadership program. The LVI provides information to respondents on primary and secondary values for life planning purposes. Data analysis supporting the third research question did surface information that was derived from reviewing the secondary or partially expressed values, those values ranked sixth through 14th. “These values may be frequently expressed and important but are less prominent than your primary values” (Crace, 2006). The secondary values list for the actual study group were; Belonging, Independence, Privacy, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), Health and Activity, Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Financial Prosperity, Humility, Concern for the Environment. The quantitative trend information (see Table 16) was provided to the actual group participants in preparation for the primary qualitative data gathering, the teleconference focus groups. The focus groups were asked to provide two examples of program elements that satisfied/fulfilled their values and program elements that did not satisfy/fulfill their values. The source data provided trends from the actual group indicated that the values satisfied in the program were; Belonging, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), Achievement, Concern for Others, and Independence. The trend data indicated that the values not satisfied in the program were; Creativity, Concern for Others, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), and Privacy (Appendix N). Analysis of Values and Program Experiences The teleconference focus groups results provided the primary data the answer to the third research question for this study, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why. Review of the source data showed that one activity may

156 have satisfied/fulfilled or not satisfied/fulfilled several values. Trend data on positive and negative experiences resulting from analysis of source data (teleconference transcripts) conducted by the external research firm (Appendix M) is shown in Tables 10-14. The tables show experiences for each specific program element, lists both positive and negative responses and cites which values the participants referenced in their responses. Table 10 Trend Data from Program Element – Program Days Positive Experiences (Fulfilling/Satisfying) Negative Experiences (Not Fulfilling/Not Satisfying)

Broadened participant horizons through introductions to topics (i.e., art, technology, education, history, issues in the community) that participants’ had not been exposed to before.

Some program days- not relevant to Valley Leadership mission.

Program days did not provide a lot of interaction time, schedule was rigid, and did not allow for any creativity.

Learned from great local leaders who really understood the issues Lecture by previous class for not being good Valley Leadership students. Helped participants’ to understand the needs of the community, discussions on important issues.
Note. Values cited: Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the Environment, Concern for Others, Creativity, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

157

Table 11 Trend Data from Program Element – Tours Positive Experiences (Fulfilling/Satisfying) Numerous specific mentions for positive experience on tours were; Police ride along, Fire department, Education Day. Negative Experiences (Not Fulfilling/Not Satisfying) Lack of coordination with overall program strategy Some tours better coordinated than others, with more relevant information.
Note. Values cited: Achievement, Belonging, Concern for Others, Creativity, Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

Table 12 Trend Data from Program Element - Group Projects Positive Experiences (Fulfilling/Satisfying) Provided the opportunity to grow as a leader. Provided opportunity to work with others on projects of importance to the community. Encouraged bonding at a deep level. Provided an opportunity to creatively solve problems.
Note. Values cited – Achievement, Belonging, Creativity, Concern for Others, Financial Prosperity, Health and Activity, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

Negative Experiences (Not Fulfilling/Not Satisfying) Project was stressful. Didn’t give the project the full attention it needed.

158 Table 13 Trend Data from Program Element - Retreat Positive Experiences (Fulfilling/Satisfying) Entire retreat provided opportunities to meet each other and start to develop relationships that would grow through the rest of the year Emergenetics Useful as a precursor to the year. Increased ability to understand self and others. Helped in problem solving with other people. Emergenetics Too much time spent. Not structured appropriately. Negative Experiences (Not Fulfilling/Not Satisfying)

Circle Exercise Brought the class together immediately and helped define strategic alignment in the group. Got to know people outside of their own environment. Reduced bias and stereotyping.

Circle Exercise Some discomfort because people were not prepared to share experiences.

Note. Values cited: Achievement, Belonging, Concern for Others, Creativity, Health and Activity, Humility, Independence, Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Privacy, Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), Spirituality

159 Table 14 Trend Data from Program Element - Other Program Events Positive Experiences (Fulfilling/Satisfying) Sweat Lodge Very powerful because it connected people in a way that is so different than ordinary interactions. A very deep level of bonding Reduced bias and stereotyping Book discussions Book discussions Books outdated Too many people in room for a good discussion Poor facilitation Many did not read the book
Note. Values cited: Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence), Responsibility, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

Negative Experiences (Not Fulfilling/Not Satisfying) Sweat Lodge

Strong trends were seen in the relationships of the primary values identified in the LVI, and information gained from the focus groups. The primary values for the actual study (subgroup 2) were; Responsibility, Concern for Others, Creativity, Achievement, and Spirituality. Summary analysis of focus group data for primary values is presented below. Additional commentary on the secondary values Belonging and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) are presented due to the high of frequency of citations in the source material.

160 Responsibility Responsibility “It is important to be dependable and trustworthy” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 4) was identified as the top primary value. The source data showed that respondents had more experiences that did not satisfy or fulfill their expectations (24) than experiences that were satisfying or fulfilling (10). Program experiences that were cited as not fulfilling centered mainly on the abrupt departure of the program director after a 6-year tenure. Respondents felt that the Valley Leadership staff was not responsible in their handling of this situation. Some respondents cited spoiled food at one program/classroom day as another instance of Valley Leadership staff not being responsible. Program/classroom days were cited by some respondents as ways to help them understand how to be more responsible in helping others. Concern for Others Respondents identified Concern for Others as equal in importance to responsibility by overall score. Experiences cited by respondents supported the trend seen in Responsibility with a greater number of not fulfilling/satisfying experiences (29) than fulfilling/satisfying (21). The poor communication from the Valley Leadership staff about the program director’s departure was described as a lack of concern by Valley Leadership staff for the program participants. Spoiled food was also cited as a sign of poor concern by Valley Leadership staff. Tours, program/classroom days and the sweat lodge were cited by respondents as positive experiences (21) for similar reasons described in the Responsibility value; being able to serve the community and help others. Creativity Creativity, third in the overall primary values list, and identified by the greatest

161 number of respondents (7) as the most important value, was cited more often than either Responsibility or Concern for others in the least fulfill/satisfy categories (40). Crace and Brown’s definition of Creativity may provide an explanation for this data point as described below. “It is important to have new ideas or to create new things” (1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). One area of dissatisfaction focused on two experiences in the retreat, the circle exercise and the Emergenetics profiling tool debrief. “Emergenetics is a way of describing people by using four thinking attributes and three behavioural attributes” (Browning, 2006, ¶ 1). Respondents felt that the exercises were valuable, but the circle exercise was not structured to spur creative thinking and too much time was spent on the Emergenetics debrief. Other areas of dissatisfaction identified a lack of integrating individual program elements (i.e., tours, program days) into an overall strategy. This dissatisfaction may have a basis in other areas of Crace and Brown’s definition (1993, 1996, 2002) which describes those who value creativity as intelligent and imaginative. The perceived lack of strategy may have inhibited the ability of participants to exercise their intelligence in problem solving “They are likely to experience stress when their ability to use their imagination to solve problems is restricted” (1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). Achievement The forth primary value, Achievement, had the second highest number of citations in the source material for fulfilling/satisfying experiences (28) “Satisfaction of this value may come in many ways including the accumulation of knowledge, helping others, performing physical feats, setting challenging personal goals and working to achieve them. . .” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). Review of the source material and transcripts revealed that respondents found

162 satisfaction with this value in all of the learning experiences associated with the program and specifically cited learning from recognized [Valley] leaders, the information gained in program/classroom days, tours, the group project and the Emergenetics tool. The group project was also cited as an achievement to be proud of because extra time an effort was required to complete it“[p]utting forth extra effort to accomplish a goal. . .” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). Citations on dissatisfying experiences supported two areas discussed earlier, the lack of integrating program elements (i.e., tours, program days) into an overall strategy and the departure of the program director. The strategy dissatisfaction may be related to the perceived inability to accomplish goals, a key component of achievement (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002). The departure of the program director caused dissatisfaction in the achievement value primarily due to the unique skills and abilities brought to the program by the director. Citations from the source materials and transcripts indicated the program director’s capability to ask provoking questions, inspire new thinking and encourage participant to set and achieve challenging goals. Trends from the data suggest that the departure of the program director left a void in this area. Spirituality The final primary value in the actual study, Spirituality, was the only value that had no citations for unfulfilling/unsatisfying program experiences. This may be due in part to the definition “It is important to have spiritual beliefs that reflect being a part of something greater than myself” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 4). The Valley Leadership’s current mission statement, “enhance the abilities of individuals to serve and strengthen our communities” (2004, ¶ 1), suggests that participants will be joining in an

163 effort that is greater than themselves, fulfilling the definition cited above. Respondents identified two experiences in nine citations which fulfilled their Spirituality value; the circle exercise and the sweat lodge, both part of the leadership retreat, stating that these experiences encouraged the to become part of the larger group, and increase their ability to be more open minded. Satisfaction with the Belonging value, while not cited specifically as a primary value, is associated with Spirituality as seen in the definition; “It is important to be accepted by others and to feel included. Social recognition and inclusion in work and social groups is important” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). Belonging Belonging value was listed sixth in importance in the trend results becoming a secondary value. This value received the highest number of citations from the source material (56) in fulfilling/satisfying experiences and showed a strong relationship to those cited by the pilot group centering on activities that included group or individual belonging; meeting with others, tours, program/classroom days and group projects. Additional experiences cited by program participants in this area included the circle exercise, the Emergenetics tool, the sweat lodge, and networking activities outside of the core program structure (such as happy hours). These experiences may not have been included in the program at the time the pilot group members participated in the Valley Leadership program, which is a possible cause for lack of citations referencing them. Dissatisfying experiences (9) also showed a strong relationship to the pilot group and included lack of time to build the relationships; and rigid classroom structure.

164 Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) a secondary value (Crace, 2006), may have been a factor in the dissatisfaction with the lack of program structure and overall strategy. While there were large number of citations on the dissatisfaction elements of the circle exercise, Emergenetics and tours, there were also many citations of fulfilling and satisfying experiences in these areas (12). These respondents saw the circle exercise as a tool for strategic alignment within the group, increased knowledge and understanding of classmates, and reducing bias and stereotypes. The Emergenetics tool and debrief was described as a way to better understand themselves, their classmates, and increase problem solving abilities. Response to Research Questions 1-3 The purpose of this single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction and participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based, community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The data generated by the analysis of the pilot, subgroup 1, and actual study, subgroup 2, produced results that showed strong trends of values consistent with both groups and strong areas of discrepancy. This section will review the responses to the first three research questions (see Table 1), followed by a specific section which addresses areas of similarity and discrepancy between pilot and actual study. A summary ends the chapter. Research Questions 1-3 The first research question in this study, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy was addressed by the results of the pilot study,

165 subgroup 1. The investigator attended the Board of Directors meeting on November 6, 2007, reviewing the trend information that had been provided to the board members prior to the meeting. During the meeting, the board members provided general support to the findings produced from the analysis of the primary values; Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) and agreed that they could not unilaterally support these values as the only ones to be used in determining what values the program is meant to support, but did agree that the primary values have been integral to the program throughout its history. The values serve as a foundation for inclusion in an upcoming strategic planning session. The second research question in this study, what are the values profiles of the participants, and the third research question, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why, were addressed by the data gathered from both subgroups. The primary values for subgroup 1 were Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Responsibility was chosen as the most important value by 36% of the respondents. Achievement and Concern for Others were both chosen by 18% of the respondents as their most important value, and Creativity, Health and Activity, Independence, and Spirituality were chosen by 7%. The primary values profiles of subgroup 2 were Responsibility, Concern for Others, Creativity, Achievement, and Spirituality. Responsibility and Concern for Others were chosen as the top primary value by 75% of the respondents. The Responsibility value is seen in the number one slot due to a higher number of notations as a most important value. Creativity and Achievement were third and forth values in the primary

166 list, both at 60%. Creativity was listed before Achievement due to the number of responses as the most important value. Creativity was identified by 35% of the respondents as the most important value. The Creativity value received the highest number of notations for the most important value. Spirituality was the final value in the primary list selected by 40% of respondents. The third research question, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why, yielded an overall result of participant satisfaction with their experience in the Valley Leadership program, citing many experiences that satisfied their primary values. Subgroup 1 comments on satisfying experiences in the program included; continuing to be involved in program post graduation, exposure to experiences and individuals that are outside of normal sphere, networking, the tours, being engaged on a peer level with other emerging leaders, and developing relationships with others on a deep level. Comments on elements which were dissatisfying included; group projects not recognized appropriately, some program/ classroom days not structured well, and inadequate opportunities to bond and build rapport and long range friendships. Comments on satisfaction and fulfillment with the program from subgroup 2 included; building long term relationships with others and participating in their success, learning to leave stereotypes behind, being much more informed on a variety of issues after program completion than prior to entering program, a chance to meet with others not necessarily part my daily work and home life, and broadening of intellectual horizons through introductions to topics (i.e., art, history, politics) outside of previous experience. A major dissatisfying trend seen throughout both primary and secondary values for subgroup 2 focused on the abrupt departure of the program director after a six

167 year tenure. Many participants commented on this event indicating their dissatisfaction on many levels. Specific comments included feedback on poor communication from the Valley Leadership staff, decreased quality of facilitation for many events including; program days and book discussion groups, reduced structure to program events, and adherence overall program strategy (Appendix M). Subgroup 1 and Subgroup 2 The data generated by the analysis of the pilot, subgroup 1, and actual study, subgroup 2, produced results that showed strong trends of values consistent with both groups and strong areas of discrepancy. This section will discuss areas of similarity and discrepancy. Chapter 5 will recommend solutions to strengthen areas of similarity and reduce areas of discrepancy. Areas of Similarity Primary values for both groups included Achievement, Concern for Others, and Responsibility. Frequency of satisfy experience citations in the source material for Achievement and Concern for Others in both groups were in the top quartile. Achievement was present in all artifacts reviewed. Artifact review for Concern for Others revealed that indications of this value were present in all artifacts within the span of control of the Valley Leadership staff; an employee of the Valley Leadership Program wrote website, mission, program application form and an article. Responsibility was present in all artifacts except program staff member article. Program elements that were satisfying for both groups in the Achievement and Concern for Others values were meeting and developing relationships with others that would not meet in daily life, gaining new knowledge, tours, group projects, and a chance to serve the community.

168 Responsibility was cited frequently from a satisfaction perspective for subgroup1 members, but had a low frequency in the source material from subgroup 2. Reviewing the source material for experiences that were satisfying focused not on an individual program event, but more on the program experience as a whole, working to make the community a better place through community service. The departure of the program director produced many citations in the source material as dissatisfying for this value and others. Belonging was a secondary value for both groups, and the source data indicated the highest number of satisfy citations of all values for both groups. Belonging was seen in all artifacts reviewed. Program elements that were satisfying for both groups showed strong relationship to those seen in Achievement and Concern for Others and included; meeting and developing relationships with others that would not meet in daily life, and the tours. Areas of dissatisfaction for these values for both groups included some program/classroom days structured poorly reducing the ability to interact with others and develop the relationships seen by both as critical to satisfaction in the program. Both groups felt that the group project could have been structured more effectively to increase satisfaction with these values, but the data did not reveal specific suggestions for improvement. Areas of Discrepancy There were several areas of discrepancy for primary values between the pilot group, subgroup 1, and the actual group, subgroup 2, in the study. Subgroup 1 selected Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) in the remainder slots for their primary values. Subgroup 2 selected Creativity and

169 Spirituality in the remainder slots for their primary values. Creativity and Spirituality were at the top of the secondary values list for subgroup 1, which reduces the amount of discrepancy. Reviewing the source material for program areas that provided satisfaction for both groups did not yield a strong trend. Both groups cited the tours and the program participants cited circle exercise and the Emergenetics. Reviewing the source materials for trends in dissatisfying or unfulfilling experiences showed some that both groups felt improvement could be made in group projects. Subgroup 2 expressed dissatisfaction with the lack of an overarching strategy between program elements. Spirituality was the fifth primary value for subgroup 2 and the seventh for subgroup 1. This discrepancy is not large and program elements that were cited by both groups included developing deep relationships with others, with specific mention made to exercises in the leadership retreat. The remaining discrepancies of primary values were; Health and Activity, forth for subgroup1, 10th for subgroup 2, Independence, fifth for subgroup1, seventh for subgroup 2, and Scientific Understanding for Objective Analysis, sixth for subgroup 1, and ninth for subgroup 2. The greatest priority difference is in the Health and Activity value. Although it was forth in primary values list for subgroup 1, only one citation citing satisfaction with this value was cited in the source material; teaching others about a healthy life through education about HIV. Subgroup 2 placed this value in 10th place, but did express satisfaction about this value though the sweat lodge experience. Both groups expressed dissatisfaction with this value by citing program requirements (group project, rigid program/classroom day) placing additional life stress on them. The Independence value priorities were much closer than Health and Activity, fifth for subgroup 1 and

170 seventh for subgroup 2. Citation frequency in the source material showed independence in the top quartile for both groups in the satisfying experiences category. Trends seen in this value focused on the ability to gain exposure to experiences (i.e., tours) and individuals (class members and speakers) outside of the normal sphere of work and family life, and the capacity to give input freely into discussions about important issues. Dissatisfying experiences cited by both groups were in the top half for citation frequency and both groups cited rigid program/classroom days as reduction in independence. Subgroup 2 cited the departure of the program director in this category as a dissatisfying experience. The value Scientific Understanding for Objective Analysis was sixth for subgroup 1, and ninth for subgroup 2 in priority order. Citation frequency in the source material showed Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) in the top quartile for both groups in both the satisfying and dissatisfying experiences categories. Common areas of satisfying experiences for this value included the experiences, which fulfill the definition of this value “People who hold this value perceive themselves to be logical, intelligent, creative, analytical, critical, curious, precise, independent, and introspective” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 4) and included the tours, program/classroom days and the retreat. An area of common dissatisfaction was the lack of time to talk about experiences and learnings gained from the experiences, reducing the ability to be analytical. The participant group cited the book discussion, the lack of relationship between the tours and the overarching goals of the program, and the departure of the program director in this category as dissatisfying experiences.

171 Summary Values can be the foundation of decision-making for many life activities (Connor & Becker, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003). Reviewing the values trend data and analysis against program content and materials can provide areas for increased effectiveness, improvement, and satisfaction by program participants. Achievement, Concern for Others and Belonging were seen in all data analysis processes as values that are integral to the program. Program elements that provided great satisfaction to both groups focused on relationship building and the tours. Program elements that were dissatisfying focused on times when participants could not build relationships and learn. Responsibility was a primary value for both groups with the source material revealing that total program experience, working to make the community a better place through community service providing the greatest degree of satisfaction. There were several discrepancies in primary values between groups. Creativity was a secondary value for subgroup 1 and a primary value for subgroup 2. Creativity was third in priority for subgroup 2 and eighth for subgroup 1. One recurring theme of dissatisfaction for subgroup 1 in the Creativity value dealt with a perceived lack of an overarching strategy between program elements, potentially reducing the effectiveness of each element. The program activities supporting Spirituality satisfaction included developing deep relationships with others, with specific mention made to exercises in the leadership retreat. The Independence value was primary for subgroup 1 and secondary for subgroup 2 with only a spread of two priority levels. The value Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) was sixth (subgroup 1), and ninth (subgroup 2) in priority order with both groups citing tours and other experiences as ways to provide opportunities for

172 critical thinking. The dissatisfying trends followed notations seen in other values indicating lack of time to talk about the information. Several overall trends were seen in this data analysis. The overwhelming majority of respondents expressed overall satisfaction with their participation in the Valley Leadership experiences. This high endorsement was balanced by some specific areas for improvement for additional satisfaction with the program. These recommendations focused in two areas, a time element and a strategy element. The time element included increased time to build relationships; both long range and deep, and time to assimilate information gained from the other program elements. The strategy element was based on the need for participants to understand how each program element related to others and how they all fit into the overall program strategy. Improvements in these areas could yield greater satisfaction for future participants and enhance the overall effectiveness of the program. Chapter 5 explores the significance of the data presented, discusses conclusions and implications, and presents recommendations for future research.

173 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Galloway, 1997; Saslow, 2005). Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown, 2003; Spalding, 2003). If the community leadership program managers are to continue identifying and grooming future community leaders, then studying the link between personal values and program participation may produce valuable insights for use in increasing program effectiveness. The problem addressed in the research was decreased citizen involvement in leadership efforts and the increased need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Chase, 2001; Saslow, 2005). The purpose of the single case study, supported by a mixed method data gathering process, was to understand the relationship of personal values satisfaction to participation in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Understanding how personal values can affect life choices and satisfaction with those choices is supported by Crace (2006) who stated, “Understanding our values is one of the most important factors in determining satisfaction in our work, relationships, and leisure activities” (¶ 1). This case study focused on and collected data from students who had participated in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. This population was homogeneous as each member

174 completed the Valley Leadership program (Creswell, 2005; Salkind, 2003). The two subgroups or populations elements were the current Valley Leadership program Board of Directors, subgroup 1, and the Valley Leadership program participants from the 20062007 program year, subgroup 2. The results of the study provided answers to the research questions: 1. What are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy? 2. What are the values profiles of the participants? 3. Which program elements satisfied the participants values and why? 4. How can community leadership programs incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles? Chapter 5 includes conclusions and implications from this study, and recommendations for possible changes to the Valley Leadership program for increased effectiveness. Discussion of how the conclusions reached in this study apply to other leadership programs is also presented in specific response to research questions. Recommendations, significance of the study to leadership, areas for future research, are also discussed. The summary reviews overall insights learned from the study. Conclusions The case study focus was to understand what values based needs encouraged participants to join and maintain membership in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. The case study offered an opportunity to review the values from several perspectives in (a) the pilot and (b) the actual studies, and from the review of artifacts. The results of the analysis provided the

175 foundation for conclusions, recommendations, areas for future research and the answers to the fourth research question, how community leadership programs can incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles. The following two conclusions emerged from the study on incorporating values into community leadership programs. The first conclusion is that community leadership development programs should have a clearly defined set of foundational core values, which should be reviewed regularly to ensure that they meet the changing needs of the community and the values profiles of potential program participants. These values should be integrated into the mission, vision, goals and objectives and all other elements of program development, recruitment processes, and publicity to ensure the strongest relationship between the program values and those that are part of the profiles of the participants. The second conclusion is that the creation of a personal values profile including the identification of primary and secondary values can provide an individual with a foundation to increase their satisfaction with activities they choose to participate in and build leadership capability. This section will address these conclusions in more detail. Core Values Profile Creation and Integration The results of the data analysis in seen in chapter 4 supports the conclusion the Valley Leadership Board of Directors should create a set of foundational core values and integrate these values into all program elements to ensure the strongest relationship between the program values and those that are part of the profiles of the participants. The Board of Directors function as the leaders of the Valley Leadership program. Two of their key roles are to craft the program’s strategic direction and provide direction to the

176 curriculum development staff on individual program events, goals, and outcomes. Researchers (Collins, 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Lencioni, 2002) have found that the leader’s values permeate the organization impacting organizational structures and work processes. If the primary values of the board were not in alignment with the primary values profiles of the participants, the resulting gap may have produced dissatisfiers for program participants. Data analysis of the first three research questions provides additional support to the first conclusion, creation of a set of foundational core values. The first research question, what are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy?, was completed by analyzing the results of the pilot study made up of the Valley Leadership program Board of Directors, subgroup 1. The actual study gathered values data and program satisfaction information from the 2006-2007 program year participants, subgroup 2. Comparing these data sets showed that there were discrepancies in the primary values between the two groups, possibly contributing to the dissatisfaction of subgroup 2. The long-range implication of the gap may be the reduction of applicants for the program, which will increase the gap between the leaders needed and those ready to lead, the core problem identified for this study. During the member-checking processes, the Board of Directors agreed that the values the program was developed to satisfy included Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). The values will serve as a foundation for inclusion in an upcoming strategic planning session. These foundational core values were examined for similarities and differences with the primary values trend profile obtained through the actual study, in fulfillment of

177 the second research question, what are the values profiles of the participants? The trend in primary values profiles of the participants were; Responsibility, Concern for Others, Creativity, Achievement, and Spirituality. Several important results were obtained from this analysis. Primary values for both groups included Achievement, Concern for Others, and Responsibility. Achievement was present in all artifacts reviewed and Concern for Others was present in all artifacts within the span of control of the Valley Leadership staff. Responsibility was present in all artifacts except program staff member articles. There were several areas of discrepancy for primary values between subgroup 1 and subgroup 2. Subgroup 1 selected Health and Activity, Independence, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) in the remainder slots for their primary values. Subgroup 2 selected Creativity and Spirituality in the remainder slots for their primary values. These differences may have contributed to the areas of dissatisfaction for the subgroup 2 as seen in the research results of the third research question, which program elements satisfied the participants values and why? Two examples from the source data support this conclusion (Appendix N). One recurring theme of dissatisfaction for subgroup 2 in the Creativity value dealt with a perceived lack of an overarching strategy between program elements, potentially reducing the effectiveness of each element. Another theme of dissatisfaction from the source data for the participant group in the Creativity value were the program days as a dissatisfying and non-fulfilling experience. The creation and implementation of a set of foundational core values for the Valley Leadership program based on primary values is important to future program improvements but is not the only value element that needs to be considered. The data did show an area of strong alignment in one secondary value for both groups. Belonging was

178 a secondary value for both groups, and the source data indicated the highest number of satisfy citations of all values for both groups (Appendixes K and N). Belonging was seen in all artifacts reviewed (Appendix L). There are several possible explanations for this discrepancy between quantitative and qualitative importance. The definition of Belonging may be one key. “It is important to be accepted by others and to feel included. Social recognition and inclusion in work and social groups is important” (Crace & Brown, 1993, 1996, 2002, p. 2). Reviewing the source data for the primary values indicated that many satisfactory experiences centered on activities that included group or individual belonging; meeting with others, tours, group projects. There were many references in the source data (Appendixes K and N) to building long-term relationships and meeting with others outside of the normal daily work or family life sphere, which also supports the definition cited above. Therefore, the value of Belonging in this case may be inherent in achieving satisfaction with the primary values. To build a long term relationship with others implies feeling included, a key piece of the definition stated above. Dissatisfying experiences focused on the lack of time to build these relationships. A second explanation may lie in the relationship between primary, those values ranked in the first five places, and secondary or partially expressed values, ranked in sixth through 14th place (Crace, 2006). The scoring system in the LVI contains both a rating and a ranking component. In the rating component, individuals used a Likert style scale in rating 42 beliefs to determine how much any belief guides behavior. These results are automatically scored, and respondents are then requested to rank their results to produce a prioritized list of values. The Belonging value may have scored highly in the rating step, but due to the ranking constraints, “There should be no tied rankings” (Crace, 2006); the

179 Belonging value may have been relegated to the secondary values. Maslow’s (1962, 1971) hierarchy of human needs supports other thoughts on the Belonging value data point. Maslow’s work was based in large part on an individual’s desire to satisfy certain physiological and psychological needs to attain a satisfying and healthy life. The hierarchy was cumulative in design, hypothesizing that needs were satisfied in an ascending fashion. Huitt (2004) described the two groupings as deficiency, or lower order, and growth, or higher order. Within the deficiency group, there are four levels; physiological, safety/security, belonginess and love, and esteem. Each need must be satisfied before the next need can be attempted. Maslow (1962) posited in order to achieve a high-level of satisfaction in the growth needs hierarchy levels, fulfillment of the B or belonging values must be satisfied. It may be possible that the group had fulfilled their need for the Belonging value and were seeking greater fulfillment in the growth needs hierarchy levels. This strong area of alignment for a secondary value in the source data for both groups indicates a need to explore the systemic relationship between primary and secondary values. Hague stated, “Our understanding of value relationships, if it is to encompass something of their complexity, must go beyond the linear to a systemic concept” (1993, ¶ 28). Cited examples of Belonging as a satisfying experience did include specific reference to individual program elements that included group or individual belonging; meeting with others, tours, group projects, but many citations (Appendixes K and N) referred to the entire program experience as one that satisfied the Belonging value. Hague’s statement supports the need to understand how values interact with each other when creating a foundational core values profile.

180 Integrating the set of foundational core values into all areas of the organization; mission, vision, recruitment, program development is part of an overall process of strategic alignment. Tosti and Jackson (1994) supported an organizational alignment process as a way to get the organization headed in the same direction, which can result in long term organizational health and improved profits. The data collected from subgroup 1 through the pilot study helped to create a set of foundational core values that could be used by the Valley Leadership Board of Directors for strategic planning and program improvement. The analysis of the data for all data elements (Table 8) showed a strong relationship between the primary values and many of the artifacts examined. These core primary values, Responsibility, Achievement, Concern for Others, Health and Activity, Independence, Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), can be a part of the overall strategic planning process. Additional examination of the primary values of subgroup 2 as well as secondary values information, including Belonging, must be examined during the planning process to determine which values will become foundational to the Valley Leadership program Individual Values Profile Creation and Leadership Development The LVI was the primary quantitative data-gathering instrument for this study. All groups completed the LVI. The raw data for each group were sorted to produce a prioritized list of primary and secondary values (Crace, 2006). Table 5 shows this list for the pilot and Table 17 shows the list for the actual study. Crace stated, “Research has shown that understanding our values is one of the most important factors in determining satisfaction in our work, relationships, and leisure activities” (2006, ¶ 1). An important conclusion drawn from this research is that the creation of a values profile can provide

181 individuals with powerful and proactive planning tools to increase their satisfaction with activities in which they choose to participate. The Valley Leadership program requires a substantive time and energy commitment, which includes nine days of classroom activities, tours and book discussions. If participants understand their values and are provided with individual program element information including goals, formats, outcomes, they can specifically plan to ensure their values are satisfied by noting which elements are most important to them and increasing their participation. Hitlin and Piliavin (2004) support the concept of action planning to increase values satisfaction. “Values play an important, if unarticulated, role in action. Values, commonly conceived of as ideal ends within an action situation, need to incorporate the means through which they will be reached” (p. 364). Implications Conclusions from this study have implications to community leadership and corporate leadership programs. The study’s findings are generalizable in the following areas, aiding community and corporate leadership programs in creating a set of foundational core values and aligning them with program objectives and participant satisfaction. There are several ways for community leadership programs to create a set of foundational core values, assess the values profiles of program participants, determine areas of similarity and discrepancy, and create action plans for change. One method is to duplicate the process used in this study. The LVI was the primary quantitative datagathering instrument for this study. Both groups completed the LVI, which produced a list of primary and secondary values (Crace, 2006). The pilot study was conducted to

182 create a set of foundational core values that could be used by the Valley Leadership Board of Directors for strategic planning and program improvement. Martinette and Dunford (2004) stressed the importance of integrating shared values into the organization as part of strategic thinking. “Once strategic thinking forms the basis of your organization’s forward progress, the alignment of decision making and uniform discipline evolves out of a set of shared values” (p. 98). Another method could be the completion of a best practices benchmarking study with other community leadership programs or working with community leadership program associations such as The Community Leadership Association (Community Leadership Association, 2006) to determine what work they have competed in this area, select which best practices would apply to their program, and implement these changes. While there are numerous types of community leadership programs, the research confirmed that many have similar components including; missions and goals relating to contributing to the common good, recruitment of a diverse group of participants to attain a cross functional mix of age, gender, race, education and income levels, regular meeting and events, an improvement project and a recommendation that alumni remain involved after program completion to pass along knowledge and support future efforts (Armstrong Young ,1985; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown; 2003; Pigg, 2001). The completion of a benchmarking study would provide benefits to each leadership program that participated as well as benefiting the entire community of community leadership programs. For this study, the need to focus on one community leadership program was based on the premise that while similar in vision, community leadership programs have similarities and differences in content and implementation dictated by location,

183 demographic composition, desired outcomes, participants, and how the program is classified. The regional and individual program differences including program curriculum design, operation, and local population needs make multi-program studies difficult (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Fredericks, 1998). The results of this limitation created a methodology and process that can enhance the ability of other community leadership programs to produce a customized set of core values for use in strategic planning and program improvement. Recommendations In the conclusions section, information was presented supporting the conclusion creating a foundational set of core values and integrating the values into all areas of the organization can be helpful to increased program effectiveness and participant satisfaction. This case study focused on how community leadership programs can reduce the gap between the community’s leadership needs and the available supply. Research on changing community conditions provided information on the need to change the way in which leadership capability is developed as one where leaders use a collection of skills and actions to encourage participation by all members, share responsibility, develop new leaders and enable groups to work toward effective goal achievement, and social capital maintained and increased (The Civic Leadership for the Common Good: Leadership Development in Appalachian Kentucky Report, 1996). The role values satisfaction has on membership in community leadership programs was explored in the Appalachian Kentucky Report. If people make choices based on the need to satisfy personal values (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 2002; Kouzes & Posner, 2002) then investigating leadership and values fulfillment based on the participants’ actions in the

184 community leadership program could provide information to the fields of formal and selfleadership for both the community-based leadership efforts as well as their corporate counterparts. The following steps are recommended to the Valley Leadership program in order to achieve the goal of identifying and grooming leaders to meet future community needs. Integrating a Core Values Profile into Strategic Planning Efforts The Valley Leadership Board of Directors engages in strategic planning efforts to help determine the long-range future of the organization. Completing and incorporating a set of foundational core values using the results of this research into the strategic planning process will provide additional data for the board to use in strategic alignment. Argandona (2003) suggested that the process of discussing and defining values must be repeated regularly or when major internal or external changes take place. Stakeholder involvement in the planning process can include potential leadership program participants and external stakeholders such as community and corporate leaders. Allison and Kaye (2005) stated that involving external stakeholders offers additional perspective on the organization’s strategic decision-making and creates a closer relationship with the organization. This improved working relationship can produce results that impact the problem identified in this study; citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Chase, 2001; Saslow, 2005), by reducing growth problems faced by community leadership programs. These results are discussed below. A review of the current literature revealed many challenges facing community

185 leadership program growth including funding provided by external stakeholders (Azzam and Riggio, 2003). Statistics from The National Center for Charitable Statistics (2007) indicated that there were over 5000 non-profit organizations in Arizona. Many nonprofits, such as the Valley Leadership program, rely heavily on external support. The Valley Leadership program is underwritten by many local large organizations such as Wells Fargo and American Express (2004, ¶ 1). Involving the external stakeholders in addition to those who already underwrite the Valley Leadership program could lead to increased funding, providing many benefits to the program. One example of a significant benefit would be to use additional funding to create scholarships, increasing the number of potential applicants to the program. The tuition cost is for the Valley Leadership program is $2,750, including all materials and supplies. This high dollar amount may prevent applicants from applying due to personal financial circumstances. Integrating a Values Profile Throughout All Valley Leadership Program Elements The foundational core values completion will provide many opportunities for the Valley Leadership board and staff to incorporate these values into all program elements and materials. Lencioni stated, “If they’re really going to take hold in your organization, your core values need to be integrated into every employee-related process- hiring methods, performance management systems, criteria for promotion and rewards and even dismissal policies” (2002, p. 8). One model that can be used to achieve the goal of integration is the Baldrige National Quality Program: Criteria for Performance Excellence (U. S. Department of Commerce, 2006). The Baldrige framework provides organizational leadership connectivity to the results of the organization through human resource, process management, metrics, analysis, and knowledge management systems

186 through direct communication and feedback channels (U. S. Department of Commerce, 2006). In 2007, the Baldrige National Quality Program was expanded to include nonprofit organizations (U. S. Department of Commerce, 2006). While this recommendation does not include the Valley Leadership board applying for this award, the framework is valuable as a planning tool. Once the foundational core values work has been completed, many areas can be revised immediately to reflect the values work. The Valley Leadership website (Valley Leadership, 2004). contains information on mission, history, and programs. Reviewing the website after the foundational core values have been created and revising the information to more accurately reflect the organization’s foundational core values will provide many benefits including educating visitors to the website including program participants, corporate sponsors, and the media on the organizations foundational values. Another area that may be reviewed for additional values based revisions is the Valley Leadership program application and selection process. Applying for program admission shares some common themes with a job application process. Braddy, Meade, and Kroustalis (2006) cited Kristfoff (1996) in asserting the applicants are attracted to work environments that are compatible with their values and additionally stated that a good fit between organizational and personal values can result in increased employee organizational commitment and decreased turnover. Changing the website and the program admission process to reflect foundational core organizational values can enhance the Valley Leadership selection process and satisfaction with program elements. Once the foundational core values work has been completed, many areas can be revised immediately to reflect the values work. The Valley Leadership website (Valley

187 Leadership, 2004) contains information on mission, history, and programs. Reviewing the website after the foundational core values have been created and revising the information to more accurately reflect the organization’s foundational core values will provide many benefits including educating visitors to the website such as program participants, corporate sponsors, and the media on the organizations foundational values. Another area that may be reviewed for additional values based revisions is the Valley Leadership program application and selection process. Applying for program admission shares some common themes with a job application process. Braddy, Meade, and Kroustalis (2006) cited Kristfoff (1996) in asserting the applicants are attracted to work environments that are compatible with their values and additionally stated that a good fit between organizational and personal values can result in increased employee organizational commitment and decreased turnover. Changing the website and the program admission process to reflect foundational core organizational values can enhance the Valley Leadership selection process and satisfaction with program elements. The final area to be reviewed for values enhancement is the design of the program itself. While the overwhelming majority of respondents expressed overall satisfaction with their participation in the Valley Leadership experiences, there were recommendations for improvement. These recommendations focused in two areas, a time element and a strategy element. The time element included increased time to build relationships; both long range and deep, and time to assimilate information gained from the other program elements. The strategy element was based on the need for participants to understand how each program element related to others and how they all fit into the overall program strategy.

188 Recommendations in this area are based on conclusions drawn from the data analysis in chapter 4. One recurring theme of dissatisfaction for the participant group in the Creativity value was a perceived lack of an overarching strategy between program elements, potentially reducing the effectiveness of each element. The Board of Directors has an integral role in creating the yearly schedule of events. Reviewing the program elements for continuity between program mission and individual elements to ensure that there is a stronger link between elements may increase Creativity satisfaction for program participants. Spirituality satisfaction in the program participants included developing deep relationships with others, with specific mention made to exercises in the leadership retreat. A recommendation to increase satisfaction with Spirituality is to ensure there is time for deep relationship building through enhancement of the leadership retreat and time within the program or classroom days to create those bonds. The rigidity of the program days was cited as dissatisfying for Independence as it has been for others including Achievement, Concern for Others, and Belonging. The nine program days are an integral part of the program, indicating the Board of Directors and program developers should be reviewing these events to encourage greater satisfaction with all values which cited this program experience. As the Board of Directors completes its strategic planning process and finalizes the core foundational values, a review of the program elements to increase values satisfaction will be important for retention and overall program effectiveness. An additional recommendation is to integrate a personal values profile assessment into the leadership retreat. The leadership retreat is the first opportunity for the new class members to meet and start developing relationships. Respondents cited satisfaction with

189 the Emergenetics assessment to increase their ability to understand self and others, and aid in solving problems with other people (Appendix M). The addition of personal values profile into the retreat can provide similar benefits to those seen from the Emergenetics profile. The values profile can also be used for personal leadership goal setting and action planning, discussed in greater detail in the next recommendation. Increase Personal Leadership Opportunities Using a Core Values Profile The forth research question in this study addressed the question, how can community leadership programs incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles? The Valley Leadership program presents opportunities throughout the program year to enhance and enable participants to take on formal leadership roles in the community. Self or personal leadership skills are critical to develop as well. Shiro (1999) asserted that self-leadership is the foundation for all other types of leadership. Researchers (Houghton & Yoho, 2005; Wenger, 1998, 2000, 2007) also cite self-leadership as important to individual, team, and organizational performance improvement. A recommendation to support increased self or personal leadership development is the implementation of a formal action planning process for participants to use in attaining maximum values satisfaction with each program element. Using the individual values profile created in the retreat, each individual would review the objectives and structure of each program activity, assess what would be needed to gain the greatest satisfaction with their primary, and if applicable secondary values, and create a specific action plan to attain this maximum satisfaction. An example of how proactive planning can increase satisfaction is in the area of program or classroom days. One area which

190 affected satisfaction with the values of Achievement, Belonging, Concern for the Environment, Concern for Others, Creativity, Responsibility, and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) were the program or classroom days. The data showed that many participants felt the scheduled program days were rigid and did not provide interaction time or the ability to be creative (Appendix M). Program days were scheduled in advance and had a structured agenda, allowing for only small changes in format. Knowing that the program constraints exist and cannot be changed, participants have several proactive paths to take to increase satisfaction with the program days. One method might be to provide immediate feedback to Valley Leadership staff on how the program days could be improved, satisfying the values of Achievement, Responsibility and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis). Other venues could include arranging time to meet with others after or between the program days to discuss the new ideas and thoughts gained from the program days, satisfying the values of Achievement, Belonging, Concern for Others, Responsibility and Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis), and creating action plans for integration of these thoughts into personal or community improvement activities, satisfying the values of Achievement, Concern for Others, Creativity, and Responsibility. Action planning and implementation to attain increased values satisfaction can aid program participants building leadership skills, regardless of the formality of the leadership role. As individuals take responsibility for creating more personally satisfying program experiences, they build a store of leadership skills they can use in other leadership situations. Galloway’s (1997) research results suggested that the skills gained in community leadership programs can be applied in the workplace for improved

191 performance. Areas for Future Research The case study focused on how satisfaction with personal values can aid community leadership programs in reducing the gap between community leadership needs and the available supply. The literature review and subsequent data collection and analysis uncovered areas for additional research, which can aid community leadership programs in continuing to meet leadership needs. These areas focus on how models of organizational and team growth can be used to assess community growth and potential leadership changes. How the results from this study can be used for the enhancement of corporate leadership efforts is also addressed. These recommendations will be discussed throughout the rest of this section. Organizational Growth and Leadership Skills As organizations have become more global, how leadership practices contribute to organizational success has been the subject of many research studies (Bass, 1990a, 1997, 1999; Sorenson, 2002). In chapter 3, leadership effectiveness and the optimal balance of transactional and transformational styles in light of changing organizational conditions was explained within the context of Greiner’s (1972, 1998) model of organizational growth. Greiner (1972, 1998) maintained that organizations move through five distinct phases of predictable growth: Creativity, Delegation, Direction, Coordination, and Collaboration. Each phase starts and ends with a management crisis; Leadership, Autonomy, Control and Red Tape, and enjoys a period of calm in-between crisis stages. These stages are defined as evolution, where prolonged periods of growth occur with no major upheaval in the organization’s practices, and revolution, which

192 denotes periods of turmoil in the organization. Greiner’s (1972, 1998) model supported the notion that each phase of growth will require different management practices and processes to move the organization forward. While Greiner’s model focuses on the business and company growth, the principles and processes described by Greiner can be applied to community growth and leadership practices. The logic behind this assertion rests in the fact that rapidly changing conditions seen by many contemporary communities due to globalization, off shoring, the Internet and the retirement of the Baby Boomer generation create communities that have different leadership requirements (Elman, 2005; Kadzik, 2006; Passel, 2006; Putnam, 2002). Pigg’s (2001) work cited participants who felt that the community leadership program experience broadened their vision of leadership and gained skills to meet changing conditions. The opportunity for additional research is in the review of community growth stages in light of the Greiner model. An example would be seen in Greiner’s (1972, 1998) first phase, Growth through Creativity. The first phase describes the beginning of the company, where organizational founders work long hours to ensure future growth. Core leadership values are determined in this phase, ones that will guide the growth of the organization throughout its life span (Jones, 2004). During this growth phase, leadership styles are completely focused in the transformational realm and decision-making is almost completely democratic. A newly formed community may share similar leadership needs and challenges to those experienced by a company in Griener’s Growth through Creativity stage. A review of the literature did not produce any studies that were focused on applying the Griener model to community growth and leadership needs. The benefits to

193 completing a research study on community growth using the Greiner model will provide community leadership programs with a model they can use to respond to the changing community demands by reviewing their mission, vision, values, program structure, and recruitment processes to ensure that the leaders graduating from the program can meet the community needs. Community leadership programs in conjunction with community leaders can use the Greiner model to help predict the next wave of community changes and make corresponding leadership style modifications to reduce the negative impact of change. Team Structure and Leadership Skills Communities can be viewed as a team. Beddoes-Jones supports this premise “People are inherently social by nature and have always collaborated together in teams, tribes or families to achieve what individuals alone cannot” (2004, p. 16). Teams have lifecycles and changing leadership needs. In chapter 3, team structures and leadership needs were explored through several models, the Community of Practice (Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000), Tuckman’s (1965) and Tuckman and Jensen’s (1977) model of team development, Lacoursiere’s (1974) team model, and Rickards and Mogers’ (2000) team model. This examination was conducted to determine how the team structures may reduce the gap between the need and fulfillment mechanisms for identifying and training community leaders. The opportunities for future research using the Communities of Practice and the Tuckman models of team development will be presented due to the large amount of scholarly literature and research seen in the literature review.

194 Communities of Practice Researchers defined communities of practice as self-organizing groups of people, who are informally bound together by shared passions and expertise to build subject and individual knowledge capacity, solve problems and create leadership capability (Allen, 2005; Hung, Chee, Hedberg, & Seng, 2005; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007). Similar to the growth stages approach identified by Greiner (1972, 1998), Wenger (1998, 1999, 2007) stated that communities of practice are governed by life cycles and predictable stages of growth: Potential, where members find each other and discover commonalities, Coalescing, where member explore how they are connected and start creating their community, Active, where members engage in joint activities and start creating shared history and artifacts, Dispersed, where members leave the community but stay in touch with each other, and Memorable, when the community has formally dispersed but still identify with it create a legacy for it by telling stories. The opportunity for additional research is in the review of community growth stages in light of the communities of practice model. Similar to the benefits described in the recommendation for the Greiner model, reviewing community growth stages in the stages of community of practice model growth can provide information on specific leadership requirements at each stage. A review of the literature produced no studies that were focused on using the communities of practice model in the context of community growth and leadership requirements. The research will provide community leadership programs with a model they can use to respond to the changing community demands by reviewing their mission, vision, values, program structure, and recruitment processes to prepare the leaders graduating from the program to meet the community needs and add to

195 the body of research on leadership as a whole. An additional opportunity for future research lies in reviewing the community leadership program structure and processes in light of the community of practice model. Community leadership programs are a form of community of practice. “These leadership development efforts differ in sponsorship and format, but their goals are the same--to create an active network of informed, concerned citizens to guide the future and growth of their community into the 21st century” (The Community Leadership Association , 2006, ¶ 2). Community leadership programs are one source of identifying, training, and supplying leaders to the community. These programs follow the community of practice model in that participants come into the programs voluntarily to share knowledge and solve problems, specifically within the community. This transfer of knowledge also produces a valuable venue for the development of leaders. The Harvard Management Update (2004) stated that we learn to lead through the course of reflecting with others and that what leaders learn was just as important as those from whom they learned. Researchers (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001) indicated that many programs recommend alumni continue to participate in program activities. The data generated from the analysis in chapter 4 affirmed that the value Belonging was highly important to both groups in the study. Communities of practice create a knowledge legacy for the organization by encouraging the transfer of tacit knowledge undocumented and difficult to articulate information. Researchers identified this tacit knowledge transfer is regarded as important to organizational success (Lesser & Storck, 2001; Wenger & Synder, 2000; van Winkelen, 2003; Vestal, 2006). The research could be dedicated to a best practices study using the community of practice model to determine how the community leadership

196 programs can maximize the participation of their members during and subsequent to their program participation. Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development Opportunities for future research in the Tuckman model are similar to those recommended in the Communities of Practice model. Tuckman’s (1965) seminal work chronicled the lifecycle of teams in a four stage model, Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing (Beddoes-Jones, 2004; Smith, 2003; Thompson et al., 2000). Tuckman’s (1965) original work ended with the performing stage, where the team group members supported each other to ensure the tasks are accomplished through constructive work. The results derived from Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 work added a fifth stage, Adjourning, representing the termination of the group formal task activities. A review of the current literature produced no studies that were focused on using the Tuckman model to determine stages of growth for communities and the changing leadership needs during each growth stage. A review of communities, and what stages of life they are in, can produce information for community leadership programs similar to those cited above in determining what types of leaders are required to ensure continuing community growth. Study Applicability to Corporate Leadership Development Group leadership and the ability to ensure a continuous supply of leaders to meet organizational needs is an important component to continued company growth (Pepe, 2007; Saslow, 2005). The Looming Leadership Void: Identifying, Developing and Retaining Your Top Talent (2007) report stated that there is a growing leadership void due to the large numbers of baby boomers who will be leaving the workforce and the

197 limited number of skilled workers who are entering the workforce. The leadership challenges in present-day organizations are complex, requiring many different types of leaders; those assigned formal leadership roles and those who practice self-leadership (Friedman & Lambert, 2002; Galloway, 1997; Spalding, 2003; Wenger, 1998, 1999, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000). Leadership development programs are a key component in ensuring employee readiness to meet these challenges. Dolezalek (2005) stated that in 2005 over 51 billion dollars was spent for formal training in corporations. Speizer (2006) maintained that overall spending on training and development is on the rise, seen as a key component in the drive to keep a competitive edge, despite the focus on cost control. A study devoted to ensuring that corporate leadership development programs are effective in producing leaders both formal and those who practice self-leadership may be of value. This case study focused on how values satisfaction can aid community leadership programs in reducing the gap between the need for leaders and those available to fulfill those roles. The process that was used to complete the study can be integrated into corporate training programs to increase individual satisfaction with their participation. A review of the current literature produced no studies that were focused on how values satisfaction can increase individual satisfaction with corporate training participation. Corporations can implement the results of this study to improve their return on investment in training dollars and other resources, and potentially increase the alignment that program participants feel with corporate values. McGaw and Fabish (2006) supported this approach “An approach to training more focused on aligning values with organizational practices could remove uncertainties that undermine a manager’s ability to engage in values-based decision making” (p. 4).

198 Summary Changes in the socioeconomic structure of today’s communities indicated the need for increased leadership (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Saslow, 2005; Spalding, 2003). Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing (Armstrong Valdes, 2001; Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Galloway, 1997; Saslow, 2005). Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Chase, 2001; Hiyane-Brown, 2003; Spalding, 2003). Community leadership programs are on the rise across the country and world, creating leaders to fulfill community needs (Community Leadership Association, 2006; Galloway, 1997). Participants choose to enter these programs for many reasons. The desire to satisfy personal values may be a deciding factor in this choice. Researchers (Almeida & Pinto, 2003; Argandona, 2003; Brown & Crace, 1996, 1999, 2002; Connor & Becker, 2003; McLelland, 2000; Mosconi & Emmett, 2003) believed people of all ages use values as a basis for both personal and professional life choices and support the viewpoint that personal values do have an important role in determining actions and goal setting. To understand the relationship between values satisfaction and an individual’s participation in a community leadership program, a single case study was completed. The mixed methods data gathering approach was employed to gain an understanding of how the need to satisfy personal values is related to participation in a community leadership program. The program selected for study was one program based in Phoenix, Arizona, the Valley Leadership program.

199 Data analysis showed several overall trends. The overwhelming majority of respondents expressed overall satisfaction with their participation in the Valley Leadership experiences. This high endorsement was balanced by some specific areas for improvement for additional satisfaction with the program. These recommendations focused in two areas, a time element and a strategy element. The time element included increased time to build relationships; both long range and deep, and time to assimilate information gained from the other program elements. The strategy element was based on the need for participants to understand how each program element related to others and how they all fit into the overall program strategy. Improvements in these areas could yield greater satisfaction for future participants and enhance the overall effectiveness of the program. Conclusions from this study supported the forth research question, how community leadership programs can incorporate a study of values into programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles. The following two conclusions emerged from the study on incorporating core and personal values into community leadership programs. The first conclusion is that community leadership development programs should have a clearly defined set of foundational core values, which should be reviewed regularly to ensure that they meet the changing needs of the community and the values profiles of potential program participants. These values should be integrated into the mission, vision, goals and objectives and all other elements of program development, recruitment processes, and publicity to ensure the strongest relationship between the program values and those that are part of the profiles of the participants. The second conclusion is that the creation of a personal values profile

200 including the identification of primary and secondary values can provide an individual with a foundation to increase their satisfaction with activities they choose to participate in and build leadership capability. Areas identified for additional research included reviewing community growth stages in light of the Greiner model (1972, 1998); reviewing community growth stages in light of the communities of practice (Wenger 1998, 2000, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000) and the Tuckman (1965, 1977) models. The benefits to this research will provide community leadership programs with a model they can use to respond to the changing community demands by reviewing their mission, vision, values, program structure, and recruitment processes to ensure that the leaders graduating from the program can meet the community needs. Additional recommendations in the team effectiveness section included reviewing the communities of practice model (Wenger 1998, 2000, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000) in light of community leadership program effectiveness. A final area identified for future study focused on the applicability of this study to corporate leadership development programs. Group leadership and the ability to ensure a continuous supply of leaders to meet organizational needs is an important component to continued company growth (Pepe, 2007; Saslow, 2005). The Looming Leadership Void: Identifying, Developing and Retaining Your Top Talent (2007) report stated that there is a growing leadership void due to the large numbers of baby boomers who will be leaving the workforce and the limited number of skilled workers who are entering the workforce. The leadership challenges in present-day organizations are complex, requiring many different types of leaders; those assigned formal leadership roles and those who practice self-leadership (Friedman & Lambert, 2002; Galloway, 1997; Spalding, 2003; Wenger,

201 1998, 1999, 2007; Wenger & Synder, 2000). Leadership development programs are a key component in ensuring employee readiness to meet these challenges. Corporations can implement the results of this study to improve their return on investment in training dollars and other resources, and potentially increase the alignment that program participants feel with corporate values.

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223 APPENDIX A: LIFE VALUES INVENTORY (LVI)

224

225 LVI Survey – Online Instrument-Representational Screen Captures

226 Survey Log on Instructions

227 APPENDIX B: VALLEY LEADERSHIP PROGRAM

228 Program Events Calendar and Supporting Materials from Valley Leadership Program 2006-2007

Leadership Institute Class XXVIII Retreat The Historic COD Ranch, Oracle, AZ September 8-9, 2006 RETREAT AGENDA Friday, September 8: 8:30 a.m. “The Delicate Art of Parking” (All Saints Episcopal Church 6300 N. Central) “The Road Warrior” (Bus Departure) “Super Size Me” (Welcome / Lunch) “What the (Bleep) Do We Know?” (Emergenetics) “The Born Identity” (Culture Walk / Leadership Quotes / Break) “Cocktail” (Group Photo / Liquid Refreshments) “Home on the Range” (Dinner) “In Living Color” (Emergenetics) “Der Lauf Der Dinge” (a.k.a. “The Jacobson Code” / AHA Experience) “Friday Night Fever” (Community / Individual time)

9:00 a.m. 12:00- 1:00 p.m. 1:00-4:00 p.m. 4:00-5:30 p.m. 5:30-6:00 p.m. 6:00-7:00 p.m. 7:00-8:00 p.m. 8:00-9:30 p.m.

9:30 p.m.

Saturday, September 9: 6:00 a.m. 7:00-8:00 a.m. 8:00-8:30 a.m. “Raising Arizona” (Optional Walk) “The Breakfast Club” (Breakfast) “Great Expectations” (Ground Rules)

229

8:30-9:30 a.m. 9:30-11:00 a.m. 11:00-11:15 a.m. 11:15-12:30 p.m. 12:30-1:30 p.m. 1:30-2:00 p.m. 2:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m. (approx.)

“The Searchers” (Leadership Styles) “Postcards from the Edge” (Card Making) “Lucky Break” (Break) “As Good As It Gets” (Sharing Time “High Noon” (Lunch) “Back to the Future” (Open) “Road Trip” (Board Bus & Head Home) “Bus Stop” (Arrive in Phoenix)

230

Leadership Institute Program Day I – History of the Valley Friday, October 6, 2006 - 7:45 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Carnegie Center – 11th Avenue/Washington

7:45 - 8:00 a.m. 8:00 - 8:30 a.m. 8:30 -10:00 a.m. 10:00 – 10:45 a.m.

Continental Breakfast Welcome & Announcements Scott Jacobson, VII Time Line Exercise Lionel Lyons, XIV Video – “Arizona Memories” Scott Jacobson “How Well Do You Know the Valley’s History?” Break “How we got here” Diversity in the Valley’s History Richard deUriarte, XVIII Facilitator Panel Discussion Mas Inoshita, Retired, Farmer Bill Maxwell, Professor of Thinking, University of Advancing Technology Lisa Urias, Principal, Urias Communications, LLC Benjamin Hanley, Retired, Attorney Lunch Break “Who’s coming now?” – Future of the Valley Scott Jacobson Immigration Statistics Panel Discussion Russell Ahr, US Immigration & Customs Enforcement Luis Cabrera, Asst. Professor of Political Science, ASU Terry Gilberg, KFYI Talk Radio Host Glen Gardner, Commander, Phoenix Police Department Stacey O’Connell, AZ State Director, Minuteman Civil Defense Corps John Ruot, Immigrant, Africa

10:45 - 11:00 a.m. 11:00 a.m. - 12:30 p.m.

12:30 p.m. - 1:30 p.m. 1:30 - 2:00 p.m.

2:00 – 3:30 p.m.

231 3:30 – 3:45 p.m. 3:45 - 4:30 p.m. 4:30 - 5:00 p.m. Break Debrief Immigration Discussion Wrap-up and Evaluations

232

Leadership Institute Program Day II – Human Services Friday, November 3, 2006 – 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Human Services Campus – 1125 W. Jackson Street 8:00 a.m.-8:30 a.m. Welcome and Announcements Scott Jacobson, VL Executive Director Brian Spicker, XVIII Immediate Past Board Chair

8:30 a.m-9:00 a.m.

History of Human Services

9:00 a.m.-9:30 a.m.

9:30 a.m.-10:15 a.m. 10:15 a.m-10:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m.

Welcome to Human Services Campus Mark Holleran, CEO, C.A.S.S. Central AZ Shelter Services Tour of Human Services Campus Pick- up cars and go on assigned tours Agency Tours: (Small Groups) • • • • • • Chicanos por la Causa Free Arts of Arizona Home Base Youth Services Native American Connections Phoenix Body Positive Tumbleweed

12:00 p.m.-12:15 p.m. 12:15 p.m.-1:15 p.m. 1:15 p.m.-1:45 p.m.

Drive to State Hospital (2500 E. Van Buren) Lunch/ Discussion of Tours Welcome to Arizona State Hospital John C. Cooper, CEO, AZ State Hospital Hospital Tour Public Health: - What services state provides - Role in emergency preparedness Susan Gerard, Director, Arizona Department of Health Services

1:45 p.m.-2:30 p.m. 2:30 p.m.-3:15 p.m.

233

3:15 p.m.-4:15 p.m.

Where Will Your Money Go?

Eileen Brill Wagner, VL Program Director Scott Jacobson

4:15 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

Debrief Discussion Adjourn

234

Leadership Institute Program Day III – Education Friday, December 1, 2006 – 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Estrella Mountain Community College – 3000 N. Dysart Road - Avondale

8:00 a.m.-8:15 a.m. 8:15 a.m.-8:20 a.m.

Continental Breakfast / Check-In Call to Order / Announcements Scott Jacobson, VL Executive Director Marshall Shore, VL Class XXVII Homero Lopez, VL Class VII President, EMCC Lisa Graham Keegan, VL Class X

8:20 a.m.-8:30 a.m.

Book Chat Update

8:30 a.m-8:45 a.m.

Welcome to Estrella Mountain Community College

8:45 a.m.-9:45 a.m.

K-12 Education Overview

The Keegan Company/Former AZ Superintendent of Public Instruction/ Founding Member & Former CEO of Education Leaders Council 9:45 a.m.-10:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m-11:00 a.m. Break School District Consolidation & Arizona School Financing Martin Shultz, VL Class V VP, Government Affairs, Pinnacle West Corp Scott Jacobson

11:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 12:00 p.m.-1:00 p.m. 1:00 p.m.-2:00 p.m.

Principal for a Day Debrief Lunch Early Childhood Education

Nadine Mathis Basha, 2004 Woman of the Year Scott Jacobson, Facilitator Arizaith Palafox

2:00 p.m.-2:45 p.m.

Challenges Facing Schools Panel • Student Representatives: Aida Paez

235 Silvia Rodriguez Miguel Zarate Teacher Representatives: Chrissy Heyne, Teach for America (Formerly at Littleton Elementary) Sarah Reuler, Teach for America (Formerly at Littleton Elementary) Special Education Specialist: Rita Dickinson, VL Class XI, AZ Dept of Education School Board Members: Rev. Jarrett Maupin, I, Phoenix Union HS District Karen Beckvar, VL Class XXVII, Arizona School Boards Assoc
-

•

• •

2:45 p.m.-3:30 p.m. 3:30 p.m.-3:45 p.m. 3:45 p.m.-4:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.-4:45 p.m.

Break-Out for Small Group Discussion Discussion Debrief Break Group Project Assignments Cassidy Campana/ Scott Jacobson Scott Jacobson Scott Jacobson

4:45 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

Wrap-up Adjourn

236

Leadership Institute Program Day III – Urban Development Friday, January 5, 2007 – 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Decision Theater at ASU - 21 E 6th Street, Suite 126A Tempe, AZ 85281

8:00 a.m.-8:15 a.m. 8:15 a.m.-8:30 a.m.

Continental Breakfast / Check-In Call to Order / Announcements Scott Jacobson, VL Executive Director Grady Gammage, VL Class IV Partner, Gammage & Burnham

8:30 a.m-9:30 a.m.

Eminent Domain

9:30 a.m.-10:15 a.m.

Arizona State Land Management Mark Winkelman, Superstition Vistas Comm., AZ State Land Dept. Break Mayor’s Game/Presentations Mayor Mary Manross, Valley Mayor’s Scottsdale Mayor Bobby Bryant, Buckeye Mayor Jim Cavanaugh, Goodyear Mayor Thomas Schoaf, Litchfield Park Mayor Hugh Hallman, Tempe Mayor Steve Berman, Gilbert Mayor Keno Hawker, Mesa Lunch Introduction to Decision Theater Gary Graf, Proj. Manager Deidre Hahn, PhD, Assoc Dir. Group I – Decision Theater Experience Group II – Panel on Infrastructure Eric Anderson, Transportation Director, MAG Evelyn Casuga, SE Division Manager, APS

10:15 a.m.-10:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

12:15 p.m.-1:00 p.m. 1:00 p.m.-1:30 p.m.

1:30 p.m.-2:30 p.m.

237 Rita Maguire, Partner, Maguire & Pearce, PLLC Debra Stark, Planning Director, City of Phoenix Ron Passarelli, Arizona Dept. of Real Estate 2:30p.m. – 2:45 p.m. 2:45 p.m.-3:45 p.m. Break Group II – Decision Theater Experience Group I – Panel on Infrastructure Eric Anderson, Transportation Director, MAG Evelyn Casuga, SE Division Manager, APS Rita Maguire, Partner, Maguire & Pearce, PLLC Debra Stark, Planning Director, City of Phoenix Ron Passarelli, Arizona Dept. of Real Estate What’s the County’s Role? Gibson McKay, County Responsibilities & Issues Director of Communication & PR, M.I.H.S. Debrief and Wrap-up

3:45 p.m.-4:30 p.m.

4:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m.

238

Leadership Institute Class XXVIII Program Day V – Neighborhood Development & The Arts February 2, 2007 Phoenix Urban Research Laboratory 234 N. Central Ave., Floor 8 8:00 a.m.-8:15 a.m. 8:15 a.m.-8:30 a.m. Continental Breakfast / Check-In Call to Order / Announcements Scott Jacobson, VL Executive Director W. “Duke” Reiter, Dean, ASU College of Design

8:30 a.m-9:00 a.m.

What is P.U.R.L.?

9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.

“Here Comes the Neighborhood: Economic Development at the Grassroots Level” • Kimber Lanning, Exec. Dir., Arizona Chain Reaction • Craig DeMarco, Owner, La Grande Orange/Postino • Greg Esser, Owner, Eye Lounge • Cindy Dach, Owner, Made Art Boutique • Feliciano Vera, VL Class XXV, The Praxis Group/Urban Initiatives Small Group Assignments / Pick-Up Lunch To Go “Urban Treasure Hunt” Downtown Phoenix Reconvene at Herberger Theater - 222 E. Monroe Performance Outreach Theater (Rehearsal Hall) Welcome to the Herberger Theater Mark Mettes, VL Class XXVI VP, Herberger Theater Downtown Phoenix Cooperation • Don Keuth, Phoenix Community Alliance • Brian Kearney, Downtown Phoenix Partnership Break

11:00 a.m.-11:15 a.m. 11:15 a.m.-1:15 p.m. 1:15 p.m.-1:30 p.m.

1:30 p.m.-1:45 p.m.

1:45 p.m.2:45 p.m.

2:45 p.m.-3:00 p.m.

239

3:00 p.m.-4:30 p.m. 4:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

Group Debrief of “Urban Treasure Hunt” Wrap-up and Group Projects Adjourn Scott Jacobson

Leadership Institute Class XXVIII & Hispanic Leadership Institute Program Day VI – Friday, March 2, 2007 MORNING SESSION 7:30 a.m.-9:00 a.m. Breakfast Presentation: “Civil Rights: Past, Present and Future” Phoenix Convention Center – South Bldg, Yuma Wing – Entrance 3rd Welcome: • Raul Yzaguirre, E.D. of the Center for Community Development & Civil Rights Presentation: • Marc Morial, President & CEO of National Urban League Question & Answer 9:00 a.m. - 9:30 a.m. Travel to Fry’s Mercado NE Corner of 43rd Ave & McDowell – park in far East lot; Fry’s Community Rm Welcome & Introductions - Katherine Cecala, - Carlos Galindo-Elvira,

9:30 a.m. – 9:40 a.m.

VL Class XVI Board Chair, VL VL Class XXIV VP Philanthropy & Community Rel., Valle del Sol

9:40 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.

Program Day Overview

240 - Anita Luera, VL Class XXIV, VP Leadership Development, Valle del Sol 9:45 a.m – 10:15 a.m. “Busca Tu Shopping” - Cassidy Campana, VL Class XXV Chair, Leadership Institute “Commercials” - Anita Luera “Mexico $$$ - Big Business or Closed Borders?” Margie Emmermann, Arizona Department of Tourism Harry Garewal, Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Jan Lesher, Arizona Department of Commerce “Four Corners” - Carlos Galindo-Elvira Lunch at Fry’s Mercado Leadership Institute Recruitment Pitch - Manny Chavez, VL Class XIX, VL Recruitment Chair AFTERNOON SESSION 1:00 p.m.-1:30 p.m. Drive to Arizona State Capitol 1700 W. Washington St. - Park in lot off 17th Avenue between Adams & Jefferson Tour of Legislature Meet in the “Old Ice Cream Parlor” on the 1st floor Break Refreshments provided outside in Capitol courtyard “Collaboration in the Legislature” Reconvene in the “Old Senate Chamber’s on the 3rd floor Sen. Richard Miranda, Arizona State Senate Minority Whip Jake Logan, Partner, The Molera Alvarez Group Meg Weubbels, VL Class XXVI, Sr. Govt. Relations Representative, SRP 3:15 p.m.-4:15 p.m. "Meeting the People Behind the Headlines"

10:15 a.m. – 10:30 a.m.

10:30 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.

11:30 a.m.-12:00 p.m.

12:00 p.m.-1:00 p.m.

1:30 p.m.-2:15 p.m.

2:15 p.m.-2:30 p.m.

2:30 p.m.-3:15 p.m.

241 Small Group meetings Ken Strobeck, Executive Director, Arizona League of Cities Meg Wuebbels, Sr. Government Relations Representative, SRP Wendy Briggs, Partner/Attorney, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP Amanda Crawford, Reporter, The Arizona Republic Rep. Ben Miranda, Arizona House of Representatives Rep. Martha Garcia, Arizona House of Representatives Carolyn Atwater, Majority Research Analyst, AZ House of Reps Vanessa Gonzalez, Legislative Liaison, Arizona Governor’s Office 4:15 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Debrief and Wrap-Up - Cassidy Campana - Anita Luera Adjournment Valley Leadership Group Project Leaders

5:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.

242

Leadership Institute & Valley Teen Leadership “Partners in Leadership”

Friday, April 6, 2007 Burton Barr Central Library 1221 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix

7:45 a.m. – 8:00 a.m. 8:00 a.m. – 8:30 a.m.

Leadership Institute Check-In/Continental Breakfast Leadership Institute Announcements/Cassidy Campana, Class XXV VTL Participant Check-In LI Program Chair Ice Breaker Eileen Brill Wagner Interim Executive Director Essen Otu, Class XXVI VTL Program Chair Michelle Hernandez, Class XXIII VTL Program Vice Chair

8:30 a.m. – 9:15 a.m.

9:15 a.m. – 10:45 a.m.

Laying the Foundation

10:45 a.m. – 11:00 a.m. 11:00 a.m. – 12:00 noon 12:00 noon – 12:15 p.m. 12:15 p.m. – 1:00 p.m. 1:00 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. 1:30 p.m. – 2:15 p.m. 2:15 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. 2:30 p.m. – 3:15 p.m. 3:15 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.

Break Group Agency Visits Groups Reconvene at Library Lunch Group Presentation Preparation Groups 1 - 5 Presentations Break Groups 6 - 10 Presentations Wrap-Up

243

3:30 p.m. – 3:45 p.m. 3:45 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

Break / VTL Participants Depart Leadership Institute Group Project Work Adjourn

244

Leadership Institute Program Day VIII Friday, May 4, 2007 APS Headquarters – 400 N. 5th Street, One Arizona Center “LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE…”

7:45 am - 8:00 am 8:00 am - 8:30 am

CHECK-IN / BREAKFAST Welcome / Announcements Cassidy Campana, VL Class XXV, LI Chair Native American Governments: Today & Tomorrow Ivan Makil, 2004 Man of the Year, Past President, SRPMIC; Pres/CEO, Ivan Makil, LLC; Seven-Generation Strategic Partners Jacob Moore, Managing Partner, Seven-Generation Strategic Partners Annette Alvarez, VL Class XI, Pres/CEO Alvarez, Inc.; Partner Seven-Generation Strategic Partners Joan Timeche, Asst. Director, Native Nations Institute, University of Arizona BREAK Maricopa County Government: Today & Tomorrow David Smith, County Manager, Maricopa County Warren Whitney, VP Support Services, MIHS Servant Leadership Dick Bowers, President, Herberger Theater Center LUNCH Skill Building Session Overview Cassidy Campana

8:30 am – 9:30 am

9:30 am – 9:45 am 9:45 am – 11:00 am

11:00 am – 12:00 noon

12:00 pm – 1:00 pm 1:00 pm – 1:15 pm 1:15 pm – 2:45 pm

Skill Building Group Discussions (Session I: 1:15-1:55 pm & Session II: 2:00-2:40 pm) Advocacy: Patrick McWhortor, VL Class XXVI, Pres/CEO, Alliance for Nonprofits

245 Alternative Dispute Resolution: Denise Blommel, Attorney, Denise M. Blommel, PLLC Boards & Commissions: Dora Vasquez, Arizona Governor’s Office Board Governance: Debra Paine, VL Class XXVII, Executive Director, Arts & Business Council of Greater Phoenix Fundraising: Cindy Schwab-Salem, VL Class XXIV, Major Gift Director, Opportunity International Richard Tollefson, President, The Phoenix Philanthropy Group, Inc. 2:45 pm –3:00 pm 3:00 pm – 4:00 pm BREAK Personal Mission Statements Eileen Brill Wagner, Interim Exec Director

4:00 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. 4:30 pm - 5:00 pm

Group Project Work Wrap-up Discussion Cassidy Campana Adjourn

5:00 p.m.

246

Valley Leadership Leadership Institute Class XXVIII Program Day IX - Graduation Friday, June 1, 2007 Cattle Track Art Compound - Scottsdale 8:45 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. 9:00 a.m. – 9:10 a.m. 9:10 a.m. - 9:40 a.m. 9:40 a.m. – 10:10 a.m. 10:10 a.m. – 10:40 a.m. 10:40 a.m. – 11:10 a.m. 11:10 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. 11:30 a.m. – 12:00 noon 12:00 p.m. – 12:30 p.m. 12:30 p.m. – 1:00 p.m. 1:00 p.m. – 1:45 p.m. 1:45 p.m. – 2:15 p.m. 2:15: p.m. - 3:30 p.m. 3:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Check-In / Continental Breakfast Welcome Cassidy Campana, Class XXV, LI Chair Group 5 Presentation Group 7 Presentation Group 6 Presentation Group 3 Presentation Break / Mid-Morning Snack Group 2 Presentation Group 1 Presentation Group 4 Presentation Lunch Tour of Cattle Track Art Community Review of Program Year & Individual “Learnings” Break – Move from Theater to Gallery Speeches and Graduation “Salutatourian”, “Valleydictorian”Presentation of Graduate Certificates Cocktail Reception / Hors d’oeuvres / Dinner After Party at Cassidy’s

5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. 8:00 p.m. - ???

247 Valley Leadership Group Project process

248

249

250 Valley Leadership Book Discussion Process

251 APPENDIX C: PARTICIPATION LETTER

252 Date: Dear ; I am a student at the University of Phoenix working on a Doctoral Degree in Organizational Leadership. I am conducting a research study: entitled Understanding the relationship of values satisfaction and Community Leadership Program Participation. The purpose of the research project is to understand what values based needs drive participants to join and maintain membership in one Phoenix, Arizona based community leadership program, the Valley Leadership program. Your participation will involve taking working with a validated personal values survey instrument and then participating in a focus group with your peers to help provide more information on your choices. Your participation in this study is voluntary. If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time, you can do so without penalty or loss of benefit to yourself. The results of the research study may be published but your name will not be used and your results will be maintained in confidence. If you do choose to participate, please complete the second page of this letter, sign it, and return it to me in the stamped self addressed envelope I have provided for you. In this research, there are no foreseeable risks to you. Although there may be no direct benefit to you, possible benefit of your participation include; your knowledge of your personal values profile, the ability for Valley Leadership and other community leadership programs to increase their program effectiveness, and a contribution to the general body of knowledge about leadership and values. If you have any questions concerning the research study, please call me at xxxxxx-xxxx or email me at xxx.com. Sincerely,

253 APPENDIX D: PARTICIPATION AGREEMENT

254 Participation Agreement Date:

I agree to participate in a research study of Understanding the relationship of values satisfaction and Community Leadership Program Participation. I understand the purpose and nature of the current study, and I am participating voluntarily. I grant permission for the data to be used in the process of completing a Doctor of Management (DM) degree and dissertation by Ilene Ringler. I further understand the data from the current study will be used to document patterns and themes of factors that should be considered in the design of a mentoring model for leadership development for men, women, and minorities in government and industry. Ilene Ringler has informed me that no personal data or identification of myself shall be provided beyond demographic information necessary for statistical purposes. I have also agreed to receive a synopsis of the research at the end of the dissertation process. In consideration of the aforementioned information, I grant permission for the above personal information to be conducted and used for research related activities. I also grant permission to tape-recording of the interview(s) and understand that the interview will be transcribed at a later time by the researcher.

____________________________ Research Participant/Date

___________________________ Researcher/Date

255 APPENDIX E: LETTER FROM BOARD OF DIRECTOR CHAIR

256 Letter from Board of Director Chair Re: Participation in Leadership Study For 29 years Valley Leadership has been an integral part of community building efforts in the Phoenix Area. For that reason, a study of the Leadership Institute program has been proposed. The results of this work will contribute to our understanding of why Valley Leadership appeals to our individual sense of values, how the LI experience shapes our understanding of our values, and how values contribute to our leadership identities. Ilene Ringler, a doctoral student at the University of Phoenix, has approached the Board with a request to study the Valley Leadership program. The Board of Directors and I are enthusiastic about this study and would welcome your active involvement. Specifically Ms. Ringler would like to work with you and the Board to help determine what elements of the program satisfied your personal values and contributed to your participation. The study results will provide information to answer these questions: 1. What are the values the leadership program was developed to satisfy? 2. What are the values profiles of the participants? 3. Which program elements satisfied participant values and why? 4. How can a study of values be used by community leadership programs to more effectively prepare people to assume self or formal leadership roles? Your input is truly important to this effort and should not require much time. First, you will complete a no-cost confidential online survey which will provide you with an individualized values profile as well as life and career planning tools. Your Valley Leadership board members will take this survey also. It should take no longer than 15 minutes and the results would be supplied to you at the end of the survey. Then we are asking that you participate with your classmates in a 60-90 minute confidential focus group to expand on the information provided in the online tool. The next two pages outline the study in more detail and also include a permission page for you to sign and return to Ilene indicating your willingness to participate. I urge you to work with Ilene in her study and send your permission letter back in the enclosed envelope as soon as possible. The results of this study will offer us a unique opportunity to better understand the benefits of the Valley Leadership program and the learnings may be applied in future program development and recruitment for Valley Leadership and other community leadership programs. Thank you for your interest and participation in this endeavor and for all you do to support Valley Leadership. Warm regards, Board Chair

257 APPENDIX F: LADY OF LETTERS, INC., CONFIDENTIALITY

258

259 APPENDIX G: AGENDA FOR FOCUS GROUP

260 General Agenda for Focus Groups Location: Teleconference Timeframes - 30- 60 minutes per focus group Focus Group Facilitator – Ilene Ringler Facilitation Techniques – Interactive Discussion, Audio Recording of Meetings General Meeting Agenda • • • • • Greetings and welcome Review of meeting goals including understanding of confidentiality and data collection processes Review of LVI demographics Discussion of questions for qualitative data gathering Explanation of next steps Agenda Specifics Agenda Item 1. Introductions 2. Review of meeting goals including understanding of confidentiality and data collection processes Details Facilitator introduces self and welcomes participants. Brief review of confidentiality and letter of permission with participants asking additional questions or agreeing to process as stated. Brief review of teleconference procedures. LVI results- overview of initial data, sorted by top values. Process: Participants will discuss the answers to the questions “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the Grp 11 X X Grp 22 X X

3. Review of LVI results 4. Discussion of Results and Program elements 3

X X

X X

1 2

Grp 1 = Board of Directors- Pilot Group Grp 2 = Class Participants 3 Additional steps will be conducted for Grp-1=Board of Directors. See specific focus group information

261 Agenda Item Details experiences satisfied the values?” “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” Meeting will be audio taped and results used for trend analysis. Facilitator provides overall review of process and describes next steps. Grp 11 Grp 22

5. Explanation of next steps

X

X

Specific Focus Groups – Grp -1 = Board of Directors (Pilot Group) Agenda 1. Review of data elements to be sent to board members prior to meeting o LVI information and analysis o Focus Group information o Review of triangulation information o Review of conclusions 2. Consensus seeking on primary values that the program is designed to satisfy (Research Question 1) Agenda Item 1. Review of - LVI information and analysis - Focus Group information - Triangulation information - Conclusions 2. Consensus seeking on primary values that the program is designed to satisfy (Research question 1) Details - Information to be sent to board members prior to meeting for review. - Facilitator will review data with group and ask for questions and comments. Nominal Group Technique – voting technique used to gain consensus from group. Technique advantages include time efficiency and minimization of position power influencing results (Thompson, Aranda & Robbins, 2000).

262 Focus Group Worksheet Good morning, afternoon, or evening: Thanks for joining me on this conference call. Our agenda for this call is: 1. A brief review of the demographics from the values survey 2. Discussion of Results and answers to the following questions a “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” b “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” Just to review, your participation in this study is voluntary. If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time, you can do so without penalty or loss of benefit to yourself. The results of the research study may be published, but your name will not be used and your results will be maintained in confidence. This conference call will be recorded and results transcribed without use of any names. In this research, there are no foreseeable risks to you. Although there may be no direct benefit to you, the possible benefit of your participation is to help community leadership programs such as Valley Leadership become more effective. The focus group is an informal interactive process. Before we start are there any questions relating to the permission form? The permission form which includes your actual name will be kept in a secure container and will be destroyed after 3 years. Before I proceed with the questions, are you comfortable and do you have any questions about the process or the permission form? [Wait for Response] Before we start, just a few “housekeeping notes” – As we are recording the call, if you can • Mute your phone if you are not speaking, the mute command for this call is *6 and reverse to come back in. Or you can use the mute button on your own phone. The mute is important for clarity of sound recording so the transcription is clean. • Ensure that only one person talks at a time. This is important for the sound recording clarity as well. 1. Let’s begin with the demographics. a As you saw in the agenda document I sent out, we had XX possible participants, with some folks who could not be contacted or did not want to participate, with a final total to date of XX, a XX% participation rate overall. XX people completed the values survey. b Chart Explanation – The spreadsheet in the agenda doc showed the overall trends

263 • Value Names are listed on the vertical axis – Definitions of the values were provided in the agenda • Priority Order of Value is listed on horizontal axis • The intersecting points show how many people listed the value at that priority point, i.e. 2 people listed achievement as their # 1 value Initial analysis- I sorted the table according to the frequency of answers, and as you saw the largest concentration of top values were XXXX I will be conducting additional analysis of this data along with the results of these focus groups in the study.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

c

Value Creativity Responsibility Spirituality Concern for Others Achievement Belonging Concern for the Environment Independence Privacy Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependen ce) Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Financial Prosperity Health and Activity Humility

2. Now we will start with the specific questions. Q1. Here is the first question “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” [Waits for responses] Q2. Here is the second question “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the

264 values?” [Waits for responses] 3. Thanks for your time today. I really appreciate the support you have given me throughout the study process. I will be using the information you provided to me on this call and the values survey to complete my study. When it is completed, I will be providing you with a synopsis of the results.

265 Focus Group Agenda Focus Group - Conference Call Agenda, Log In Information, and Value Survey Demographics

1. Conference Call Agenda – 60 Minutes General Meeting Agenda Brief Review of LVI demographics Discussion of Results and answers to the following questions - “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” - “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” Details LVI Demographic Trends will be sent prior to meeting Meetings will be recorded, results transcribed and analyzed for trends

2. Conference Call Log in Information • Conference Name: Valley Leadership Study • Toll-Free Access Number: - XXX-XXX_XXXX • Participant Code: XXXXX# (Valley Leadership Study - Participant) • Menu Navigation

Volume Mute Terminate Call

*4 *6 *9

266 Values Survey Demographics

Chart Explanation • The spreadsheet seen below is the compilation of the respondents who completed the survey • Value Names are listed below on vertical axis – Definitions of the values are on the following page • Priority Order of Value Listed on horizontal axis • The intersecting points show how many people listed the value at that priority point, i.e. 2 people listed achievement as their # 1 value • Chart 1 is the raw scores • Chart 2 is sorted by priority and frequency Chart 1 – Raw Scores
Value Achievement Belonging Concern for the Environment Concern for Others Creativity Financial Prosperity Health and Activity Humility Independence Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Privacy Responsibility Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Spirituality 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

267 Chart 2 – Sorted by Priority and Frequency
Value Responsibility Achievement Concern for Others Creativity Health and Activity Spirituality Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Privacy Belonging Concern for the Environment Financial Prosperity Humility Independence Loyalty to Family or Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

268 APPENDIX H: LETTER OF COLLABORATION

269

270 APPENDIX I: PERMISSION TO USE PREMISES

271

272 APPENDIX J: RAW AND SORTED RESULTS TABLES

273 Table 15 Raw Data Results from Board of Director, Subgroup 1, Pilot Group, LVI Survey Completion Value Achievement Belonging Concern for the Environment 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 1 2 3 1 2 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 1 10 11 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 12 13 14

Concern for Others

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

Creativity

1

2

1

2

2

2

1

Financial Prosperity

2

1

2

2

2

2

Health and Activity

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

Humility Independence Loyalty to Family 1 1 2 1

1 1 2

2 1 2

3 1 2

1

2

1 1 1

1

1

1

3

1

274 Value or Group (Interdependence) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Privacy

1

1

1

1

3

2

2

Responsibility Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

4

2

3 2 3 1

1 1

1 2 1 1

Spirituality

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

275 Table 16 Raw Data Results from 2006-2007 Program Year Participants, Subgroup 2, Actual Study, LVI Survey Completion Value Achievement Belonging Concern for the Environment Concern for Others Creativity Financial Prosperity Health and Activity Humility Independence Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Privacy Responsibility Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Spirituality 3 3 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 4 1 4 2 1 5 1 3 6 2 1 1 7 2 2 3 8 2 2 9 1 1 2 1 1 7 10 11 12 1 1 1 3 4 2 13 14

2

5

2

4

2

2

1

1

1

7

1 1

3 1

1 1

2 3 5 1

2 2 1

3 2

1 2 1

1

4

2

2

2

2

1

1

3

1

1

2 3 1

1 1

1

1 3 4 4

5 1 2

4 3

2

2

2 1

1

4

2

2

2

2 4 1

2 6 2

1 2 2

1 2

1 1 1

1 1 2

2

3

1

6 1

1

3

4

3

1

1

3

1

2

1

1

3

1

1

3

276 Table 17 Sorted Data Result from 2006-2007 Program Year Participants, Subgroup 2, Actual Study, LVI Survey Completion by Primary Values Value Responsibility Concern for Others Creativity Achievement Spirituality Belonging Independence Privacy Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Health and Activity Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Financial Prosperity Humility Concern for the Environment 1 1 1 3 2 7 2 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 5 3 6 2 1 4 1 1 4 3 2 3 1 4 5 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 Total Values 15 15 12 12 8 7 7 5 5

1 1

4 1

5 3

1

1

1 2

3 2 1

277 APPENDIX K: PILOT STUDY

278 Pilot Group Master Code List, Code Frequency All Data, Coded Source Data: Responses and Frequency, Expanded Definitions of Values, Merged Transcripts of Focus Groups Master Code List RQ1Experience RQ1ExperienceMostFulfill RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive RQ1Value RQ1ValueMostSatisfy RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyFinancialProsperity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHealthActivity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHumility RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding RQ1ValueMostSatisfyPrivacy RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality RQ2Experience RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfill RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive RQ2Value RQ2ValueLeastSatisfy RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernEnvironment RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyFinancialProsperity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHealthActivity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHumility RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility RQ2ValueLeastSatisfySpirituality

279 Code Frequency All Data Code RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality RQ1ValueMostSatisfyFinancialProsperity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHealthActivity RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHumility RQ1ValueMostSatisfyPrivacy Frequency 15 14 14 11 10 6 5 3 2 2 1 1 1 0

Code RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyFinancialProsperity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHealthActivity RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernEnvironment RQ2ValueLeastSatisfySpirituality RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHumility

Frequency 11 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0

280 Coded Source Data: Responses and Frequency

Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think the number one thing would be the sense of achievement on going for the valley leadership program. My company helped found the [Valley Leadership] program so we have almost had a representative from our company for as long as I can recall. So being a part of that history and the sense of achievement that goes with it, and I think is part of one of the values that I would see as the most, a fulfilling experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: If belonging is the right word, or if it relates to building independence and the sense of responsibility in that as a kind of a secondary value, because the networking aspect of valley leadership was extremely beneficial. I would say was one of the best experiences from a valley leadership perspective and that I got the opportunity to interact, dialogue, and have conversations with people that I would not normally have in my day to work, socially, etc. . RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: No, because it [Valley Leadership program] really was not that fulfilling of an experience. Valley leadership has been fulfilling to me afterwards. We were in one of those odd years during valley leadership where they were making changes to the curriculum, and so consequently it was just this, it was not necessarily, I would not necessarily say it was not necessarily the best experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: But my years afterwards were. I am one of those people that if I do not like something I get involved so I can help change it. I have since Chaired and Co-Chaired Leadership Institute for several years. I was responsible for our membership program immediately after my Leadership Institute experience, etc. So, my most fulfilling experiences have come afterwards. Q1c. Okay, so from the example that you just sited which values did that fulfill for you? Where you were chairing the program and doing some of that other stuff. A: A sense of responsibility [is the value that fulfills me as chair and co-chair of the leadership institute].

281 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: This one is more difficult. I do not know that, much more difficult to identify specifically for me, from my perspective, from a values perspective, why it was least fulfilling. I do not know that I can pinpoint that other than it was I just did not feel, I do not know what value I would attach to this, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: I did not feel like, in my perspective; I guess if I was going to, in a Leadership Institute of this caliber should be teaching and giving individuals, the participants, etc., opportunities to truly evaluate and learn new leadership experiences, opportunities, ways in which delving into issues and solving those issues. I just did not feel like we got that from my Leadership Institute experience. It was a lot of information that conveyed to us in somewhat of a classroom environment that I do not necessarily think was delivered in the most effective manner, and so, consequently, that turned me off. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: Yes, and looking at the list of values, I do not know, I cannot identify any one of those that necessarily would have been specific, I mean, other than if I were to use responsibility again under this section from a perspective of there was a lack of responsibility. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: It certainly sorts through when you look at values and you start ranking them from a priority perspective, what really opened up for me is where my current commitments were and how truly I was committed to those commitments based on my values. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: Responsibility absolutely, what is my role in this, how, what opportunity do I have to move the needle in whatever direction I feel it should be moved. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Certainly, a sense of belonging, being more of the inner circle regarding how those issues or values occur in our community and really being a part of, a part of how that shows up. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think it also gave me a much better perspective, or appreciation of the fact that I was already a leader, or already on a leadership path. It is kind of difficult to gauge that it is like looking at the back of your head. In being part of an experience where there are other emerging leaders engaged in issues or values, I really stood shoulder to shoulder with them. So, it was a very good affirmation [achievement].

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RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: There was not nearly as much opportunity, except for the retreat, to really build bond and rapport and trust and friendship. That was a huge missing for me [belonging is the highest one]. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 Source Material: Financial prosperity, if it should be worded that way. The other thing that was missing for me, and it was sort of pooh-poohed is this is not a networking opportunity. So we were almost told not to engage in that. Which would give me access to business opportunity in my mind. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: There were 50 people in the group, and I did the class. What is it, 4 years ago now? I have one good friendship that come out of it [the group] and a couple more loose friendships. I was hoping for much, much more than that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: The other fulfilling experience was access to organizations or entities that Joe Arizona off the street would not have access to. Tours. For example, my two favorite tours would be the Luke Air Force Base tour and doing the flight simulator. That was amazing. I know there are very, very, very, very few people in the world that get to do that and just getting an understanding of the people that serve our country, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: Then the other one was the ride along with the Phoenix police department in one of the most crime ridden districts in the city, being Maryville. Seeing what our police officers deal with on a daily basis and those challenges. That was very fulfilling. Q2f. Why were those two fulfilling for you? A: You mean from a values perspective? Or, well with the police ride-along, one of the things that was clearly evident is that a huge piece of our community that often requires support from the police department are not English speakers. There was such a, it was so touch for this police officer to try to deal with this situation where no one spoke English, whether it was a domestic violence or a traffic situation, or whatever, and it just was like my gosh, we need to do something about this. So brought up the, I guess, responsibility, concern for others, people's rights are not fully being expressed because of the language barrier. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5

283 Source Material: Scientific understanding, the objective analysis and having access to that kind of data [how Luke Air Force base operate as a business]. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 Source Material: Then the Luke Air Force base experience, again, I just got a much broader understanding of how our armed forces operate as a business, learning that they are one of the biggest employers and buyers in the state, how that impacts our economy. So, maybe that is scientific understanding, the objective analysis and having access to that kind of data [how Luke Air Force base operates as a business]. Because you never think an Air Force base is a major economic contributor to our community so I should have a responsible voice in protecting that as an asset. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: Then the flight simulator thing [Luke Air Force base experience] was just cool. I do not know what value to put that under, but it was just cool. Creativity maybe, I do not know. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: I did develop a very deep and wonderful relationship with one other person in the program who ended up passing away a couple of years later. He was a quadriplegic and due to some challenges related to that, he ended up dying. I do not think I would have access to a friendship like that with someone that had those sort of disabilities had we not been in the same program. So it really opened my eyes to the challenges that people have with disabilities and also that there is real friendship and relationship available there. RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality 2 Source Material: I did develop a very deep and wonderful relationship with one other person in the program who ended up passing away a couple of years later. He was a quadriplegic and due to some challenges related to that, he ended up dying. I do not think I would have access to a friendship like that with someone that had those sort of disabilities had we not been in the same program. So it really opened my eyes to the challenges that people have with disabilities and also that there is real friendship and relationship available there. That was incredibly fulfilling [loyalty to family or group and spirituality]. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: Part of that responsibility lies in the way the program is structured and what is communicated around that structure and part of it is my own responsibility. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging Source Material: 11

284 There was a strong sense of belonging for me, in Valley Leadership, in a different sense; [it] was not even about making friendships, because I have never had issues with making friends. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: But here was an organization that has a very important reputation. I had just moved to the Valley in '80, and I went through this program, '85, '86. Just being connected to what, at that time, I thought was a powerful and influential group with the potential of doing more for the community. So, I think that is probably what keeps me connected today, is that sense of belonging. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: What I feel strongly about is the sense of responsibility. Because you belong to this community, and I always thought that community service was the price you pay for being a part of a community; that is what you do to live here. To just be in this world is to give back, and Valley Leadership fulfilled that for me. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: I did not feel like, in my perspective; I guess if I was going to, in a Leadership Institute of this caliber should be teaching and giving individuals, the participants, etc., opportunities to truly evaluate and learn new leadership experiences, opportunities, ways in which delving into issues and solving those issues. I just did not feel like we got that from my Leadership Institute experience. It was a lot of information that conveyed to us in somewhat of a classroom environment that I do not necessarily think was delivered in the most effective manner, and so, consequently, that turned me off. RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 Source Material: Because I have been involved for so long, I do not know if there was anything that was outstanding. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: A sense of pride during those years, where my classmates pretty much ran the state. They were so involved. One was on the City Council. It was kind of heady to think that these were my buddies, some of them I never thought in terms of those kinds of leadership qualities, but it just happened that way. It was a period of time, and it was not just one of them, it was just the fact that at one point, between, let us say, 3 and 5 or 6 years, members of my class were elected officials. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging Source Material: 15

285 What you just listed is, I think, a lot of what keeps me involved in it, that kind of sense of belonging. Having not come out of a college where I was in a sorority or groups like that, this for me was, I guess, close to that experience that I would want. It was about community service, and it was about giving back to the community, learning more about your community, and so that sense of belonging has been wonderful. Not just for this class, for my class, but for the board and all of it. That work that is really what gets me excited. I really do feel like I am part of something great. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: Where we get to train more people about what is going on in the valley, what is important. How they can be part of moving us all to a better community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 Source Material: How they can be part of moving us all to a better community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: I was not lacking for funds, but I will say that I have stayed in such close touch, 4 years later. I talk to those guys almost every day. They are doing amazing things. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: They [some members in the group that one BD remains in contact with] continue to grow into their families and into their professional lives in this way that is amazing to watch. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: They [some members in the group that one BD remains in contact with] continue to grow into their families and into their professional lives in this way that is amazing to watch. that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, is huge for me. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The most favorite part while I was in the program was stopping for a day a month and, as much as we were able to turn our phones off, maybe more then than now, thinking about the community and my job and my role as a volunteer in the community from 50,000 feet. It was like a total pause from your real life, because you were not dealing with minutia. You just sort of think at a different level about how things mesh together and how they sit together, and how you could make things fit better or connect the dots. So it is why I have stayed so close to the program, because I really need that, one day a month, to not be entrenched in the work but to get above it and think about how it all connects together. I think that is part of why I am still so active with the program, because having

286 that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, is huge for me. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: Thinking about the community and my job and my role as a volunteer in the community from 50,000 feet. It was like a total pause from your real life, because you were not dealing with minutia. You just sort of think at a different level about how things mesh together and how they sit together, and how you could make things fit better or connect the dots. So it is why I have stayed so close to the program, because I really need that, one day a month, to not be entrenched in the work but to get above it and think about how it all connects together. I think that is part of why I am still so active with the program, because having that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: Ditto, I ditto that. Here is the difference. When I went through, there was no sweat lodge. The bonding process was totally different and, in fact, we did not bond in the same way that class members bond now. We drove individually to the retreat, and our spouses and our significant others came up the next day to have dinner with us. So we did not connect them on the same level as the current classes do. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: But ironically, the people that I have lunch with once a month, on the first Friday of every month, there is about 16 of us from our classes that we still get together. None of them, except for maybe two or three, were people that I was close to during the class program. So, it is interesting. Our only connection is Valley Leadership, because some of these people are so politically different and socially different. We try everything not to miss that lunch. The way it is set up is, somebody has a calendar, we get assigned a month and we select a month that we host, we pick the site and we pick up the tab. We have been doing this for almost 25 years. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: I would say for me the tours were extremely satisfying. We had sort of once in a lifetime opportunities to be in a sweat lodge, to spend the day with the police. I have clear and wonderful memories of the people that I got to do that with. It is such a bonding experience, maybe even more so than the days themselves, when you are sort of in a classroom situation as opposed to living some action or something. Those tour experiences are remarkable. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding Source Material: 5

287 Our only connection is Valley Leadership, because some of these people are so politically different and socially different. We try everything not to miss that lunch. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: The way it is set up is, somebody has a calendar, we get assigned a month and we select a month that we host, we pick the site and we pick up the tab. We have been doing this for almost 25 years. That scares me. About 23 years. What class is this, 29, now? A: 29, yes.

A: That is awesome. It is funny, because our class still talks a lot, we still meet. We have a group lunch and then we have a lunch where we do every 60 days, I guess, we all get together. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: We have a group lunch and then we have a lunch where we do every 60 days, I guess, we all get together. It is a dozen of us. A lot of them, people that I was not friends with then. Then a lot of us [inaudible] it is crazy. One of the most amazing things about it is, we literally talked about how to think up tours of our own, that we would love to do. Honestly, we looked at some of the alumni tours, and the alumni tours we would talk about are things I hope we decide to do. But, we have talked about doing road trips, and should we go to Carlsbad Caverns, and should we do a sweat lodge, for example, for the people who did not do it. I would love to do that helicopter ride that weaves up here right along helicopter [inaudible]. Every year we offer, we come up with cooler and cooler opportunities, and I know we as a class kind of get together and go, "I wonder if we could think that stuff up for ourselves?" Or, would Valley Leadership provide us the opportunities in an ongoing way? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Then, the other piece that I found in the last few classes that I just love, and I think is, the alumni piece is so important to me is that, classes that are near each other, 25 and 26, you know, 28 and 29 now are doing it, have joined Happy Hours and have joined groups, partly because they share, [names] the class chairs are sort of the link for them, but it lasts to see them talking to the guys that are going through the class now, and sort of say, "Oh, you have no idea," and "How great this will be," and "It will change your life". It is so funny to let them sort of be with each other in a social way and how great that is. That to me is really important that they find connectivity to the organization, not just their own class. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I always worry, we talk about this a lot at board meetings, that the classes get really insular to themselves.

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RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: One of the most amazing things about it is, we literally talked about how to think up tours of our own, that we would love to do. Honestly, we looked at some of the alumni tours, and the alumni tours we would talk about are things I hope we decide to do. But, we have talked about doing road trips, and should we go to Carlsbad Caverns, and should we do a sweat lodge, for example, for the people who did not do it. I would love to do that helicopter ride that weaves up here right along helicopter [inaudible]. Every year we offer, we come up with cooler and cooler opportunities, and I know we as a class kind of get together and go, "I wonder if we could think that stuff up for ourselves?" Or, would Valley Leadership provide us the opportunities in an ongoing way? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Always worry, we talk about this a lot at board meetings, that the classes get really insular to themselves. Find ways to make at least some of these about the organization, because we want them always to remember that the foundation of all this was an organization that could continue to bring them those opportunities to be together, or to find other life opportunities. [Inaudible] at least, for me is exciting to think about. Once you graduate out of the program, how do we keep you close to us? RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive Source Material: I cannot think of anything specific. 10

RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: I am going to say, perhaps, maybe not having enough time to get more out of a particular program. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I cannot even name a program that stands out. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: It is just that always, at the end of the session, I always felt, that could have been longer or I wish that could have been longer, because there was never a time that I was bored. Even though I knew a lot of what was going on, the information was intense and maybe from a different perspective that I had not been aware of. So, I just think the lack of time. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: We have the same answers. I think I will give you a quick example of why [anonymous] is right about the time piece. We just finished our day on Friday, yesterday, and it is the

289 piece of the evaluations that they write notes to us about the year, that they are having the same experience that you had 20 years ago, I had 5 years ago, not enough time. That this program is, in the best possible way, drinking from a fire hose. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHealthActivity 1 Source Material: We go and we give you a lot of information, and you would leave the days physically and mentally exhausted because you are hearing so much, and you will take a couple of days to process it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: Then it was over so quickly, and you had so many things that you wanted to hear about and know about, and how many people you would hear from. There is not enough time to hear about all of those things. There are so many things happening here, now, that you cannot hear and know about all of them. So, that was only the frustration, because you would sit in the day and know that there were two other people who knew more about this, or that you wanted to hear more from somebody who was speaking, but the panel wrapped up and you had to go to the next thing. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The whole year is like drinking from a fire hose. We had always sort of laugh about, if you could make this a 3-year program, there still probably would not be enough time. It is amazing. So, it is the hardest part from a programming perspective, and it is the hardest part being in it. You just feel like you are trying to catch up all the time, and that your time is so compressed. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The other hard part, I think there is not a lot of time to just be together, to think out loud together. Because we are trying to give them so much to think about, that there was not a lot of time in the day to talk to each other about what was going on. It is why the tour experience, I think, is so valuable, because you have the drive time there in the carpool and the drive time back to sort of think it through and you are with the group of people. But the days themselves do not allow for that as much. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: The other hard part, I think there is not a lot of time to just be together, to think out loud together. Because we are trying to give them so much to think about, that there was not a lot of time in the day to talk to each other about what was going on. It is why the tour experience, I think, is so valuable, because you have the drive time there in the carpool and the drive time back to sort of think it through and you are with the group of people. But the days themselves do not allow for that as much.

290

RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: The tours allow you to have a little bit more time to be together, to be with your classmates RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: [the tours allow you to] process what is happening to you and what the experience means, what you are thinking about, and the days, because of the way they are programmed, they do not allow a lot of time to process what is going, what you are hearing about. I think that is the part that is, not "not fulfilling", it is just frustrating. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: [the tours allow you to] process what is happening to you and what the experience means, what you are thinking about, and the days, because of the way they are programmed, they do not allow a lot of time to process what is going, what you are hearing about. I think that is the part that is, not "not fulfilling", it is just frustrating. RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 Source Material: I guess I was not thinking in terms of the value. I will say, you are wanting to know about the most fulfilling, is that right? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: For me, and I know you want to be more specific than this, but I guess I would say the most fulfilling experiences were, for me, probably the tours. It was because I was able to do things that I never would have an opportunity to do otherwise. So, I was exposed to things that I did not know, so I was able to learn a lot that I would not otherwise have learned about. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: You know things like going to the prisons. When would I get an opportunity to visit a prison and learn about the prison system while seeing it first hand? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: It was not just the tours, because sometimes on the class days we were at the places seeing things. So, the most fulfilling experiences for me were learning things that I did not already know about, and probably without the Valley Leadership Program, would never have had an opportunity to learn about. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: 14

291 So, I guess as I am looking at kind of the value statements, I guess there is a concern for others, because it helped me learn about things related to that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I guess the achievement value, and learning, because I am always trying to improve and learn more. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I guess the responsibility piece, because for me, it is important to be a good citizen of the community and try to do things for the community. I think that is a responsibility that I have. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I would say one of the first, probably the first thing I would mention, was experience with the teens during my program. As you know, one of the program days is adult and teen combined program day. Having worked with teens, I had plenty of background and plenty of appreciation in terms of the value that they bring when they interact with adults. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Trying to get an opportunity to see some of my classmates also see that value was very important to me and was refreshing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: The values that I would associate with that would probably be, let us see, concern for others, as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: Achievement, because I think both the teens and adults involved with that so that they get a sense of achievement out of the program. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging Source Material: Belonging 15

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: Loyalty, as well. I think that although the teen program and adult program are separate, there is that loyalty to Valley Leadership as a whole. So in that sense, I would say loyalty was also a value.

292 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: You know things like going to the prisons. When would I get an opportunity to visit a prison and learn about the prison system while seeing it first hand? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: So I think as a whole, just the experience and the varied amount of experience. Because it was so broad in scope, in terms of how we went about learning about leadership and developing our leadership skills through seeing broad ideas and different types of leaders, and things of that nature. I think the value is associated with that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement Source Material: It would definitely also be achievement, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: concern for others, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence Source Material: independence 14

14

11

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: Responsibility would be high on that value chart for me, because I think the program fosters a responsibility that we have for, in terms of our community responsibilities. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I think, when I went through the program, we did not have the teen program. But yet, since that time, in a volunteer capacity, I have sat in on a lot of the teen days, and seen what they do with that, and there are some other things that they do today that, again as a volunteer, I have enjoyed as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: I think, when I went through the program, we did not have the teen program. But yet, since that time, in a volunteer capacity, I have sat in on a lot of the teen days, and seen what they do with that, and there are some other things that they do today that, again as a volunteer, I have enjoyed as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement Source Material: 14

293 It could be that [name] has some stuff around that, too, because it is not that it has to be just being on the board, because I have been a volunteer actually since I got out of the program and I was in class 16. So, that was a while back. It was after that that they started the teen program and so I was part of helping with that. I really enjoyed, and I guess I get fulfillment every year when I volunteer and go to some of the other class days, and I am continuing to be able to learn, and more recently when I have been able to go to the teen ones, it is just inspiring to me. I get excited about seeing, when I keep learning, but I get excited about some of the stuff that we are able to touch those lives, and so, you feel like you are making a difference in the volunteer work that you do. That maybe it is an individual life but it is also helping people become better leaders. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: It could be that [name] has some stuff around that, too, because it is not that it has to be just being on the board, because I have been a volunteer actually since I got out of the program and I was in class 16. So, that was a while back. It was after that that they started the teen program and so I was part of helping with that. I really enjoyed, and I guess I get fulfillment every year when I volunteer and go to some of the other class days, and I am continuing to be able to learn, and more recently when I have been able to go to the teen ones, it is just inspiring to me. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence Source Material: I am continuing to be able to learn, 11

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: You are making a difference in the volunteer work that you do. That maybe it is an individual life but it is also helping people become better leaders. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I mean, I will use as an example, in last year's class on their first issue day; we had some people talk about immigration. We also had that this year. But, last year's class, people learned about immigration and they had different panel members talk, and people talking all sides of the issue. That was in September. In June, when they were graduating, they were asked what mattered the most, or what did they learn, what was most impactful for them, whatever. Several people said that immigration day. So they were looking back to the very first day, and they said, "I had no idea. I had voted on propositions based upon what I would seen in the paper, I had no idea what my vote meant. I now have a completely different view than I did at the time that I voted. I did not realize I was really affecting people's lives." RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding Source Material: 5

294 I mean, I will use as an example, in last year's class on their first issue day; we had some people talk about immigration. We also had that this year. But, last year's class, people learned about immigration and they had different panel members talk, and people talking all sides of the issue. That was in September. In June, when they were graduating, they were asked what mattered the most, or what did they learn, what was most impactful for them, whatever. Several people said that immigration day. So they were looking back to the very first day, and they said, "I had no idea. I had voted on propositions based upon what I would see in the paper, I had no idea what my vote meant. I now have a completely different view than I did at the time that I voted. I did not realize I was really affecting people's lives." That is huge, that is huge. What it did was it said, to people, learn more about the issues. So, they walked away and said, "Gosh, I am not going to rely just on what I see in the paper, because now I know that there is more to issues," and they sought to be better informed. I mean, that is amazing, that is about creating more civil discourse and creating better leaders and people who will think more about things as they move forward. I just think that helps make the Valley a better place, if you have more people kind of thinking about, "Let's get more of the facts," that kind of thing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 Source Material: I just think that helps make the Valley a better place, if you have more people kind of thinking about, "Let's get more of the facts," that kind of thing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I am just rambling, and that was just, that gets to that responsibility and the concern for others, as examples, and [name], you worked with the teen program, and, how amazing is that? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I am just rambling, and that was just, that gets to that responsibility and the concern for others, as examples, and [name], you worked with the teen program, and, how amazing is that? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I actually started working with the teen program the year after I got done with my program. I came in and did combined adult and teen day. Then the following year cochaired, and then this past year chaired the program. [Call dropped] RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: It is a little bit hard, because I went through it so long ago that it is hard to remember, and my overall impressions are good, and so then you tend to forget the bad. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2

295 Source Material: The history day. I think that was the least fulfilling part of the program. It was the first time they had ever done a day around kind of Arizona and Phoenix history. So, it was the first time to do it. Since that time, they have made that into an amazing day. But at the time I went through it, it was a series of lectures. So we were not involved, it really did not get to any issues about things facing the Valley or thing facing the State and what you might do about it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2 Source Material: So there was not the interaction, there was not facts that I thought necessarily made us better leaders or better citizens, just facts. But it was the first time they had done that day. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 Source Material: Arizona and Phoenix history. So, it was the first time to do it. Since that time, they have made that into an amazing day. But at the time I went through it, it was a series of lectures. So we were not involved, it really did not get to any issues about things facing the Valley or thing facing the State and what you might do about it. It [the first program day] was just sort of, here is a bunch of facts about Phoenix, Arizona history. They could have just sent me an article about that. So there was not the interaction, there was not facts that I thought necessarily made us better leaders or better citizens, just facts. But it was the first time they had done that day. They got a lot of feedback on how to make that day better and, as I said, it is evolved into something that is really interesting. So the issues were, I mean, I guess the values that I kind of looked at, what it did not, it did not really spark any achievement. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: It [first day program on Arizona and Phoenix history] really was not about concern for others. It was just a bunch of facts about the past. So, that is something I could have gotten without Valley Leadership. I could have gone and picked up a book. So there was not anything special about that leadership. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: My example is basically, deals with the projects that are done at the end of the program now. I do not think it has always been done that way, right [name]? In terms of group projects? A: Yes, we did not have group projects. We had one-on-one days, and that was neat, but that is another thing. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement Source Material: 3

296 Not in terms of, I mean, the process itself in doing, the process I thought was fine, and the learning involved and what came out of it. I think the point where I was a little disappointed was, you kind of put together something that is really good and you are proud of it, you think people should see. In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. But, it is one of those things where you kind of want to see it go somewhere, and it dies there. At the graduation or what not, people do their presentations on their group projects and, after that it kind of goes away, almost. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. But, it is one of those things where you kind of want to see it go somewhere, and it dies there. At the graduation or what not, people do their presentations on their group projects and, after that it kind of goes away, almost. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: I know this does not have anything to do with the focus group, but I just thought [name] would like to know how they have changed the projects this year, I think based upon some of the feedback. All the things they are supposed to be doing are supposed to be like legacy projects, a lot of them are like designing things for Valley Leadership. Maybe a video for Valley Leadership about something, creating something for Valley Leadership's 30th Anniversary, but all of the projects are supposed to be legacy, something that can be used by Valley Leadership and something that will take on a life beyond the project itself. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think the thing that I got the most out of Valley Leadership was the awareness of the different aspects of the community, and I think just being able to talk to people that are working on different sides of the issue and to hear different perspectives was amazing. The pieces of actually taking you out into the community so that you could see how it works through like the tours and just even going to different locations for the different program dates was invaluable. It was thought provoking, it was eye-opening I think in a lot of ways. I think it reinforced certain things that I already knew about the community but, if anything, it continued to reinforce to me the importance of people being involved in community and being willing to give their personal time to help make it better, stronger, more vibrant, however you want to talk about that.

297 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think for me it is sort of an iteration of what [name] just said in that you have the opportunity to be exposed to experiences and individuals that are outside of your normal sphere. You may have secondhand or even third hand impressions about issues and aspects of the community, but the Valley Leadership experience I think allowed me to experience some of that firsthand and get a firsthand exposure to individuals and different parts of the community and issues that were really not people or things that I might come in contact in my own professional or personal life. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think for me it is sort of an iteration of what [name] just said in that you have the opportunity to be exposed to experiences and individuals that are outside of your normal sphere. You may have secondhand or even third hand impressions about issues and aspects of the community, but the Valley Leadership experience I think allowed me to experience some of that firsthand and get a firsthand exposure to individuals and different parts of the community and issues that were really not people or things that I might come in contact in my own professional or personal life. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I think the concern for others and the responsibility for me, those two, certainly achievement because you are always learning but in the responsibility and concern for others, I feel, and I am kind of going along with what I have heard before, but the ability to be in a room, have completely opposing viewpoints with people, not argue but really be able to listen to what they are saying and try to walk in somebody else's shoes, so to speak is, I think, something that a lot of us cannot even do in our family but we can do it in this group for some reason. It breaks down a lot of barriers and allows you to get I think more done. It is just an incredible experience in that respect and I think that satisfies the steward responsibility and the concern for others. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: I think the concern for others 14

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: As you develop empathy and understanding about your community RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: I would agree. I think that that is certainly the critical one. I do not know, I am looking at the list here and I think maybe to some degree it is a sense of belonging as well. As you develop empathy and understanding about your community, in some ways you become more accepting of others that are different from you and also you begin to, or I did,

298 maybe begin to understand maybe what my individual role and place was and is in this whole community dynamic, the kind of contribution that I personally can be making to the community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: Going back to our first question, I know a lot about the Valley having grown up here but what I really appreciated is it showed me I needed to know a lot more. That experience with other people, very diverse background to people you are not normally exposed to. Coming from the media I have always been under that, not to be able to give my opinion, having to keep that out as we gather facts and delivered information. So, being in that realm where I could freely give my opinion was something new to me and that improved even more once I left working directly in the media, to start thinking and crystallizing my thoughts. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: So, the Valley Leadership experience was really enriching in that respect, that I was able to hear people's opinions and directly respond to them or think about how I would respond to things I really did not agree with. You were able to talk about things that you could not even talk about in your own families, and that was the freedom of the leadership effort. Thank you. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think those are good points. [Name] reminded me, when I started into this program 20 some years ago I was much closer to my own professional media experience than I am now, and I guess I would echo some of what [name] was saying with respect to that. But I also wonder if maybe independence or a sense of being able to make your own decisions and think your own way is sort of reinforced, and the confidence that you get from knowing and understanding more about the world around you. I think that maybe is a value that I felt somewhat reinforced in my own experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think those are good points. [Name] reminded me, when I started into this program 20 some years ago I was much closer to my own professional media experience than I am now, and I guess I would echo some of what [name] was saying with respect to that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: One value for me was the teaching side, which is a little more than the receiving side. When I started with Valley Leadership it was about 1995 and HIV and AIDS was just barely on the radar screen, very conservative state Arizona, conservative city. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHealthActivity 1

299 Source Material: When I started with Valley Leadership it was about 1995 and HIV and AIDS was just barely on the radar screen, very conservative state Arizona, conservative city. I was leading an HIV/AIDS organization and what it provided was an opportunity to teach other members of the class about HIV and AIDS and pray that you were not getting it through the media, through faith-based organizations, through whatever contemporary way you had to really begin to understand the issues around HIV and AIDS. Valley Leadership provided that opportunity and year over year because Body Positive was one of the tour sites; and I can tell you too at least 25 different people who came up to me later after seeing the Body Positive experience, how it changed their perception, their understanding and their ability to embrace and work with this disease and work with the organization and the community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: Coming from the media I have always been under that, not to be able to give my opinion, having to keep that out as we gather facts and delivered information. So, being in that realm where I could freely give my opinion was something new to me and that improved even more once I left working directly in the media, to start thinking and crystallizing my thoughts. So, the Valley Leadership experience was really enriching in that respect, that I was able to hear people's opinions and directly respond to them or think about how I would respond to things I really did not agree with. You were able to talk about things that you could not even talk about in your own families, and that was the freedom of the leadership effort. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: A sense of being able to make your own decisions and think your own way is sort of reinforced, and the confidence that you get from knowing and understanding more about the world around you. I think that maybe is a value that I felt somewhat reinforced in my own experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality 2 Source Material: The class about HIV and AIDS and pray that you were not getting it through the media, through faith-based organizations, through whatever contemporary way you had to really begin to understand the issues around HIV and AIDS. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between Hispanic Leadership Institute, (HLI), and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues.

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RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between Hispanic Leadership Institute, (HLI), and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: That experience with other people, very diverse background to people you are not normally exposed to. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between Hispanic Leadership Institute, (HLI), and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I do not know if we were the first class that did the group project, I cannot remember if they had done that one year before. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: For whatever reason, our group did okay together [during the group project], but our topic, and I cannot even remember what it was, but none of us were really jazzed about it. I think a lot of us had hoped that we were going to do the Shadow of the Executives because that would have been an amazing experience, and I think they have learned a lot over the years with the project and it sounds like they have become more and more fulfilling and a little bit more strategic. So the group projects were something that we just kind of had to get through, but to me it was not something that I got a whole lot of out of. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4

301 Source Material: The responsibility piece that we talked about was that we were going to do something that kind of did impact the community in a little bit different way, but it really did not. We had dialogue and I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. Like I said, the topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. So, like I said, I had hoped it would have been more along helping others and social responsibility aspect of it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: I had hoped it would have done was the helping others and the responsibility piece that we talked about was that we were going to do something that kind of did impact the community in a little bit different way, but it really did not. We had dialogue and I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. Like I said, the topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. So, like I said, I had hoped it would have been more along helping others RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I am going to go ahead and follow [name] because I was also in [name] class and the group project was a challenge. While we did not enjoy it, I did not really jump on it, but coming to consensus about what to choose was really difficult. I just think that the whole opportunity to be put on an assignment and have to come up with something was a challenge because it forced us to get to know each other a little bit more and that sense of we have got to get things done, we are belonging which is one of my main drivers, it just kind of like okay now, how do you help the group move forward. Then you would find people who just did not even help, so that was the challenge. But I think since that I have had other opportunities to do these things and I am just always surprised by how different groups respond and take up a challenge of a group project and do some really neat stuff with it. But, at the other end, there is always that struggle of group dynamic of keeping people interested, involved and making sure they do their part. It is a continual challenge I deal with daily now. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHumility 1 Source Material: One value for me was the teaching side, which is a little more than the receiving side.

302 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: I am going to go ahead and follow [name] because I was also in [name] class and the group project was a challenge. While we did not enjoy it, I did not really jump on it, but coming to consensus about what to choose was really difficult. I just think that the whole opportunity to be put on an assignment and have to come up with something was a challenge because it forced us to get to know each other a little bit more and that sense of we have got to get things done, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: But I think since that I have had other opportunities to do these things and I am just always surprised by how different groups respond and take up a challenge of a group project and do some really neat stuff with it. But, at the other end, there is always that struggle of group dynamic of keeping people interested, involved and making sure they do their part. It is a continual challenge I deal with daily now. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 1 Source Material: This does not pertain just to the class program; I am thinking of the organization as a whole, and I think that one of our biggest challenges in the overall organization, and it speaks to belonging and loyalty to the group, is that we do not keep enough of our alumni involved. I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. Then we seem to keep a few involved and there are some regulars that come back, but our challenge is if the energy is so wonderful, it is how to keep them still wanting this experience for more people and have something so they are still feeling like we are continuing to satisfy them and the greater group as we go along. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: This does not pertain just to the class program; I am thinking of the organization as a whole, and I think that one of our biggest challenges in the overall organization, and it speaks to belonging and loyalty to the group, is that we do not keep enough of our alumni involved. I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. Then we seem to keep a few involved and there are some regulars that come back, but our challenge is if the energy is so wonderful, it is how to keep them still wanting this experience for more people and have something so they are still feeling like we are continuing to satisfy them and the greater group as we go along. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement Source Material: 3

303 I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I think the thing that was least valuable for me was the, well, it is hard to say least valuable but I will just explain it and maybe you can tell me how it goes. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: Sometimes the leadership programs fall into a format that is talking heads that we really believe in less is more, we believe in more dialogue among class members. When you head people talk about their experience, they really talk about the discourse and the ability to exchange freely ideas and thoughts, and I think sometimes our format is finding that balance between talking heads and encouraging that dialogue. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I, at the risk of sort of doing some me too-ism here, but I am thinking back on my class experience. I think that maybe, just retrospectively almost, I do not know if the ability of classes to connect is consistent from year-to-year. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I think we have some groups that seem to gel more as a group than others and while I have four or five people out of my class that I have maintained relationships with one way or the other, I do not know if I think that our class experience was, that we had the kind of bonding maybe that all classes have had. I think that for some that might be a really important part of, that maybe that sense of belonging and so forth might be a very important part of the quality of the experience. For myself I got a lot of other really good things out of it and, as I say, there may be as many as a half a dozen of my classmates that I interact with either professionally or personally now, 20 some years later.

304 Code Frequency All Data Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ1Experience'! ____________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ1ExperienceMostFulfill'! _____________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ1Value'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ1ValueMostSatisfy'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15

305 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHealthActivity 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHumility 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11

306 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ1ValueMostSatisfyPrivacy'! ______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality 2 RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality 2 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2Experience'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfill'!

307 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2Value'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2ValueLeastSatisfy'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernEnvironment'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4

308 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHealthActivity 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHumility'! _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 1 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 _______________________________________________________________________ Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'RQ2ValueLeastSatisfySpirituality'!

309 Coded Source Data: Responses and Frequency Code Frequency RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think the number one thing would be the sense of achievement on going for the valley leadership program. My company helped found the [Valley Leadership] program so we have almost had a representative from our company for as long as I can recall. So being a part of that history and the sense of achievement that goes with it, and I think is part of one of the values that I would see as the most, a fulfilling experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: If belonging is the right word, or if it relates to building independence and the sense of responsibility in that as a kind of a secondary value, because the networking aspect of valley leadership was extremely beneficial. I would say was one of the best experiences from a valley leadership perspective and that I got the opportunity to interact, dialogue, and have conversations with people that I would not normally have in my day to work, socially, etc.. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: No, because it [Valley Leadership program] really was not that fulfilling of an experience. Valley leadership has been fulfilling to me afterwards. We were in one of those odd years during valley leadership where they were making changes to the curriculum, and so consequently it was just this, it was not necessarily, I would not necessarily say it was not necessarily the best experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: But my years afterwards were. I am one of those people that if I do not like something I get involved so I can help change it. I have since Chaired and Co-Chaired Leadership Institute for several years. I was responsible for our membership program immediately after my Leadership Institute experience, etc. So, my most fulfilling experiences have come afterwards. Q1c. Okay, so from the example that you just sited which values didthat fulfill for you? Where you were chairing the program and doing some of that other stuff. A: A sense of responsibility [is the value that fulfills me as chair and co-chair of the leadership institute]. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: This one is more difficult. I do not know that, much more difficult to identify specifically for me, from my perspective, from a values perspective, why it was least fulfilling. I do

310 not know that I can pinpoint that other than it was I just did not feel, I do not know what value I would attach to this, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: I did not feel like, in my perspective; I guess if I was going to, in a Leadership Institute of this caliber should be teaching and giving individuals, the participants, etc., opportunities to truly evaluate and learn new leadership experiences, opportunities, ways in which delving into issues and solving those issues. I just did not feel like we got that from my Leadership Institute experience. It was a lot of information that conveyed to us in somewhat of a classroom environment that I do not necessarily think was delivered in the most effective manner, and so, consequently, that turned me off. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: Yes, and looking at the list of values, I do not know, I cannot identify any one of those that necessarily would have been specific, I mean, other than if I were to use responsibility again under this section from a perspective of there was a lack of responsibility. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: It certainly sorts through when you look at values and you start ranking them from a priority perspective, what really opened up for me is where my current commitments were and how truly I was committed to those commitments based on my values. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: Responsibility absolutely, what is my role in this, how, what opportunity do I have to move the needle in whatever direction I feel it should be moved. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Certainly, a sense of belonging, being more of the inner circle regarding how those issues or values occur in our community and really being a part of, a part of how that shows up. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think it also gave me a much better perspective, or appreciation of the fact that I was already a leader, or already on a leadership path. It is kind of difficult to gauge that it is like looking at the back of your head. In being part of an experience where there are other emerging leaders engaged in issues or values, I really stood shoulder to shoulder with them. So, it was a very good affirmation [achievement]. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11

311 Source Material: There was not nearly as much opportunity, except for the retreat, to really build bond and rapport and trust and friendship. That was a huge missing for me [belonging is the highest one]. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 Source Material: Financial prosperity, if it should be worded that way. The other thing that was missing for me, and it was sort of pooh-poohed is this is not a networking opportunity. So we were almost told not to engage in that. Which would give me access to business opportunity in my mind. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: There were 50 people in the group, and I did the class. What is it, 4 years ago now? I have one good friendship that come out of it [the group] and a couple more loose friendships. I was hoping for much, much more than that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: The other fulfilling experience was access to organizations or entities that Joe Arizona off the street would not have access to. Tours. For example, my two favorite tours would be the Luke Air Force Base tour and doing the flight simulator. That was amazing. I know there are very, very, very, very few people in the world that get to do that and just getting an understanding of the people that serve our country, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: Then the other one was the ride along with the Phoenix police department in one of the most crime ridden districts in the city, being Maryville. Seeing what our police officers deal with on a daily basis and those challenges. That was very fulfilling. Q2f. Why were those two fulfilling for you? A: You mean from a values perspective? Or, well with the police ride-along, one of the things that was clearly evident is that a huge piece of our community that often requires support from the police department are not English speakers. There was such a, it was so touch for this police officer to try to deal with this situation where no one spoke English, whether it was a domestic violence or a traffic situation, or whatever, and it just was like my gosh, we need to do something about this. So brought up the, I guess, responsibility, concern for others, people's rights are not fully being expressed because of the language barrier. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding Source Material: 5

312 Scientific understanding, the objective analysis and having access to that kind of data [how Luke Air Force base operate as a business]. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyFinancialProsperity 1 Source Material: Then the Luke Air Force base experience, again, I just got a much broader understanding of how our armed forces operate as a business, learning that they are one of the biggest employers and buyers in the state, how that impacts our economy. So, maybe that is scientific understanding, the objective analysis and having access to that kind of data [how Luke Air Force base operates as a business]. Because you never think an Air Force base is a major economic contributor to our community so I should have a responsible voice in protecting that as an asset. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: Then the flight simulator thing [Luke Air Force base experience] was just cool. I do not know what value to put that under, but it was just cool. Creativity maybe, I do not know. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: I did develop a very deep and wonderful relationship with one other person in the program who ended up passing away a couple of years later. He was a quadriplegic and due to some challenges related to that, he ended up dying. I do not think I would have access to a friendship like that with someone that had those sort of disabilities had we not been in the same program. So it really opened my eyes to the challenges that people have with disabilities and also that there is real friendship and relationship available there. RQ1ValueMostSatisfySpirituality 2 Source Material: I did develop a very deep and wonderful relationship with one other person in the program who ended up passing away a couple of years later. He was a quadriplegic and due to some challenges related to that, he ended up dying. I do not think I would have access to a friendship like that with someone that had those sort of disabilities had we not been in the same program. So it really opened my eyes to the challenges that people have with disabilities and also that there is real friendship and relationship available there. That was incredibly fulfilling [loyalty to family or group and spirituality]. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: Part of that responsibility lies in the way the program is structured and what is communicated around that structure and part of it is my own responsibility. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging Source Material: 11

313 There was a strong sense of belonging for me, in Valley Leadership, in a different sense; [it] was not even about making friendships, because I have never had issues with making friends. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: But here was an organization that has a very important reputation. I had just moved to the Valley in '80, and I went through this program, '85, '86. Just being connected to what, at that time, I thought was a powerful and influential group with the potential of doing more for the community. So, I think that is probably what keeps me connected today, is that sense of belonging. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: What I feel strongly about is the sense of responsibility. Because you belong to this community, and I always thought that community service was the price you pay for being a part of a community; that is what you do to live here. To just be in this world is to give back, and Valley Leadership fulfilled that for me. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: I did not feel like, in my perspective; I guess if I was going to, in a Leadership Institute of this caliber should be teaching and giving individuals, the participants, etc., opportunities to truly evaluate and learn new leadership experiences, opportunities, ways in which delving into issues and solving those issues. I just did not feel like we got that from my Leadership Institute experience. It was a lot of information that conveyed to us in somewhat of a classroom environment that I do not necessarily think was delivered in the most effective manner, and so, consequently, that turned me off. RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 Source Material: Because I have been involved for so long, I do not know if there was anything that was outstanding. RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillInstrumentalValue 14 Source Material: Where my classmates pretty much ran the state. They were so involved. One was on the City Council. It was kind of heady to think that these were my buddies, some of them I never thought in terms of those kinds of leadership qualities, but it just happened that way. It was a period of time, and it was not just one of them, it was just the fact that at one point, between, let us say, 3 and 5 or 6 years, members of my class were elected officials. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement Source Material: 14

314 A sense of pride during those years, where my classmates pretty much ran the state. They were so involved. One was on the City Council. It was kind of heady to think that these were my buddies, some of them I never thought in terms of those kinds of leadership qualities, but it just happened that way. It was a period of time, and it was not just one of them, it was just the fact that at one point, between, let us say, 3 and 5 or 6 years, members of my class were elected officials. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: What you just listed is, I think, a lot of what keeps me involved in it, that kind of sense of belonging. Having not come out of a college where I was in a sorority or groups like that, this for me was, I guess, close to that experience that I would want. It was about community service, and it was about giving back to the community, learning more about your community, and so that sense of belonging has been wonderful. Not just for this class, for my class, but for the board and all of it. That work that is really what gets me excited. I really do feel like I am part of something great. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: Where we get to train more people about what is going on in the valley, what is important. How they can be part of moving us all to a better community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 Source Material: How they can be part of moving us all to a better community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: I was not lacking for funds, but I will say that I have stayed in such close touch, 4 years later. I talk to those guys almost every day. They are doing amazing things. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: They [some members in the group that one BD remains in contact with] continue to grow into their families and into their professional lives in this way that is amazing to watch. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: They [some members in the group that one BD remains in contact with] continue to grow into their families and into their professional lives in this way that is amazing to watch. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The most favorite part while I was in the program was stopping for a day a month and, as much as we were able to turn our phones off, maybe more then than now, thinking about the community and my job and my role as a volunteer in the community from 50,000

315 feet. It was like a total pause from your real life, because you were not dealing with minutia. You just sort of think at a different level about how things mesh together and how they sit together, and how you could make things fit better or connect the dots. So it is why I have stayed so close to the program, because I really need that, one day a month, to not be entrenched in the work but to get above it and think about how it all connects together. I think that is part of why I am still so active with the program, because having that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, is huge for me. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: Thinking about the community and my job and my role as a volunteer in the community from 50,000 feet. It was like a total pause from your real life, because you were not dealing with minutia. You just sort of think at a different level about how things mesh together and how they sit together, and how you could make things fit better or connect the dots. So it is why I have stayed so close to the program, because I really need that, one day a month, to not be entrenched in the work but to get above it and think about how it all connects together. I think that is part of why I am still so active with the program, because having that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: Ditto, I ditto that. Here is the difference. When I went through, there was no sweat lodge. The bonding process was totally different and, in fact, we did not bond in the same way that class members bond now. We drove individually to the retreat, and our spouses and our significant others came up the next day to have dinner with us. So we did not connect them on the same level as the current classes do. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: But ironically, the people that I have lunch with once a month, on the first Friday of every month, there is about 16 of us from our classes that we still get together. None of them, except for maybe two or three, were people that I was close to during the class program. So, it is interesting. Our only connection is Valley Leadership, because some of these people are so politically different and socially different. We try everything not to miss that lunch. The way it is set up is, somebody has a calendar, we get assigned a month and we select a month that we host, we pick the site and we pick up the tab. We have been doing this for almost 25 years. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: I would say for me the tours were extremely satisfying. We had sort of once in a lifetime opportunities to be in a sweat lodge, to spend the day with the police. I have clear and wonderful memories of the people that I got to do that with. It is such a bonding experience, maybe even more so than the days themselves, when you are sort of in a

316 classroom situation as opposed to living some action or something. Those tour experiences are remarkable. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: Our only connection is Valley Leadership, because some of these people are so politically different and socially different. We try everything not to miss that lunch. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: The way it is set up is, somebody has a calendar, we get assigned a month and we select a month that we host, we pick the site and we pick up the tab. We have been doing this for almost 25 years. That scares me. About 23 years. What class is this, 29, now? A: 29, yes.

A: That is awesome. It is funny, because our class still talks a lot, we still meet. We have a group lunch and then we have a lunch where we do every 60 days, I guess, we all get together. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: We have a group lunch and then we have a lunch where we do every 60 days, I guess, we all get together. It is a dozen of us. A lot of them, people that I was not friends with then. Then a lot of us [inaudible] it is crazy. One of the most amazing things about it is, we literally talked about how to think up tours of our own, that we would love to do. Honestly, we looked at some of the alumni tours, and the alumni tours we would talk about are things I hope we decide to do. But, we have talked about doing road trips, and should we go to Carlsbad Caverns, and should we do a sweat lodge, for example, for the people who did not do it. I would love to do that helicopter ride that weaves up here right along helicopter [inaudible]. Every year we offer, we come up with cooler and cooler opportunities, and I know we as a class kind of get together and go, "I wonder if we could think that stuff up for ourselves?" Or, would Valley Leadership provide us the opportunities in an ongoing way? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Then, the other piece that I found in the last few classes that I just love, and I think is, the alumni piece is so important to me is that, classes that are near each other, 25 and 26, you know, 28 and 29 now are doing it, have joined Happy Hours and have joined groups, partly because they share, [names] the class chairs are sort of the link for them, but it lasts to see them talking to the guys that are going through the class now, and sort of say, "Oh, you have no idea," and "How great this will be," and "It will change your life". It is so funny to let them sort of be with each other in a social way and how great that is. That to me is really important that they find connectivity to the organization, not just their own class.

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RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I always worry, we talk about this a lot at board meetings, that the classes get really insular to themselves. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: One of the most amazing things about it is, we literally talked about how to think up tours of our own, that we would love to do. Honestly, we looked at some of the alumni tours, and the alumni tours we would talk about are things I hope we decide to do. But, we have talked about doing road trips, and should we go to Carlsbad Caverns, and should we do a sweat lodge, for example, for the people who did not do it. I would love to do that helicopter ride that weaves up here right along helicopter [inaudible]. Every year we offer, we come up with cooler and cooler opportunities, and I know we as a class kind of get together and go, "I wonder if we could think that stuff up for ourselves?" Or, would Valley Leadership provide us the opportunities in an ongoing way? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Always worry, we talk about this a lot at board meetings, that the classes get really insular to themselves. Find ways to make at least some of these about the organization, because we want them always to remember that the foundation of all this was an organization that could continue to bring them those opportunities to be together, or to find other life opportunities. [Inaudible] at least, for me is exciting to think about. Once you graduate out of the program, how do we keep you close to us? RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive Source Material: I cannot think of anything specific. 10

RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: I am going to say, perhaps, maybe not having enough time to get more out of a particular program. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I cannot even name a program that stands out. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: It is just that always, at the end of the session, I always felt, that could have been longer or I wish that could have been longer, because there was never a time that I was bored. Even though I knew a lot of what was going on, the information was intense and maybe from a different perspective that I had not been aware of. So, I just think the lack of time.

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RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: We have the same answers. I think I will give you a quick example of why [anonymous] is right about the time piece. We just finished our day on Friday, yesterday, and it is the piece of the evaluations that they write notes to us about the year, that they are having the same experience that you had 20 years ago, I had 5 years ago, not enough time. That this program is, in the best possible way, drinking from a fire hose. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyHealthActivity 1 Source Material: We go and we give you a lot of information, and you would leave the days physically and mentally exhausted because you are hearing so much, and you will take a couple of days to process it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: Then it was over so quickly, and you had so many things that you wanted to hear about and know about, and how many people you would hear from. There is not enough time to hear about all of those things. There are so many things happening here, now, that you cannot hear and know about all of them. So, that was only the frustration, because you would sit in the day and know that there were two other people who knew more about this, or that you wanted to hear more from somebody who was speaking, but the panel wrapped up and you had to go to the next thing. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The whole year is like drinking from a fire hose. We had always sort of laugh about, if you could make this a 3-year program, there still probably would not be enough time. It is amazing. So, it is the hardest part from a programming perspective, and it is the hardest part being in it. You just feel like you are trying to catch up all the time, and that your time is so compressed. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The other hard part, I think there is not a lot of time to just be together, to think out loud together. Because we are trying to give them so much to think about, that there was not a lot of time in the day to talk to each other about what was going on. It is why the tour experience, I think, is so valuable, because you have the drive time there in the carpool and the drive time back to sort of think it through and you are with the group of people. But the days themselves do not allow for that as much. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging Source Material: 11

319 The other hard part, I think there is not a lot of time to just be together, to think out loud together. Because we are trying to give them so much to think about, that there was not a lot of time in the day to talk to each other about what was going on. It is why the tour experience, I think, is so valuable, because you have the drive time there in the carpool and the drive time back to sort of think it through and you are with the group of people. But the days themselves do not allow for that as much. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: The tours allow you to have a little bit more time to be together, to be with your classmates RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: [the tours allow you to] process what is happening to you and what the experience means, what you are thinking about, and the days, because of the way they are programmed, they do not allow a lot of time to process what is going, what you are hearing about. I think that is the part that is, not "not fulfilling", it is just frustrating. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: [the tours allow you to] process what is happening to you and what the experience means, what you are thinking about, and the days, because of the way they are programmed, they do not allow a lot of time to process what is going, what you are hearing about. I think that is the part that is, not "not fulfilling", it is just frustrating. RQ1ExperienceMostFulfillIndecisive 2 Source Material: I guess I was not thinking in terms of the value. I will say, you are wanting to know about the most fulfilling, is that right? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: For me, and I know you want to be more specific than this, but I guess I would say the most fulfilling experiences were, for me, probably the tours. It was because I was able to do things that I never would have an opportunity to do otherwise. So, I was exposed to things that I did not know, so I was able to learn a lot that I would not otherwise have learned about. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: You know things like going to the prisons. When would I get an opportunity to visit a prison and learn about the prison system while seeing it first hand? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence Source Material: 11

320 It was not just the tours, because sometimes on the class days we were at the places seeing things. So, the most fulfilling experiences for me were learning things that I did not already know about, and probably without the Valley Leadership Program, would never have had an opportunity to learn about. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: So, I guess as I am looking at kind of the value statements, I guess there is a concern for others, because it helped me learn about things related to that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I guess the achievement value, and learning, because I am always trying to improve and learn more. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I guess the responsibility piece, because for me, it is important to be a good citizen of the community and try to do things for the community. I think that is a responsibility that I have. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I would say one of the first, probably the first thing I would mention, was experience with the teens during my program. As you know, one of the program days is adult and teen combined program day. Having worked with teens, I had plenty of background and plenty of appreciation in terms of the value that they bring when they interact with adults. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: Trying to get an opportunity to see some of my classmates also see that value was very important to me and was refreshing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: The values that I would associate with that would probably be, let us see, concern for others, as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: Achievement, because I think both the teens and adults involved with that so that they get a sense of achievement out of the program. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging Source Material: Belonging 15

321 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: Loyalty, as well. I think that although the teen program and adult program are separate, there is that loyalty to Valley Leadership as a whole. So in that sense, I would say loyalty was also a value. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: You know things like going to the prisons. When would I get an opportunity to visit a prison and learn about the prison system while seeing it first hand? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: So I think as a whole, just the experience and the varied amount of experience. Because it was so broad in scope, in terms of how we went about learning about leadership and developing our leadership skills through seeing broad ideas and different types of leaders, and things of that nature. I think the value is associated with that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement Source Material: It would definitely also be achievement, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: concern for others, RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence Source Material: independence 14

14

11

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: Responsibility would be high on that value chart for me, because I think the program fosters a responsibility that we have for, in terms of our community responsibilities. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I think, when I went through the program, we did not have the teen program. But yet, since that time, in a volunteer capacity, I have sat in on a lot of the teen days, and seen what they do with that, and there are some other things that they do today that, again as a volunteer, I have enjoyed as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: I think, when I went through the program, we did not have the teen program. But yet, since that time, in a volunteer capacity, I have sat in on a lot of the teen days, and seen

322 what they do with that, and there are some other things that they do today that, again as a volunteer, I have enjoyed as well. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: It could be that [name] has some stuff around that, too, because it is not that it has to be just being on the board, because I have been a volunteer actually since I got out of the program and I was in class 16. So, that was a while back. It was after that that they started the teen program and so I was part of helping with that. I really enjoyed, and I guess I get fulfillment every year when I volunteer and go to some of the other class days, and I am continuing to be able to learn, and more recently when I have been able to go to the teen ones, it is just inspiring to me. I get excited about seeing, when I keep learning, but I get excited about some of the stuff that we are able to touch those lives, and so, you feel like you are making a difference in the volunteer work that you do. That maybe it is an individual life but it is also helping people become better leaders. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 6 Source Material: It could be that [name] has some stuff around that, too, because it is not that it has to be just being on the board, because I have been a volunteer actually since I got out of the program and I was in class 16. So, that was a while back. It was after that that they started the teen program and so I was part of helping with that. I really enjoyed, and I guess I get fulfillment every year when I volunteer and go to some of the other class days, and I am continuing to be able to learn, and more recently when I have been able to go to the teen ones, it is just inspiring to me. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence Source Material: I am continuing to be able to learn, 11

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: You are making a difference in the volunteer work that you do. That maybe it is an individual life but it is also helping people become better leaders. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I mean, I will use as an example, in last year's class on their first issue day; we had some people talk about immigration. We also had that this year. But, last year's class, people learned about immigration ad they had different panel members talk, and people talking all sides of the issue. That was in September. In June, when they were graduating, they were asked what mattered the most, or what did they learn, what was most impactful for them, whatever. Several people said that immigration day. So they were looking back to the very first day, and they said, "I had no idea. I had voted on propositions based upon what I would see in the paper, I had no idea what my vote meant. I now have a

323 completely different view than I did at the time that I voted. I did not realize I was really affecting people's lives." RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: I mean, I will use as an example, in last year's class on their first issue day; we had some people talk about immigration. We also had that this year. But, last year's class, people learned about immigration ad they had different panel members talk, and people talking all sides of the issue. That was in September. In June, when they were graduating, they were asked what mattered the most, or what did they learn, what was most impactful for them, whatever. Several people said that immigration day. So they were looking back to the very first day, and they said, "I had no idea. I had voted on propositions based upon what I would see in the paper, I had no idea what my vote meant. I now have a completely different view than I did at the time that I voted. I did not realize I was really affecting people's lives." That is huge, that is huge. What it did was it said, to people, learn more about the issues. So, they walked away and said, "Gosh, I am not going to rely just on what I see in the paper, because now I know that there is more to issues," and they sought to be better informed. I mean, that is amazing, that is about creating more civil discourse and creating better leaders and people who will think more about things as they move forward. I just think that helps make the Valley a better place, if you have more people kind of thinking about, "Let's get more of the facts," that kind of thing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernEnvironment 2 Source Material: I just think that helps make the Valley a better place, if you have more people kind of thinking about, "Let's get more of the facts," that kind of thing. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: I am just rambling, and that was just, that gets to that responsibility and the concern for others, as examples, and [name], you worked with the teen program, and, how amazing is that? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I am just rambling, and that was just, that gets to that responsibility and the concern for others, as examples, and [name], you worked with the teen program, and, how amazing is that? RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I actually started working with the teen program the year after I got done with my program. I came in and did combined adult and teen day. Then the following year cochaired, and then this past year chaired the program. [Call dropped] RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10

324 Source Material: It is a little bit hard, because I went through it so long ago that it is hard to remember, and my overall impressions are good, and so then you tend to forget the bad. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2 Source Material: The history day. I think that was the least fulfilling part of the program. It was the first time they had ever done a day around kind of Arizona and Phoenix history. So, it was the first time to do it. Since that time, they have made that into an amazing day. But at the time I went through it, it was a series of lectures. So we were not involved, it really did not get to any issues about things facing the Valley or thing facing the State and what you might do about it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyPrivacy 2 Source Material: So there was not the interaction, there was not facts that I thought necessarily made us better leaders or better citizens, just facts. But it was the first time they had done that day. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 Source Material: Arizona and Phoenix history. So, it was the first time to do it. Since that time, they have made that into an amazing day. But at the time I went through it, it was a series of lectures. So we were not involved, it really did not get to any issues about things facing the Valley or thing facing the State and what you might do about it. It [the first program day] was just sort of, here is a bunch of facts about Phoenix, Arizona history. They could have just sent me an article about that. So there was not the interaction, there was not facts that I thought necessarily made us better leaders or better citizens, just facts. But it was the first time they had done that day. They got a lot of feedback on how to make that day better and, as I said, it is evolved into something that is really interesting. So the issues were, I mean, I guess the values that I kind of looked at, what it did not, it did not really spark any achievement. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: It [first day program on Arizona and Phoenix history] really was not about concern for others. It was just a bunch of facts about the past. So, that is something I could have gotten without Valley Leadership. I could have gone and picked up a book. So there was not anything special about that leadership. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: My example is basically, deals with the projects that are done at the end of the program now. I do not think it has always been done that way, right [name]? In terms of group projects?

325 A: Yes, we did not have group projects. We had one-on-one days, and that was neat, but that is another thing. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement 3 Source Material: Not in terms of, I mean, the process itself in doing, the process I thought was fine, and the learning involved and what came out of it. I think the point where I was a little disappointed was, you kind of put together something that is really good and you are proud of it, you think people should see. In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. But, it is one of those things where you kind of want to see it go somewhere, and it dies there. At the graduation or what not, people do their presentations on their group projects and, after that it kind of goes away, almost. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. But, it is one of those things where you kind of want to see it go somewhere, and it dies there. At the graduation or what not, people do their presentations on their group projects and, after that it kind of goes away, almost. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: I know this does not have anything to do with the focus group, but I just thought [name] would like to know how they have changed the projects this year, I think based upon some of the feedback. All the things they are supposed to be doing are supposed to be like legacy projects, a lot of them are like designing things for Valley Leadership. Maybe a video for Valley Leadership about something, creating something for Valley Leadership's 30th Anniversary, but all of the projects are supposed to be legacy, something that can be used by Valley Leadership and something that will take on a life beyond the project itself. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think the thing that I got the most out of Valley Leadership was the awareness of the different aspects of the community, and I think just being able to talk to people that are working on different sides of the issue and to hear different perspectives was amazing. The pieces of actually taking you out into the community so that you could see how it works through like the tours and just even going to different locations for the different program dates was invaluable. It was thought provoking, it was eye-opening I think in a

326 lot of ways. I think it reinforced certain things that I already knew about the community but, if anything, it continued to reinforce to me the importance of people being involved in community and being willing to give their personal time to help make it better, stronger, more vibrant, however you want to talk about that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think for me it is sort of an iteration of what [name] just said in that you have the opportunity to be exposed to experiences and individuals that are outside of your normal sphere. You may have secondhand or even third hand impressions about issues and aspects of the community, but the Valley Leadership experience I think allowed me to experience some of that firsthand and get a firsthand exposure to individuals and different parts of the community and issues that were really not people or things that I might come in contact in my own professional or personal life. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think for me it is sort of an iteration of what [name] just said in that you have the opportunity to be exposed to experiences and individuals that are outside of your normal sphere. You may have secondhand or even third hand impressions about issues and aspects of the community, but the Valley Leadership experience I think allowed me to experience some of that firsthand and get a firsthand exposure to individuals and different parts of the community and issues that were really not people or things that I might come in contact in my own professional or personal life. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: I think the concern for others and the responsibility for me, those two, certainly achievement because you are always learning but in the responsibility and concern for others, I feel, and I am kind of going along with what I have heard before, but the ability to be in a room, have completely opposing viewpoints with people, not argue but really be able to listen to what they are saying and try to walk in somebody else's shoes, so to speak is, I think, something that a lot of us cannot even do in our family but we can do it in this group for some reason. It breaks down a lot of barriers and allows you to get I think more done. It is just an incredible experience in that respect and I think that satisfies the steward responsibility and the concern for others. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: I think the concern for others 14

RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers 14 Source Material: As you develop empathy and understanding about your community RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15

327 Source Material: I would agree. I think that that is certainly the critical one. I do not know, I am looking at the list here and I think maybe to some degree it is a sense of belonging as well. As you develop empathy and understanding about your community, in some ways you become more accepting of others that are different from you and also you begin to, or I did, maybe begin to understand maybe what my individual role and place was and is in this whole community dynamic, the kind of contribution that I personally can be making to the community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: Going back to our first question, I know a lot about the Valley having grown up here but what I really appreciated is it showed me I needed to know a lot more. That experience with other people, very diverse background to people you are not normally exposed to. Coming from the media I have always been under that, not to be able to give my opinion, having to keep that out as we gather facts and delivered information. So, being in that realm where I could freely give my opinion was something new to me and that improved even more once I left working directly in the media, to start thinking and crystallizing my thoughts. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: So, the Valley Leadership experience was really enriching in that respect, that I was able to hear people's opinions and directly respond to them or think about how I would respond to things I really did not agree with. You were able to talk about things that you could not even talk about in your own families, and that was the freedom of the leadership effort. Thank you. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: I think those are good points. [Name] reminded me, when I started into this program 20 some years ago I was much closer to my own professional media experience than I am now, and I guess I would echo some of what [name] was saying with respect to that. But I also wonder if maybe independence or a sense of being able to make your own decisions and think your own way is sort of reinforced, and the confidence that you get from knowing and understanding more about the world around you. I think that maybe is a value that I felt somewhat reinforced in my own experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: I think those are good points. [Name] reminded me, when I started into this program 20 some years ago I was much closer to my own professional media experience than I am now, and I guess I would echo some of what [name] was saying with respect to that. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyConcernOthers Source Material: 14

328 One value for me was the teaching side, which is a little more than the receiving side. When I started with Valley Leadership it was about 1995 and HIV and AIDS was just barely on the radar screen, very conservative state Arizona, conservative city. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHealthActivity 1 Source Material: When I started with Valley Leadership it was about 1995 and HIV and AIDS was just barely on the radar screen, very conservative state Arizona, conservative city. I was leading an HIV/AIDS organization and what it provided was an opportunity to teach other members of the class about HIV and AIDS and pray that you were not getting it through the media, through faith-based organizations, through whatever contemporary way you had to really begin to understand the issues around HIV and AIDS. Valley Leadership provided that opportunity and year over year because Body Positive was one of the tour sites; and I can tell you too at least 25 different people who came up to me later after seeing the Body Positive experience, how it changed their perception, their understanding and their ability to embrace and work with this disease and work with the organization and the community. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: Coming from the media I have always been under that, not to be able to give my opinion, having to keep that out as we gather facts and delivered information. So, being in that realm where I could freely give my opinion was something new to me and that improved even more once I left working directly in the media, to start thinking and crystallizing my thoughts. So, the Valley Leadership experience was really enriching in that respect, that I was able to hear people's opinions and directly respond to them or think about how I would respond to things I really did not agree with. You were able to talk about things that you could not even talk about in your own families, and that was the freedom of the leadership effort. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyResponsibility 10 Source Material: A sense of being able to make your own decisions and think your own way is sort of reinforced, and the confidence that you get from knowing and understanding more about the world around you. I think that maybe is a value that I felt somewhat reinforced in my own experience. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyIndependence 11 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between HOI and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues.

329 RQ1ValueMostSatisfyAchievement 14 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between HOI and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: That experience with other people, very diverse background to people you are not normally exposed to. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyBelonging 15 Source Material: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between HOI and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I do not know if we were the first class that did the group project, I cannot remember if they had done that one year before. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3 Source Material: For whatever reason, our group did okay together [during the group project], but our topic, and I cannot even remember what it was, but none of us were really jazzed about it. I think a lot of us had hoped that we were going to do the Shadow of the Executives because that would have been an amazing experience, and I think they have learned a lot over the years with the project and it sounds like they have become more and more fulfilling and a little bit more strategic. So the group projects were something that we just kind of had to get through, but to me it was not something that I got a whole lot of out of. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility Source Material: 4

330 The responsibility piece that we talked about was that we were going to do something that kind of did impact the community in a little bit different way, but it really did not. We had dialogue and I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. Like I said, the topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. So, like I said, I had hoped it would have been more along helping others and social responsibility aspect of it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyConcernOthers 4 Source Material: I had hoped it would have done was the helping others and the responsibility piece that we talked about was that we were going to do something that kind of did impact the community in a little bit different way, but it really did not. We had dialogue and I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one more. Like I said, the topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. So, like I said, I had hoped it would have been more along helping others RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding 5 Source Material: The topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I am going to go ahead and follow [name] because I was also in [name] class and the group project was a challenge. While we did not enjoy it, I did not really jump on it, but coming to consensus about what to choose was really difficult. I just think that the whole opportunity to be put on an assignment and have to come up with something was a challenge because it forced us to get to know each other a little bit more and that sense of we have got to get things done, we are belonging which is one of my main drivers, it just kind of like okay now, how do you help the group move forward. Then you would find people who just did not even help, so that was the challenge. But I think since that I have had other opportunities to do these things and I am just always surprised by how different groups respond and take up a challenge of a group project and do some really neat stuff with it. But, at the other end, there is always that struggle of group dynamic of keeping people interested, involved and making sure they do their part. It is a continual challenge I deal with daily now. RQ1ValueMostSatisfyHumility 1 Source Material: One value for me was the teaching side, which is a little more than the receiving side. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyCreativity 3

331 Source Material: I am going to go ahead and follow [name] because I was also in [name] class and the group project was a challenge. While we did not enjoy it, I did not really jump on it, but coming to consensus about what to choose was really difficult. I just think that the whole opportunity to be put on an assignment and have to come up with something was a challenge because it forced us to get to know each other a little bit more and that sense of we have got to get things done, RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: But I think since that I have had other opportunities to do these things and I am just always surprised by how different groups respond and take up a challenge of a group project and do some really neat stuff with it. But, at the other end, there is always that struggle of group dynamic of keeping people interested, involved and making sure they do their part. It is a continual challenge I deal with daily now. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyInterdependenceLoyality 1 Source Material: This does not pertain just to the class program; I am thinking of the organization as a whole, and I think that one of our biggest challenges in the overall organization, and it speaks to belonging and loyalty to the group, is that we do not keep enough of our alumni involved. I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. Then we seem to keep a few involved and there are some regulars that come back, but our challenge is if the energy is so wonderful, it is how to keep them still wanting this experience for more people and have something so they are still feeling like we are continuing to satisfy them and the greater group as we go along. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: This does not pertain just to the class program; I am thinking of the organization as a whole, and I think that one of our biggest challenges in the overall organization, and it speaks to belonging and loyalty to the group, is that we do not keep enough of our alumni involved. I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. Then we seem to keep a few involved and there are some regulars that come back, but our challenge is if the energy is so wonderful, it is how to keep them still wanting this experience for more people and have something so they are still feeling like we are continuing to satisfy them and the greater group as we go along. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyAchievement Source Material: 3

332 I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyResponsibility 4 Source Material: I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I think the thing that was least valuable for me was the, well, it is hard to say least valuable but I will just explain it and maybe you can tell me how it goes. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyIndependence 6 Source Material: Sometimes the leadership programs fall into a format that is talking heads that we really believe in less is more, we believe in more dialogue among class members. When you head people talk about their experience, they really talk about the discourse and the ability to exchange freely ideas and thoughts, and I think sometimes our format is finding that balance between talking heads and encouraging that dialogue. RQ2ExperienceLeastFulfillIndecisive 10 Source Material: I, at the risk of sort of doing some me too-ism here, but I am thinking back on my class experience. I think that maybe, just retrospectively almost, I do not know if the ability of classes to connect is consistent from year-to-year. RQ2ValueLeastSatisfyBelonging 11 Source Material: I think we have some groups that seem to gel more as a group than others and while I have four or five people out of my class that I have maintained relationships with one way or the other, I do not know if I think that our class experience was, that we had the kind of bonding maybe that all classes have had. I think that for some that might be a really important part of, that maybe that sense of belonging and so forth might be a very important part of the quality of the experience. For myself I got a lot of other really good things out of it and, as I say, there may be as many as a half a dozen of my classmates that I interact with either professionally or personally now, 20 some years later.

333 Expanded Definitions of Values •

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ACHIEVEMENT - It is important to challenge myself and to work hard to improve. People who hold this value typically view themselves as ambitious, capable, courageous, responsible, self-controlled, and they may enjoy activities that require taking risks. This value can serve as a source of motivation to improve and do your best. Satisfaction of this value may come in many ways including the accumulation of knowledge, helping others, performing physical feats, setting challenging personal goals and working to achieve them, working to improve performance, putting forth extra effort to accomplish a goal, and through success in business. People who value Achievement experience stress when they are unable to act on their achievement-oriented goals, when they feel unchallenged, or when they become too focused on results or outcome at the sacrifice of satisfaction about their performance or effort. Belonging may conflict with Achievement when acceptance by a peer group is dependent upon maintaining relatively low levels of performance. Conflict may occur between persons who have a highly prioritized Achievement value and people who act to limit their accomplishments or do not share their Achievement value. Conflict can also occur when the demands of one or more other roles preclude the pursuit of cherished, achievement-oriented goals. BELONGING- It is important to be accepted by others and to feel included. Social recognition and inclusion in work and social groups is important. Inclusion is the basis for positive self-evaluation, and acceptance may be sought in a variety of ways including being helpful, polite, and/or loyal. Stress can result when other values are compromised for the sake of harmony or having others like you. Being assertive or dealing with confrontation can also be a source of stress. Transitions to new environments can be hard until a sense of belonging is felt. Independence, Privacy and Achievement may conflict with Belonging to the degree they interfere with connected to others. Conflict may occur if there is little acceptance or recognition given within a role. Conflict may also occur if other roles interfere with the time necessary to develop meaningful relationships. CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT-It is important to protect and preserve the environment. People who hold this value see themselves as honest, forgiving, self controlled, and broad-minded. They may also hold other altruistic beliefs such as equality and world peace. Protecting the natural beauty of the environment is of utmost important for people who highly prioritize this value. People who hold this value typically act on it by engaging in good environmental practices, reading about the environment, and engaging in activities such as fundraisers for organizations that advocate for environmental improvement. People holding this value experience stress when they perceive that the natural beauty of the environment is being permanently damaged, and when they are not advancing their goal of improving the environment. Conflict is likely between people holding this value and people who are either apathetic about the environment or who deliberately engage in acts that harm or detract from the natural beauty of the environment. Conflict may also occur if people who have deep-seated concerns about the environment become engaged in roles (e.g. work or leisure) that preclude or restrict them from acting on this value. CONCERN FOR OTHERS- The well being of others and helping others are important. People who hold this value are likely to believe in equality, see themselves as

334 helpful, honest, friendly, and forgiving, may strive for inner tranquility and world peace, and may have little concern for the accumulation of wealth. However, some people who hold this value also value Financial Prosperity. Roles in which they can heal, teach, help, mentor, or otherwise advance the welfare of others are the most satisfying to people holding this value. This value can facilitate personal and professional relationships because of sensitivity to others. However, a great deal of interpersonal frustration may occur with others who act in an uncaring or selfish manner. This value can be a source of stress if one feels unable to help others or if one’s help is rejected. Over-attention to this value can result in burnout. Concern for Others may be complementary with Belonging, but may conflict with Independence if overemphasized. Similarly, people with highly prioritized Privacy and Concern for Others values may experience conflict because one value “pulls” them toward solitary activities while the other “pushes” them toward interaction with people. Conflict may occur if individuals who have a highly prioritized Concern for Others value find themselves in roles with people who place material rewards (Financial Prosperity) ahead of the welfare of people. CREATIVITY- It is important to have new ideas or to create new things. People who hold this value are likely to perceive themselves as imaginative, intelligent, disorderly, impractical, idealistic, expressive, capable, courageous, and broad-minded. They are also likely to be concerned about beauty in the world, although this may not be restricted to nature. Creativity can complement many other values since it facilitates looking at things in new and different ways. Stress can occur when Creativity is overemphasized at the expense of orderliness that may be necessary for the proper management of their lives and relationships. They are likely to experience stress when their ability to use their imagination to solve problems is restricted (e.g. if they work in a routine, repetitive job). Conflict may occur when people have a highly prioritized Creativity value as well as a highly prioritized Responsibility value. Dependability, which is the hallmark of a person with a Responsibility value, may mean being orderly and predictable, responses that may not be highly compatible with a creative person’s mode of operation. Conflict is also likely to result if the person who prizes Creativity is expected by others to follow a routine and be orderly. FINANCIAL PROSPERITY- It is important to be successful at making money or buying things. People who hold this value perceive themselves to be ambitious, capable, intelligent, logical, pleasure seeking, and courageous. They strive to accumulate wealth and live a comfortable life. This value can complement or facilitate the attainment of other important values, such as Independence. Stress occurs for people who hold Financial Prosperity as a highly prioritized value when they are unable to accumulate wealth at a rate that they deem appropriate, or whenever they experience loss of wealth. Stress can be felt when there is perceived inequity in the amount of financial return one receives for the amount of energy expended. Financial Prosperity does not necessarily conflict with other values unless it is overemphasized. Over-attention to this value may result in placing too much importance on material things at the sacrifice of relationships, as well as spiritual, emotional, and physical well-being. HEALTH AND ACTIVITY- It is important to be healthy and physically active. People who hold this value may seek social recognition through their health and physical activities. They like clean, healthy environments, enjoy exciting activities, and engage in activities that will improve their health and physical appearance. Over-attention to this value can result in being overly critical of the appearance or level of fitness of

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335 others. Stress may be felt when the demands of others restrict the time devoted to being physically active. Stress may also be experienced when people who value Health and Activity see others engage in unhealthy activities. Health and Activity can facilitate the attainment of other values and does not necessarily conflict with other values unless it is overemphasized. HUMILITY- It is important to be humble and modest about my accomplishments. People who hold this value are modest and may be self effacing. They tend to be uncomfortable when their accomplishments are highlighted and may attempt to point to the accomplishment of others to deflect attention from themselves. Also, they are likely to be obedient, polite, loyal, and self controlled. Humility may conflict with Achievement, particularly if the result is individual achievement that draws attention to the person. Stress is likely if the person who holds a highly prioritized Humility value is placed in a position of having to promote her or his accomplishments. INDEPENDENCE- It is important to make my own decisions and do things my way. People with this value strive for personal freedom and autonomous action of speech and movement. They may seek social recognition through independent acts, perceive themselves to be ambitious and courageous, and be pleasure seeking. People who prize this value want to be on their own and work to achieve this end. Stress occurs for people holding this value when their actions are limited in some fashion. When this value is overemphasized, other people are disregarded in the decision-making process and/or the individual overreacts emotionally to attempts, real or imagined, at restricting their activities. Independence may conflict with Interdependence and Belonging because both of these values require fairly high degrees of conformity for satisfaction. Conflict may occur when people who value Independence are involved with people who strongly value Belonging and/or Interdependence. INTERDEPENDENCE (Loyalty to Family or Group) - It is important to follow the traditions and expectations of my family or group. Family or group security is important to people who hold this value. They are likely to perceive themselves to be helpful, honest, loving, loyal, obedient, polite, and self controlled. Behavioral manifestations of this value include concern for family and or work group, putting the needs of the family or group ahead of one’s own, and adherence to family or group traditions. Stress occurs when people who hold this value become totally bound by tradition and are unable to adapt to changes that occur. Interdependence may conflict with Independence. Interdependence requires conformity to the expectations of others while Independence dictates that one act on his or her volition. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS (Scientific Understanding)- It is important to use logical principles to understand and solve problems. People who hold this value perceive themselves to be logical, intelligent, creative, analytical, critical, curious, precise, independent, and introspective. They may perceive themselves to have analytic ability and engage in scientific or analytical activities. They may enjoy reading about science or technology, watching scientific television programs, working with computers or other technical equipment, or simply talking about mathematics, science, or technology. Stress occurs for these people when they have to function in non-orderly, non-analytical ways. Objective Analysis typically does not conflict with other values. However, stress may occur if a person who prizes Objective Analysis is forced into roles that require leadership and persuasive activities.

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336 • PRIVACY- It is important to have time alone. People who hold this value seek personal freedom. Behavioral manifestations of this value include reading, taking long drives or walks, listening to music, and other solitary activities. People who hold this value are not likely to see themselves as entrepreneurial. Stress occurs for people who value Privacy when they are forced, because of role demands, to spend extensive amounts of time with people at the expense of time alone. Privacy is compatible with Independence but may conflict with Interdependence. RESPONSIBILITY- It is important to be dependable and trustworthy. People who hold this value perceive themselves as being ambitious, responsible, forgiving, honest, helpful, logical, self-controlled, and trustworthy. Stress occurs when people who value Responsibility become too other-oriented at the sacrifice of self-care and maintenance (responsibility to oneself). Stress is also experienced when role overload occurs to the point that it precludes or reduces the opportunity to act in a dependable fashion. A person who prizes both Creativity and Responsibility may have a conflict between the desire to innovate and the motive to be reliable. SPIRITUALITY- It is important to have spiritual beliefs that reflect being a part of something greater than myself. People who hold this belief seek inner harmony and salvation, may dream of a world of peace and beauty, are honest, and are obedient to their spiritual beliefs. Behavioral manifestations of this value are religious activities such as going to church, synagogue, temple, or mosque, worshipping or meditating, and voicing beliefs. Some people who do not subscribe to any of the major religions of the world may also have a highly prioritized Spirituality value. These people may feel that they are connected to nature or the cosmos in spiritual ways and may worship through meditation, treks to places with natural beauty, or by developing connections with other human beings. Spirituality does not necessarily conflict with other values. Conflict with others is likely to occur if they devalue the spiritual beliefs of another or act in ways contrary to those beliefs. Conflict may also occur if the demands of other life roles interfere with acting on the Spirituality value.

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337 Merged Transcripts from Focus Groups- Pilot Group INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT ONE-ON-ONE INTERVIEWS PPBD1: Q1. Here is the first question. “What were your most fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it satisfied for you, that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: Because if look at the values, I think the number one thing would be the sense of achievement on going for the valley leadership program. My company helped found the [Valley Leadership] program so we have almost had a representative from our company for as long as I can recall. So being a part of that history and the sense of achievement that goes with it, and I think is part of one of the values that I would see as the most, a fulfilling experience. The other thing would be where that, if belonging is the right word, or if it relates to building independence and the sense of responsibility in that as a kind of a secondary value, because the networking aspect of valley leadership was extremely beneficial. I would say was one of the best experiences from a valley leadership perspective and that I got the opportunity to interact, dialogue, and have conversations with people that I would not normally have in my day to work, socially, etc. Q1a. Are there any other specific examples of things that you did within the program that you might want to site as well as fulfilling experiences? A: No, because it [Valley Leadership program] really was not that fulfilling of an experience. Valley leadership has been fulfilling to me afterwards. We were in one of those odd years during valley leadership where they were making changes to the curriculum, and so consequently it was just this, it was not necessarily, I would not necessarily say it was not necessarily the best experience. But my years afterwards were. I am one of those people that if I do not like something I get involved so I can help change it. I have since Chaired and Co-Chaired Leadership Institute for several years. I was responsible for our membership program immediately after my Leadership Institute experience, etc. So, my most fulfilling experiences have come afterwards. Q1c. Okay, so from the example that you just sited which values did that fulfill for you? Where you were chairing the program and doing some of that other stuff. A: A sense of responsibility [is the value that fulfill me as chair and co-chair of the leadership institute]. Q2. Here is the second question. “What were your least fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences least satisfy for you and why?” If you can

338 provide at least one example and state which values it least satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: This one is more difficult. I do not know that, much more difficult to identify specifically for me, from my perspective, from a values perspective, why it was least fulfilling. I do not know that I can pinpoint that other than it was I just did not feel, I do not know what value I would attach to this, but I did not feel like, in my perspective; I guess if I was going to, in a Leadership Institute of this caliber should be teaching and giving individuals, the participants, etc., opportunities to truly evaluate and learn new leadership experiences, opportunities, ways in which delving into issues and solving those issues. I just did not feel like we got that from my Leadership Institute experience. It was a lot of information that conveyed to us in somewhat of a classroom environment that I do not necessarily think was delivered in the most effective manner, and so, consequently, that turned me off. Q2a. So, from a values perspective where there any that kind of came close to, because there was something about what was important to you that was not being satisfied in that venue. A: Yes, and looking at the list of values, I do not know, I cannot identify any one of those that necessarily would have been specific, I mean, other than if I were to use responsibility again under this section from a perspective of there was a lack of responsibility. PPBD2: Q1/1a. Here is the first question. “What were your most fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences satisfy for you and why [repeated]?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: I think the most fulfilling experience was having the opportunity to consider how my personal values impact my leadership style, or my access to leadership opportunity. It certainly sorts through when you look at values and you start ranking them from a priority perspective, what really opened up for me is where my current commitments were and how truly I was committed to those commitments based on my values. Q1b. Were you a Valley Leadership program participant? A: Yes. Q1c/1d. Okay, so what I wanted to find out was when you were in the program, what experiences in the program were satisfying for you and why? So you went through the year worth of whatever you did, and what were the experiences in the program that were very fulfilling for you? Then, if you look at the list of values, which value did those experiences satisfy for you?

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A: So the most fulfilling experiences during the institute curriculum were really gaining access to opinions and information about issues I was not familiar with that impact our community and hearing directly from top tiered leadership how the community was looking at those. It was great to hear both the pros and cons, hear both sides of the table regarding those issues that are impacting our community. Whether they were pro immigration or anti-immigration for example, that was very fulfilling. It is not anywhere else that I know of that I would have access to that kind of leadership. Q1e. From a values perspective, that list, what, which values might have married up to the fact that you liked that experience so much? A: Responsibility absolutely, what is my role in this, how, what opportunity do I have to move the needle in whatever direction I feel it should be moved. Certainly, a sense of belonging, being more of the inner circle regarding how those issues or values occur in our community and really being a part of, a part of how that shows up. I think it also gave me a much better perspective, or appreciation of the fact that I was already a leader, or already on a leadership path. It is kind of difficult to gauge that it is like looking at the back of your head. In being part of an experience where there are other emerging leaders engaged in issues or values, I really stood shoulder to shoulder with them. So, it was a very good affirmation [achievement]. Q1f. Which value did that satisfy, that affirmation, satisfy for you? A: I guess achievement. Q2. Here is the second question. “What were your least fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences least satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example and state which values it least satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: The least fulfilling experience in the program for me was the access or opportunity to really bond with my classmates on a deeper level. Part of that responsibility lies in the way the program is structured and what is communicated around that structure and part of it is my own responsibility. But the class days were filled with basically listening to people and sharing your opinion if you had one around it. There was not nearly as much opportunity, except for the retreat, to really build bond and rapport and trust and friendship. That was a huge missing for me [belonging is the highest one]. Q2a. So from a values perspective, what value is not being satisfied for you by this experience? A: Belonging. Q2b. Is that the only one or are there others within that experience that was not satisfying for you?

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A: That would definitely be the highest one. Financial prosperity, if it should be worded that way. The other thing that was missing for me, and it was sort of pooh-poohed is this is not a networking opportunity. So we were almost told not to engage in that. Which would give me access to business opportunity in my mind. Q2c. That and the non-ability to network was linked to financial. . . A: Yeah. There were 50 people in the group, and I did the class. What is it, 4 years ago now. I have one good friendship that come out of it [the group] and a couple more loose friendships. I was hoping for much, much more than that. Q2d. So that disappointment, or that experience of not creating those longer or deeper bonds would be married to which value for you? A: Belonging. Q2e. Any other examples either on the side of fulfilling experiences or on the side of non-fulfilling experiences that you would like to talk about? A: I am thinking. It is been a while. The other fulfilling experience was access to organizations or entities that Joe Arizona off the street would not have access to. Tours. For example, my two favorite tours would be the Luke Air Force Base tour and doing the flight simulator. That was amazing. I know there are very, very, very, very few people in the world that get to do that and just getting an understanding of the people that serve our country, what that business looks like because it really, it is a business. Then the other one was the ride along with the Phoenix police department in one of the most crime ridden districts in the city, being Maryville. Seeing what our police officers deal with on a daily basis and those challenges. That was very fulfilling. Q2f. Why were those two fulfilling for you? A: You mean from a values perspective? Or, well with the police ride-along, one of the things that was clearly evident is that a huge piece of our community that often requires support from the police department are not English speakers. There was such a, it was so touch for this police officer to try to deal with this situation where no one spoke English, whether it was a domestic violence or a traffic situation, or whatever, and it just was like my gosh, we need to do something about this. So brought up the, I guess, responsibility, concern for others, people’s rights are not fully being expressed because of the language barrier. Then the Luke Air Force base experience, again, I just got a much broader understanding of how our armed forces operate as a business, learning that they are one of the biggest employers and buyers in the state, how that impacts our economy. So, maybe that is scientific understanding, the objective analysis and having access to that kind of data [how Luke Air Force base operate as a business]. Because you never think an Air Force base is a major economic contributor to our community so I should have a responsible voice in protecting that as an asset. Then the flight simulator thing [Luke Air

341 Force base experience] was just cool. I do not know what value to put that under, but it was just cool. Creativity maybe, I do not know. Q2g. Those are wonderful examples, any others that you care to site? A: I did develop a very deep and wonderful relationship with one other person in the program who ended up passing away a couple of years later. He was a quadriplegic and due to some challenges related to that, he ended up dying. I do not think I would have access to a friendship like that with someone that had those sort of disabilities had we not been in the same program. So it really opened my eyes to the challenges that people have with disabilities and also that there is real friendship and relationship available there. That was incredibly fulfilling [loyalty to family or group and spirituality]. Q2h. The value that that might have been married up to in your mind would be? A: Loyalty to family or group and spirituality. FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS PPFG1 Q1. Here is the first question. “What were your most fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: What comes to mind, to me, is a couple of things. There was a strong sense of belonging for me, in Valley Leadership, in a different sense; [it] was not even about making friendships, because I have never had issues with making friends. But here was an organization that has a very important reputation. I had just moved to the Valley in ‘80, and I went through this program, ‘85, ‘86. Just being connected to what, at that time, I thought was a powerful and influential group with the potential of doing more for the community. So, I think that is probably what keeps me connected today, is that sense of belonging. Also, what I feel strongly about is the sense of responsibility. Because you belong to this community, and I always thought that community service was the price you pay for being a part of a community; that is what you do to live here. To just be in this world is to give back, and Valley Leadership fulfilled that for me. Because I have been involved for so long, I do not know if there was anything that was outstanding. I think there was a period of time as a focal point for me, because members of my class, class 6. At one point, we had one member who was a Mayor, the other was a Chief of Police for Phoenix, another person was on the County Board of Supervisors, and another person was a Secretary of State, second in charge here. I think during that period of time, it was both, I thought, a sense of pride during those years, where my classmates pretty much ran the state. They were so involved. One was

342 on the City Council. It was kind of heady to think that these were my buddies, some of them I never thought in terms of those kinds of leadership qualities, but it just happened that way. It was a period of time, and it was not just one of them, it was just the fact that at one point, between, let us say, 3 and 5 or 6 years, members of my class were elected officials. A: What you just listed is, I think, a lot of what keeps me involved in it, that kind of sense of belonging. Having not come out of a college where I was in a sorority or groups like that, this for me was, I guess, close to that experience that I would want. It was about community service, and it was about giving back to the community, learning more about your community, and so that sense of belonging has been wonderful. Not just for this class, for my class, but for the board and all of it. That work that is really what gets me excited. I really do feel like I am part of something great, where we get to train more people about what is going on in the valley, what is important. How they can be part of moving us all to a better community. That, I think, was the biggest piece for me, because I was not lacking for funds, but I will say that I have stayed in such close touch, 4 years later. I talk to those guys almost every day. They are doing amazing things. They [some members in the group that one BD remains in contact with] continue to grow into their families and into their professional lives in this way that is amazing to watch. The second piece for me, the most favorite part while I was in the program was stopping for a day a month and, as much as we were able to turn our phones off, maybe more then than now, thinking about the community and my job and my role as a volunteer in the community from 50,000 feet. It was like a total pause from your real life, because you were not dealing with minutia. You just sort of think at a different level about how things mesh together and how they sit together, and how you could make things fit better or connect the dots. So it is why I have stayed so close to the program, because I really need that, one day a month, to not be entrenched in the work but to get above it and think about how it all connects together. I think that is part of why I am still so active with the program, because having that one day a month to stop and hear what other people are doing, what is the next best thinking, is huge for me. I think that is probably it. A: I would say for me the tours were extremely satisfying. We had sort of once in a lifetime opportunities to be in a sweat lodge, to spend the day with the police. I have clear and wonderful memories of the people that I got to do that with. It is such a bonding experience, maybe even more so than the days themselves, when you are sort of in a classroom situation as opposed to living some action or something. Those tour experiences are remarkable. A: Ditto, I ditto that. Here is the difference. When I went through, there was no sweat lodge. The bonding process was totally different and, in fact, we did not bond in the same way that class members bond now. We drove individually to the retreat, and our spouses and our significant others came up the next day to have dinner with us. So we did not connect them on the same level as the current classes do.

343

But ironically, the people that I have lunch with once a month, on the first Friday of every month, there is about 16 of us from our classes that we still get together. None of them, except for maybe two or three, were people that I was close to during the class program. So, it is interesting. Our only connection is Valley Leadership, because some of these people are so politically different and socially different. We try everything not to miss that lunch. The way it is set up is, somebody has a calendar, we get assigned a month and we select a month that we host, we pick the site and we pick up the tab. We have been doing this for almost 25 years. That scares me. About 23 years. What class is this, 29, now? A: 29, yes. A: That is awesome. It is funny, because our class still talks a lot, we still meet. We have a group lunch and then we have a lunch where we do every 60 days, I guess, we all get together. It is a dozen of us. A lot of them, people that I was not friends with then. Then a lot of us [inaudible] it is crazy. One of the most amazing things about it is, we literally talked about how to think up tours of our own, that we would love to do. Honestly, we looked at some of the alumni tours, and the alumni tours we would talk about are things I hope we decide to do. But, we have talked about doing road trips, and should we go to Carlsbad Caverns, and should we do a sweat lodge, for example, for the people who did not do it. I would love to do that helicopter ride that weaves up here right along helicopter [inaudible]. Every year we offer, we come up with cooler and cooler opportunities, and I know we as a class kind of get together and go, “I wonder if we could think that stuff up for ourselves?” Or, would Valley Leadership provide us the opportunities in an ongoing way? Then, the other piece that I found in the last few classes that I just love, and I think is, the alumni piece is so important to me is that, classes that are near each other, 25 and 26, you know, 28 and 29 now are doing it, have joined Happy Hours and have joined groups, partly because they share, [names] the class chairs are sort of the link for them, but it lasts to see them talking to the guys that are going through the class now, and sort of say, “Oh, you have no idea,” and “How great this will be,” and “It will change your life”. It is so funny to let them sort of be with each other in a social way and how great that is. That to me is really important that they find connectivity to the organization, not just their own class. I always worry, we talk about this a lot at board meetings, that the classes get really insular to themselves. Find ways to make at least some of these about the organization, because we want them always to remember that the foundation of all this was an organization that could continue to bring them those opportunities to be together, or to find other life opportunities. [Inaudible] at least, for me is exciting to think about. Once you graduate out of the program, how do we keep you close to us? Q2. Here is the second question. “What were your least fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences least satisfy for you and why?” If you can

344 provide at least one example and state which values it least satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: I cannot think of anything specific. I am going to say, perhaps, maybe not having enough time to get more out of a particular program. I cannot even name a program that stands out. It is just that always, at the end of the session, I always felt, that could have been longer or I wish that could have been longer, because there was never a time that I was bored. Even though I knew a lot of what was going on, the information was intense and maybe from a different perspective that I had not been aware of. So, I just think the lack of time. A: We have the same answers. I think I will give you a quick example of why [anonymous] is right about the time piece. We just finished our day on Friday, yesterday, and it is the piece of the evaluations that they write notes to us about the year, that they are having the same experience that you had 20 years ago, I had 5 years ago, not enough time. That this program is, in the best possible way, drinking from a fire hose. We go and we give you a lot of information, and you would leave the days physically and mentally exhausted because you are hearing so much, and you will take a couple of days to process it. Then it was over so quickly, and you had so many things that you wanted to hear about and know about, and how many people you would hear from. There is not enough time to hear about all of those things. There are so many things happening here, now, that you cannot hear and know about all of them. So, that was only the frustration, because you would sit in the day and know that there were two other people who knew more about this, or that you wanted to hear more from somebody who was speaking, but the panel wrapped up and you had to go to the next thing. The whole year is like drinking from a fire hose. We had always sort of laugh about, if you could make this a 3-year program, there still probably would not be enough time. It is amazing. So, it is the hardest part from a programming perspective, and it is the hardest part being in it. You just feel like you are trying to catch up all the time, and that your time is so compressed. The other hard part, I think there is not a lot of time to just be together, to think out loud together. Because we are trying to give them so much to think about, that there was not a lot of time in the day to talk to each other about what was going on. It is why the tour experience, I think, is so valuable, because you have the drive time there in the carpool and the drive time back to sort of think it through and you are with the group of people. But the days themselves do not allow for that as much. The tours allow you to have a little bit more time to be together, to be with your classmates and [the tours allow you to] process what is happening to you and what the experience means, what you are thinking about, and the days, because of the way they are programmed, they do not allow a lot of time to process what is going, what you are hearing about. I think that is the part that is, not “not fulfilling”, it is just frustrating.

345 PPFG2 Q1. Here is the first question. “What were your most fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: I guess I was not thinking in terms of the value. I will say, you are wanting to know about the most fulfilling, is that right? I can go ahead and answer the first one. For me, and I know you want to be more specific than this, but I guess I would say the most fulfilling experiences were, for me, probably the tours. It was because I was able to do things that I never would have an opportunity to do otherwise. So, I was exposed to things that I did not know, so I was able to learn a lot that I would not otherwise have learned about. You know things like going to the prisons. When would I get an opportunity to visit a prison and learn about the prison system while seeing it first hand? It was not just the tours, because sometimes on the class days we were at the places seeing things. So, the most fulfilling experiences for me were learning things that I did not already know about, and probably without the Valley Leadership Program, would never have had an opportunity to learn about. So, I guess as I am looking at kind of the value statements, I guess there is a concern for others, because it helped me learn about things related to that. I guess the achievement value, and learning, because I am always trying to improve and learn more. I guess the responsibility piece, because for me, it is important to be a good citizen of the community and try to do things for the community. I think that is a responsibility that I have. So I guess those would be the things that just top of mind, that that makes me think about. A: I would say one of the first, probably the first thing I would mention, was experience with the teens during my program. As you know, one of the program days is adult and teen combined program day. Having worked with teens, I had plenty of background and plenty of appreciation in terms of the value that they bring when they interact with adults. Trying to get an opportunity to see some of my classmates also see that value was very important to me and was refreshing. So, I would say that was a fulfilling experience during the program. The values that I would associate with that would probably be, let us see, concern for others, as well. Achievement, because I think both the teens and adults involved with that so that they get a sense of achievement out of the program. Belonging. Loyalty, as well. I think that although the teen program and adult program are separate, there is that loyalty to Valley Leadership as a whole. So in that sense, I would say loyalty was also a value. Yes, I think those would be the ones associated, at least with that piece. In the second, I think experience is very similar to what [name] mentioned. I also really thought the biggest thing I got out of the program was just being able to go and see and speak to people that I had not had the opportunity to prior to the program, and that I really strongly

346 feel that I may not have had exposure to had I not participated in the program. That was anywhere from the actual program days where people had come in to speak, who I really found value in all of the people that we had come and speak to our particular class, and thought it was all valuable, but. So I think as a whole, just the experience and the varied amount of experience. Because it was so broad in scope, in terms of how we went about learning about leadership and developing our leadership skills through seeing broad ideas and different types of leaders, and things of that nature. I think the value is associated with that. It would definitely also be achievement, concern for others, independence, responsibility would be high on that value chart for me, because I think the program fosters a responsibility that we have for, in terms of our community responsibilities. I think that would sum it up for me, there. A: I think, when I went through the program, we did not have the teen program. But yet, since that time, in a volunteer capacity, I have sat in on a lot of the teen days, and seen what they do with that, and there are some other things that they do today that, again as a volunteer, I have enjoyed as well. But you are asking for our experiences about the program, so I am not telling you about my experience as a volunteer that have been fulfilling as well. [Can you share anyway?] Okay. It could be that [name] has some stuff around that, too, because it is not that it has to be just being on the board, because I have been a volunteer actually since I got out of the program and I was in class 16. So, that was a while back. It was after that that they started the teen program and so I was part of helping with that. I really enjoyed, and I guess I get fulfillment every year when I volunteer and go to some of the other class days, and I am continuing to be able to learn, and more recently when I have been able to go to the teen ones, it is just inspiring to me. I get excited about seeing, when I keep learning, but I get excited about some of the stuff that we are able to touch those lives, and so, you feel like you are making a difference in the volunteer work that you do. That maybe it is an individual life but it is also helping people become better leaders. I mean, I will use as an example, in last year’s class on their first issue day; we had some people talk about immigration. We also had that this year. But, last year’s class, people learned about immigration ad they had different panel members talk, and people talking all sides of the issue. That was in September. In June, when they were graduating, they were asked what mattered the most, or what did they learn, what was most impactful for them, whatever. Several people said that immigration day. So they were looking back to the very first day, and they said, “I had no idea. I had voted on propositions based upon what I would seen in the paper, I had no idea what my vote meant. I now have a completely different view than I did at the time that I voted. I did not realize I was really affecting people’s lives.” That is huge, that is huge. What it did was it said, to people, learn more about the issues. So, they walked away and said, “Gosh, I am not going to rely just on what I see in the paper, because now I know that there is more to issues,” and

347 they sought to be better informed. I mean, that is amazing, that is about creating more civil discourse and creating better leaders and people who will think more about things as they move forward. I just think that helps make the Valley a better place, if you have more people kind of thinking about, “Let’s get more of the facts,” that kind of thing. I am just rambling, and that was just, that gets to that responsibility and the concern for others, as examples, and [name], you worked with the teen program, and, how amazing is that? A: Very. I actually started working with the teen program the year after I got done with my program. I came in and did combined adult and teen day. Then the following year cochaired, and then this past year chaired the program. [Call dropped] Q2. Here is the second question. “What were your least fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences least satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it least satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: It is a little bit hard, because I went through it so long ago that it is hard to remember, and my overall impressions are good, and so then you tend to forget the bad. That said, I would say, generally, the first program day, so it was after the retreat, the first program day was the history day. I think that was the least fulfilling part of the program. It was the first time they had ever done a day around kind of Arizona and Phoenix history. So, it was the first time to do it. Since that time, they have made that into an amazing day. But at the time I went through it, it was a series of lectures. So we were not involved, it really did not get to any issues about things facing the Valley or thing facing the State and what you might do about it. It [the first program day] was just sort of, here is a bunch of facts about Phoenix, Arizona history. They could have just sent me an article about that. So there was not the interaction, there was not facts that I thought necessarily made us better leaders or better citizens, just facts. But it was the first time they had done that day. They got a lot of feedback on how to make that day better and, as I said, it is evolved into something that is really interesting. So the issues were, I mean, I guess the values that I kind of looked at, what it did not, it did not really spark any achievement. It [first day program on Arizona and Phoenix history] really was not about concern for others. It was just a bunch of facts about the past. So, that is something I could have gotten without Valley Leadership. I could have gone and picked up a book. So there was not anything special about that leadership. So that is kind of my example. A: My example is basically, deals with the projects that are done at the end of the program now. I do not think it has always been done that way, right [name]? In terms of group projects? A: Yes, we did not have group projects. We had one-on-one days, and that was neat, but that is another thing. A: Not in terms of, I mean, the process itself in doing, the process I thought was fine, and the learning involved and what came out of it. I think the point where I was a little disappointed was, you kind of put together something that is really good and you are

348 proud of it, you think people should see. In our case, we actually made a video about small schools initiative and interviewed several people, State coalition and things, about that issue. But, it is one of those things where you kind of want to see it go somewhere, and it dies there. At the graduation or what not, people do their presentations on their group projects and, after that it kind of goes away, almost. That would be the thing, I think, that was kind of least fulfilling for me. A: I know this does not have anything to do with the focus group, but I just thought [name] would like to know how they have changed the projects this year, I think based upon some of the feedback. All the things they are supposed to be doing are supposed to be like legacy projects, a lot of them are like designing things for Valley Leadership. Maybe a video for Valley Leadership about something, creating something for Valley Leadership’s 30th Anniversary, but all of the projects are supposed to be legacy, something that can be used by Valley Leadership and something that will take on a life beyond the project itself. A: Well, that is good to hear. A: I just wanted to tell you that, so that they listened to that feedback. A: Okay, good, good. PPFG3 Q1. Here is the first question. “What were your most fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example, and state which values it satisfied for you, that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: I think the thing that I got the most out of Valley Leadership was the awareness of the different aspects of the community, and I think just being able to talk to people that are working on different sides of the issue and to hear different perspectives was amazing. The pieces of actually taking you out into the community so that you could see how it works through like the tours and just even going to different locations for the different program dates was invaluable. It was thought provoking, it was eye-opening I think in a lot of ways. I think it reinforced certain things that I already knew about the community but, if anything, it continued to reinforce to me the importance of people being involved in community and being willing to give their personal time to help make it better, stronger, more vibrant, however you want to talk about that. A: I think for me it is sort of an iteration of what [name] just said in that you have the opportunity to be exposed to experiences and individuals that are outside of your normal sphere. You may have secondhand or even third hand impressions about issues and aspects of the community, but the Valley Leadership experience I think allowed me to experience some of that firsthand and get a firsthand exposure to individuals and different

349 parts of the community and issues that were really not people or things that I might come in contact in my own professional or personal life. Q1a. When you look at the values list, is there a way to say that experience and which values it might have satisfied for you? A: I think the concern for others and the responsibility for me, those two, certainly achievement because you are always learning but in the responsibility and concern for others, I feel, and I am kind of going along with what I have heard before, but the ability to be in a room, have completely opposing viewpoints with people, not argue but really be able to listen to what they are saying and try to walk in somebody else’s shoes, so to speak is, I think, something that a lot of us cannot even do in our family but we can do it in this group for some reason. It breaks down a lot of barriers and allows you to get I think more done. It is just an incredible experience in that respect and I think that satisfies the steward responsibility and the concern for others. A: I would agree. I think that that is certainly the critical one. I do not know, I am looking at the list here and I think maybe to some degree it is a sense of belonging as well. As you develop empathy and understanding about your community, in some ways you become more accepting of others that are different from you and also you begin to, or I did, maybe begin to understand maybe what my individual role and place was and is in this whole community dynamic, the kind of contribution that I personally can be making to the community. Q1b. Are there other examples of specific things that you had within the confines of the program? A: Going back to our first question, I know a lot about the Valley having grown up here but what I really appreciated is it showed me I needed to know a lot more. That experience with other people, very diverse background to people you are not normally exposed to. Coming from the media I have always been under that, not to be able to give my opinion, having to keep that out as we gather facts and delivered information. So, being in that realm where I could freely give my opinion was something new to me and that improved even more once I left working directly in the media, to start thinking and crystallizing my thoughts. So, the Valley Leadership experience was really enriching in that respect, that I was able to hear people’s opinions and directly respond to them or think about how I would respond to things I really did not agree with. You were able to talk about things that you could not even talk about in your own families, and that was the freedom of the leadership effort. Thank you. A: I think those are good points. [Name] reminded me, when I started into this program 20 some years ago I was much closer to my own professional media experience than I am now, and I guess I would echo some of what [name] was saying with respect to that. But I also wonder if maybe independence or a sense of being able to make your own decisions and think your own way is sort of reinforced, and the confidence that you get from

350 knowing and understanding more about the world around you. I think that maybe is a value that I felt somewhat reinforced in my own experience. A: One value for me was the teaching side, which is a little more than the receiving side. When I started with Valley Leadership it was about 1995 and HIV and AIDS was just barely on the radar screen, very conservative state Arizona, conservative city. I was leading an HIV/AIDS organization and what it provided was an opportunity to teach other members of the class about HIV and AIDS and pray that you were not getting it through the media, through faith-based organizations, through whatever contemporary way you had to really begin to understand the issues around HIV and AIDS. Valley Leadership provided that opportunity and year over year because Body Positive was one of the tour sites; and I can tell you too at least 25 different people who came up to me later after seeing the Body Positive experience, how it changed their perception, their understanding and their ability to embrace and work with this disease and work with the organization and the community. A: The experience that started I think the year that I was there was that Joint Leadership Day that we did between HOI and Valley Leadership. For both programs; I just thought that was a way of taking both programs to another level and exposing a bigger group to a more diverse voice with each other. That is one that I would be interested to find out how much more impactful that has been than in past classes, and I hope that is a tradition that continues. Q2. Here is the second question. “What were your least fulfilling experiences in the program, what values did these experiences least satisfy for you and why?” If you can provide at least one example and state which values it least satisfied for you that will be good. One example might satisfy several values. A: For me, I think the least fulfilling part of the class, and I do not know if we were the first class that did the group project, I cannot remember if they had done that one year before. For whatever reason, our group did okay together [during the group project], but our topic, and I cannot even remember what it was, but none of us were really jazzed about it. I think a lot of us had hoped that we were going to do the Shadow of the Executives because that would have been an amazing experience, and I think they have learned a lot over the years with the project and it sounds like they have become more and more fulfilling and a little bit more strategic. So the group projects were something that we just kind of had to get through, but to me it was not something that I got a whole lot of out of. Q2a. Can you marry that to a value that at least satisfied for you? A: What I had hoped it would have done was the helping others and the responsibility piece that we talked about was that we were going to do something that kind of did impact the community in a little bit different way, but it really did not. We had dialogue and I do not know if I am a little tainted just because of coming up through the business school and then getting my MBA, we had so many group projects that it was just one

351 more. Like I said, the topic just was not anything that was going to really change our community in any way; it was just something that was an issue to explore. So, like I said, I had hoped it would have been more along helping others and social responsibility aspect of it. A: I am going to go ahead and follow [name] because I was also in [name] class and the group project was a challenge. While we did not enjoy it, I did not really jump on it, but coming to consensus about what to choose was really difficult. I just think that the whole opportunity to be put on an assignment and have to come up with something was a challenge because it forced us to get to know each other a little bit more and that sense of we have got to get things done, we are belonging which is one of my main drivers, it just kind of like okay now, how do you help the group move forward. Then you would find people who just did not even help, so that was the challenge. But I think since that I have had other opportunities to do these things and I am just always surprised by how different groups respond and take up a challenge of a group project and do some really neat stuff with it. But, at the other end, there is always that struggle of group dynamic of keeping people interested, involved and making sure they do their part. It is a continual challenge I deal with daily now. Thank you. A: This does not pertain just to the class program; I am thinking of the organization as a whole, and I think that one of our biggest challenges in the overall organization, and it speaks to belonging and loyalty to the group, is that we do not keep enough of our alumni involved. I mean we are working on that, and I know this a challenge for leadership organizations throughout the country, but when we go through our program it is so knock your socks off, I mean people are so crazy about it. Then we seem to keep a few involved and there are some regulars that come back, but our challenge is if the energy is so wonderful, it is how to keep them still wanting this experience for more people and have something so they are still feeling like we are continuing to satisfy them and the greater group as we go along. Thank you. A: I think the thing that was least valuable for me was the, well, it is hard to say least valuable but I will just explain it and maybe you can tell me how it goes. Sometimes the leadership programs fall into a format that is talking heads that we really believe in less is more, we believe in more dialogue among class members. When you head people talk about their experience, they really talk about the discourse and the ability to exchange freely ideas and thoughts, and I think sometimes our format is finding that balance between talking heads and encouraging that dialogue. A: I, at the risk of sort of doing some me too-ism here, but I am thinking back on my class experience. I think that maybe, just retrospectively almost, I do not know if the ability of classes to connect is consistent from year-to-year. I think we have some groups that seem to gel more as a group than others and while I have four or five people out of my class that I have maintained relationships with one way or the other, I do not know if I think that our class experience was, that we had the kind of bonding maybe that all classes have had. I think that for some that might be a really important part of, that maybe that sense of belonging and so forth might be a very important part of the quality of the

352 experience. For myself I got a lot of other really good things out of it and, as I say, there may be as many as a half a dozen of my classmates that I interact with either professionally or personally now, 20 some years later. [End of Transcripts]

353 APPENDIX L: RAW DATA FROM ARTIFACT ANALYSIS

354 Raw Data from Artifact Analysis

Value

Valley Leadership Website

Mission Statement and Goals

Leadership Application

Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003)

Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

Achievement

[e]nhance the abilities of individuals

[e]nhance the abilities of individuals

Learning

[a]ttempts to bring people

It's very humbling to be recognized

Leading

together for common

[l]earn about goals [l]ead others They are delivering Build individual leadership skills and [h]ighest quality education Learning capacities [l]ead the community in finding To name just a couple of What is one Leading solutions Trying to recreate that seamlessness between [f]urther develop issues He worked for a top publishing company in Manhattan

The opportunity to learn, grow

Is encouraged and appreciated. [Leadership]

355 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) accomplish ments. significant issue facing the Valley [w]hich honor Valley residents who have made a significant contribution to the community. [Man and Woman of the Year Program] and how would you address it? If the pathways are open, we could change the world. Latino and "gringo" cultures he knew in his youth. Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

356 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) Belonging Each year we connect a diverse, talented group of individuals [t]o the community Connecting [h]elp them Foster commitment [b]rings together [c]omfortably drawing anyone within shouting We cannot lose our sense of community [u]nited by [f]orm strategic [b]enefit the entire state partners on an ongoing basis Valley Leadership alumni [c]onvene alumni and the larger In every sector-community Increasing the [w]ider community [a]ttempts to bring people together for common goals Participation in a leadership class gave me access [m]ore than 1,600 alumni For Jacobson, it is all about inclusiveness And build lifelong relationships become a part of Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

connect with distance into each other his world

357 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) business, government, education and nonprofit-there are dialogue among disparate groups is one way to move forward Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

[t]hey must draw from a broad range of companies and organization s our alumni are virtually everywhere

Why he brings together the 14 or 15 leadership organizations in the Valley for lunch every six weeks.

358 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) You need to create a safe umbrella. Concern for the Environment Concern for Others [a]bilities of individuals to serve [t]o the [s]trong service orientation community You need to create a safe umbrella. Foster commitment [d]ependent on volunteer service He is an ardent human rights activist Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

[t]o make a difference

[b]enefit the

359 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) entire state Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

Creativity Financial Prosperity Health and Activity Humility It's very humbling to be recognized

I'm very fortunate to work with these wonderful people

360 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) Independence Mandatory participation includes Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Valley Leadership alumni, more than 1,600 strong Cultivate appreciation of the value of diverse groups [t]o the community [w]e cannot lose our sense of community Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

[c]onvene alumni

Privacy

A significant amount of

361 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) time is involved to participate Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

Responsibility

They are delivering

Foster commitment

[i]f the pathways are open, we

[l]ead others

[c]ommunit y trusteeship

could change the world

They were responsible for starting

Leading

[w]hich honor Valley residents who have

362 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) made a significant contribution to the community [Man and Woman of the Year Program] Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis)

They learn about

Develop a deeper understandi

Enhance understandi ng

It takes a lot of intelligence to cut through the issues and

to learn, grow

[i]n finding solutions

ng Foster Cultivate appreciation of the value appreciation of diverse groups and

look at the big picture.

363 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) of diverse groups their viewpoints Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

Learning

What is one significant

[c]ritical issues that impact the Valley and the state.

issue facing the Valley and how would you address it?

What community activities have been most meaningful to you and

364 Value Valley Leadership Website Mission Statement and Goals Leadership Application Newspaper Articles (BrillWagner, 2003) why? Spirituality Newspaper Articles (Post, 2007)

365 APPENDIX M: MERGED TRANSCRIPTS FROM ACTUAL STUDY FOCUS GROUPS

366 Transcripts from Focus Groups- Actual Study Before I proceed with the questions, are you comfortable and do you have any questions about the process or the permission form? A: Yes, I am fine. 2. Now we will start with the specific questions. QUESTION 1 Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: Well, not having the list in front of me, the thing that I enjoyed the everybody coming together and the differences of backgrounds that all met at the same time. Q1a: Why was that so fulfilling for you? What did you like about that? A: Well, it was in the course of our everyday life you do not necessarily meet that many different types of people from that many different types of background talking about a single issue. Getting everyone’s perspective I think was really valuable because that is something that you are not necessarily exposed to on a daily basis. Q1b: You liked that because it did what for you? A: I liked it particularly because it really broadened my horizons, it brought in the breadth of the experience from the standpoint that it introduced me to new opinions and new outlooks on things that I did not necessarily think before. Q1c: Were there any specific pieces of the program that were particularly satisfying to you and why? A: I really enjoyed the Education Day, and the reason why I enjoyed the Education Day was because we got to meet a lot of good people who are currently in the education field, but we also got to talk [on Education Day] about a lot of issues dealing with education that I did not necessarily know, I did not exactly know the issue. I knew it was an issue but I did not know exactly why it was an issue, and so that was a lot of fun for me. Q1c: Other things about the program that we satisfying for you, things that you did or things that you experienced that you found particularly fulfilling for yourself? A: I got to ride in a helicopter, so that was kind of cool.

367 Q1d: What was so fun and cool about that? A: It was a police helicopter, and so we were actually on a police mission. So we went up in the helicopter and basically tracked some of the ground units that were on the operation that night. There was a bank robbery in Scottsdale that we responded to that was pretty interesting. It [engaging in the activity with the police] just exposed me to that aspect of policing that I had not been exposed to before. Q1e: Other things at all that you can think about that were very satisfying for you in the program, things you really enjoyed and why you might have enjoyed them? A: I enjoyed the retreat because we all got introduced to each other. The program days were great; I think all the program things were good. I was just saying from the retreat it was great. We all really got to meet each other and know each other and at least set up the first program day very well. A: I agree. I think the retreat was a great start to the whole dynamic and set the tone for how relationships were meant to foster and blossom throughout the whole year. The tours were good. I am trying to think of what I really looked forward to and I think it was the group work that we did. So the tours were good but you are still sort of separate from the whole group on all of them. I do not know. Q1f: So what did you particularly like about the group work? Why did that satisfy you? A: Because it [group work] gives you an opportunity away from the organization that you are in to stand in your own values and your own community vision, which is not something you could always do as you can attest to when you belong a larger organization. So, you get to develop yourself as an individual community leader [during group work] and process some of your opinions and your takes on situations. It [group work] helps you to formulate that when you are bouncing those off of other people and you are hearing other sides of the argument and things like that. Q1g: Other experiences that you that you really found fulfilling during your time with the Valued Leadership program, and what about them were so fulfilling for you? A: Well, I do remember leaving some of the program days after learning about the different organizations in town, feeling just completely inspired to do more and to, to be more active. I just remember ideas just flying through my head when we were working on certain community topics, and I would leave [during the program days] really charged and really inspired to act on one thing or another. Now, I think the downside of that [being inspired during the program days] is that they do charge you up and they get you thinking and formulating but then, I wonder if there is a way to capture that and actually put it into some sort of action plan, even if it is just for yourself, after that. Does that make sense? Like how would you act on what you were just inspired to do, whether it is join the Boards and Commissions or get two groups together that need to actually sit

368 down and meet, and it would help them very much or organize this community event. Q1h: What would be fulfilling for you about taking that next step? Why would that be exciting for you? A: Well, because it is the whole reason why I do what I do, it is serving the community. So it is connecting the dots and maximizing opportunities for people and for organizations to further some community goals, further communications. -Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: It is hard to narrow down to one thing. One of the most valuable experiences out of it was when we were down at our leadership retreat in the beginning. There was a very interesting exercise we did which was a circle exercise. I do not know if others have referenced that. What we had to do, again we had just met one another the same day essentially, and [at the leadership retreat] the facilitator reads off a series of sort of statements or even words and what we were required to do was step in the middle of the circle if we identified with that. Anything from political issues to racial groups to sexual orientation, all these different things [at the leadership retreat while participating in the circle exercise], and it was very interesting to see what you are first impressions are of people when you first meet them and then to see when they would step out into the middle. A great example of this was a gentlemen who was just wonderful in the group [leadership retreat circle exercise], probably in his 50’s, 60’s, something like that, and a veterinarian here in Phoenix, been here for years and the question came up “do you identify with Atheists?” He stepped out into the middle of the group. I thought that was just a fascinating, it just sort of blew out all of my stereotypes that I may have had of this particular gentlemen, [and stereotypes] that I may have of Atheists; for example, and as time went on, it really made me look at that particular issue in a different way. In fact, what he did at Christmas time, ironically, at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. By the way, he almost sort of resembles Santa Claus in some ways, and I mean that in a very positive way. So, that was a really very interesting experience for me. I guess for that, what values would that fall under? Well, you know, in an odd way spirituality, because even though he [gentleman in the class exercise at the leadership retreat] was Atheist, he showed a wonderful spirit and actually very spiritual in some ways ironically. It sort of helped to change in some ways from views of spirituality, which is something that is important to me. You know also I think humility too. Because just this concept of you need to be humble because you may have certain impressions of

369 certain types of folks, but once you get to know them [through networking, such as participating in hayride], those stereotypes are often times destroyed. That is a good reminder that we all need to remain humble when we interact with others [Atheists]. So, that is probably the two that come out of that experience for me. A: I really got a lot out of the information sessions and the tours. I think I was a little less about building the relationships than maybe some other folks. In particular, for my business, I have to meet with a lot of non-profits and deal with their issues that they are struggling with and trying to deliver services, and what I really appreciated was a chance to actually look at some sectors that relate to those things, but maybe on a little bit on a different level in terms of the Fire Department, how much they do for the community, I would not have thought about that before I would have just thought they were an agency, but they do a lot of community work for homeless people, for isolated people, they do a lot of social services and it was really a great eye opener for me. I never would have done some of those tours if I had not been a part of Valley Leadership. Q1a: What did you find so exciting about them? What was so fulfilling for you? A: Well, I just felt like I gained a lot of information about how different aspects of our community worked that I really did not have before and as a leader, in terms of how to make decisions and impact some of those problems and make change in our community, I really feel much better informed. For instance, we are doing an affordable housing program at the Arizona Community Foundation. Well, I learned a lot about water needs, infrastructure needs, transportation needs, electric, utility needs, so it is a complex world that we live in. So often you will get informed and maybe get one side of an issue, and Valley Leadership was always really good about presenting balanced perspectives on a topic. I guess that would be how it impacted me the most. Q1b: Other quick examples of things that were really fulfilling for either of you about the Valley Leadership program, and if you could tell me why that would be great? A: I think really mostly what I just said. The actual learning sessions and the tours. That is for me where the rubber met the road. I certainly did enjoy the relationship building and the creative problem solving part of it. I am maybe you know a little more advanced in my career that a lot of folks were. So that whole networking piece maybe was not as important to me, but I could see where that would be very important for emerging leaders. I came back to the office and I really championed a younger lady who works with me to apply. I just said you have to do this, it is the best thing for you. She really needed to build sort of those networks and gain a better understanding of our community. So, I am a big fan that way. A: Yes, I guess I will just add in also. The Emergenetics profile was very interesting to me. In fact, it was so interesting to me, it was just driving me crazy. I wanted to know what my wife was, what colors? I talked her into applying, and now, she is in the current class. Now, I know that she is yellow or blue, so I understand her a lot better now.

370 A: I think that is so funny. Here is a marriage that is being impacted by Valley Leadership. Q1c: Why was it important for you to understand the colors? Why was that valuable for you? Why did that satisfy you? A: Because for me it was, and again I understand this is far from perfect, Emergenetics but it is a great sort of quick hand way of evaluating situations. I have found myself using it a lot with people in the workplace since I went through the program, and so for my wife, it essentially sort of reconfirmed what I knew about her, but it is fun. We love talking about it. Now, we can both use the language of Emergenetics when we are dealing with others. Oh, well you know, your mom is green, she is a green so that explains that, or that person has a lot of red that is why, blah, blah, blah. So it has been a lot of fun. I think it is a helpful tool. But more importantly I think it’s great with my wife being involved in this year’s class because it sort of grows that circle that I was sort of welcomed into with our class, now that circle has doubled in size through my wife. Also for her too, that is something that she really wanted to do was develop her appreciation and understanding of all the things that were going on in the valley. Which, obviously I was able to get that out of the program too. -Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values? A: I would say one of the best parts of the program was participating in the group project, and what I liked about it was that it did provide an avenue for creativity and for independence, which are high on my list. A: I would say my values scored really high with belonging, and I think that started for me at the retreat. There was a real nice connection with a big group of people that then sort of focused on small groups throughout the year, whether it was the organized group projects or just class days. I have friends that came out of this experience that I think I will be friends with for a long time, people I would have never met because we do not work or live in the same social circles. A: Probably, as the first caller stated, the project was pretty significant for me because we focused on the homeless and that provided an avenue for achievement, responsibility and concern for others, which were all high on my list. The concern for others, I think that we really spoke to what we should do to assist the homeless and really encouraged our peers to also ask [break in tape]. A: I think for me it was really building community and I would say that throughout the course of the year the thing that was most satisfying for me was the sense of concern for others and for our community as a group of people being concerned about our community

371 and the other people. Then also I think just the sense of belonging and being a part of something fun and important. A: Another good experience was just listening to the issues that we discussed each month gave me the opportunity to analyze my thoughts about those issues and listen to both sides, and the analytical part of me is very high. A: This is not a specific project but, as I look at my values, one of the things that comes up pretty high for me is privacy and independence, and for all the sense of community and group projects and spending all that time with another, it was a tremendously respectful program, no feeling of judgment. You sort of suspended that [privacy, independence, and judgment] when you arrived there [community and group projects], and that is pretty critical to me. Psychologists would call it a safe haven probably. A: Probably one other thing I would like to add. Being new to the community, I think I had only been here a year when I started the program, it certainly was an emersion into Phoenix’s culture and all of the different issues that Phoenix faces, that perhaps would have taken me years to figure out. It [the program] really gave us an overall viewpoint of, or an overall opportunity to glean additional information on major issues throughout the community. So, that was pretty important to me, and I think that comes under again concern for others and community. -Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: I would say that one of the most valuable things that I got from our experiences was seeing the programs that help teenagers and children. I guess part of that comes from a feeling of responsibility for kids that are underprivileged. So, that would be one. Concern for others [underprivileged kids] would be way up there too. I am looking at this sheet as I am talking to you. Scientific understanding, trying to see how that we can better help people [kids] in underprivileged status. I think that just like this study is doing right now, looking at what would motivate me personally to join Valley Leadership, and then after being in, what would keep me motivated and wanting to do further things after I get out. A: I think that the values, and I am sorry, I do not actually have the information in front of me. But I think that the values that it really fulfilled for me I think is a sense of belonging and also just a sense of community. That is really important to me in Valley Leadership. I think that is one of their core themes is just to be able to participate in other people’s success, I think, is also really important to me. So, I think that is what Valley Leadership had the opportunity to do for me. So, I think that is all I have to say. I do not know if I answered the question completely. Is that what you were looking for?

372 Q1a: Yes. Are there any specific things, and you do not need to know the names of the values. It is just any specific parts of the program that were very fulfilling and very satisfying for you, and tell us why. A: I think just the opportunity to be around other people who were motivated and excited to be in Phoenix and were dedicated to Arizona and the success of Arizona and what was happening here. As a young professional, I think that it was just really exciting to see that and it was motivating. So, that is the part of the program. I mean, the program days were great because you learned something, but that really, the program days could come and go. But, it was truly an opportunity to be around 50 just amazing people where you did not feel like you belonged there, just because you are like, “Wow, these people are incredible.” So, that was the best part of the program for me. A: I think for me, one of the most rewarding parts of the program was just the opportunity to discuss important social issues in learning about organizations in the Valley that work with these issues, both the issues that I was already familiar with myself and passionate about, as well as others that I was not as in touch with. I think because of the breadth of the organizations and the issues that we discussed, it really kind of broadened my view on various social issues. So, that kind of to me was an important part of the program. Honestly, part of the reason why I applied for the program was because I wanted to learn more about Phoenix and organizations and of course, meet great people that are involved. I mean, that is the other thing, too, learning from the presenters and the tours and also from other people in our class, as well. Q1b: If you can cite them, fine and if you cannot, that is fine, too. A: Well, you said, “Responsibility”. I cannot remember. So, a sense of responsibility for community, I guess, is what I would say the most and concern for others is obviously embedded in that, as well. But, I just think for me, the responsibility to serve and be an active part of my community is what drives me and what I enjoyed about the program and those aspects of Valley Leadership. Q1c: Other comments about fulfilling experiences in the program? A: I think one of the most fulfilling aspects for me was the dialogue that we had from such a diverse cross-section of the Valley. As someone who is new to Arizona, it was a very educational component for me, but it also gave me a great sense of interaction, I am looking at my value list, achievement, belonging, and concern for others. I think as we went throughout the year, we were able to understand better what value sets people brought to the table that guided their dialogue. Q1d: Are there any other specific experiences that you could think of as the conversation has gone on, that were very fulfilling for you, things that stood out, that you’d like to talk about and why they stood out for you from a positive perspective? A: I would say that I join in, in agreeing with having the social interaction with

373 other people that are quite outstanding in their various fields and the results that came from that. As I said before, we had a very mixed group, so there was very much that I was not familiar with. I did not know of hardly any of the City or County programs for helping people. I discovered I kind of lived in a pretty narrow world and it opened it up to me quite a bit and I look forward to being able to participate more in helping the people in my city in areas that I have some expertise in. -Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values? A: I do not have the form in front of me so I am just going to kind of ad lib it, you can help me out as far as the values or what have you. But just developing the relationships was one of the key fulfilling in the programs that I felt, just being the different diverse groups throughout the program and gaining an understanding of each individuals backgrounds and work places and just their thought process on how to better the community, it helped me establish a better understanding of how I can live my life, do work, work with customers along those areas. So I will give you an example is basically is education. Looking at everyone’s backgrounds and the education and what their thought processes are, how to fund education, it helped me gain perspective being a single, being a newly parent myself and who is now going to have a daughter going to school in the next 4 or 5 years, understanding how the inequities are and kind of the thought process of what each individual person kind of goes through within that mindset. A: I also felt that one of the key points was the developing of relationships and the diversity of the people that I met in the program. I have a little bit different of an example, I was not sure what my goal was in being as part of this group but one of the things that happened for me was being involved in arts and the theatre, which is not something that I have done before and now that is something that I will continue and do in my life that I had not done before, and that was a good result of being in this program. A: One of my motivations for joining the program was just another outlet and being part of something else. When you work for a long time you tend to keep the same circles of people so I was looking for an opportunity to expand that and that is definitely what I found meeting all these wonderful people, but another thing that came out of that for me was just an appreciation for people and getting to know people that I otherwise would not have thought of having relationships with. I, for me that is opened my mind to really lots of possibilities of who I can include in my life, both professionally and personally, and I think, speaking for myself, it is made me a more open-minded person, I believe I was open minded but just open-minded to people that may not agree with me on some things, we may be total allies on other things. So it is, we are not all defined by Black and White, and I think this class really helped illustrate that for me. A: For me it is the same as [Name] and [Name] as they have mentioned. But for me I

374 learned so much from this program, especially I learned to develop leadership skills by gaining broader knowledge and learning these skills from great leaders across the valley that the program introduced us to. In addition, the program had introduced us to different topics, such as art, technology, education, history, issues in a community, and that we are aware or have an aware of. One of the examples that I have learned from, so many things that I have learned from the program and benefit from, is visiting the homeless site and seeing how these people live their life and what we can do to help them. I think it makes us feel like very fortunate to have our life but then what we can do to help the other people’s better. Besides I made good friends from the people that I met through the program, so once again, it is a wonderful program, and I think it should continue. A: Well the first thing that I wrote down was the ability to interact with others who are on a similar mission, but I also agree with what [Name] said in that it allowed me to understand more clearly that I can have effective relationships and effective partnerships with people that are on a completely different side of the way I think maybe politically, or socially, or just in general areas that just because that one issue we may not agree on we may be able to establish effective partnerships in other areas. I think that a lot of the people came away feeling similar to that. Also the ability to provide input into discussions that may impact others. I am a facilitator as well and I guess I have enjoyed that over the past few years and I had a glimpse of what Valley Leadership was like because we’ve done a joint program with Valley Leadership for a few years, and so I was very excited to actually participate because I knew that I was going to be able to be involved in very interesting scenarios, projects, and basically everything that Valley Leadership has or offers, so that was very fulfilling. Then of course, like everyone’s mentioning, the relationships and the diversity among those relationships has been very rewarding. I do not have my list in front of me so I am not sure what values those were. A: Experiences that I thought were fulfilling, other than what I have heard touched on again about the relationship building, hearing other peoples viewpoints, having my own mindset stretched, because I realize as I get older I am getting more set in my ways, even being single being even more set in my ways, living my life kind of for myself, in a sense. So having myself stretched and my opinions stretched, and seeing that wow, there are a lot of different ways to look at things and I can be pretty stubborn sometimes so it was a growing experience in that regard. What I found very fulfilling though were, in addition to relationship, were the exposure to experiences. The sweat lodge, the field trips, every single field trip was just amazing to me, I walked away from every one of them just like a wow moment. I got something out of every single one. So to me those were, those were wonderful. Again, learning something new, again. I do not know what value to attach to that but that is what I found fulfilling out of the experience. Q1b: What made the sweat lodges so very exciting for you? What in particular was really fulfilling? A: Well, if I can explain this, for those that know me in the class know that where my faith is, I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type of faith. When we were told to bring something for this event, we were told

375 to bring tobacco. So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? A: I also went on the sweat lodge, and I will kind of coattail on that. I had experienced quite a few sweat lodges before this sweat lodge. But I felt that it was a very powerful experience because it [sweat lodge] really was the experience where you could do something that was totally on your own in a way because it was very spiritual, but on the other hand, it [at the sweat lodge] was a connection, my first connection actually, to other people in Valley Leadership. That was, I mean, it was very powerful because it connected you in a way that is so different than your ordinary let us go to lunch or I am on a certain committee with someone because you are stretched and your minds very expanded in a way where you do not know what will happen next. A: We were kind of vulnerable. A: Right. We all are, we all were and it was really the not knowing. Some of the other experiences that we had in the tours were things where maybe we each had some kind of experience, either with homeless or if we went, I went on most of them, or to the zoo, or just, it was something where you had another kind of experience so you learned something but you were not stretched to the level that you were in that. That was probably the most, one of my values was the spirituality, and so that was very exciting that they had that as part of Valley Leadership. Q1c: Anyone else have any examples of fulfilling experiences and why they were fulfilling for you? A: I can add a story . . . about the sweat lodge experience. I know the time line would not add up but it is kind of something that I have thought about a lot. Prior to the sweat lodge, we had been trying to have another baby, and it had not been successful for awhile. My family, we were going to a cabin that weekend up in Prescott, and because I talked to other people who had done the sweat lodge, they said the one tour that you have to do is the sweat lodge, I told my family it was important enough that I was going to stay behind and go to the sweat lodge and then I would meet them in Prescott the next morning. So we went, and of course, those that were there that are on the phone, remember that one of the things that they talked about is a benefit of the sweat lodge is fertility, and I remembered it stuck with me, I thought, “Hey, who knows, maybe this is going to help do the trick and get us with another baby.” So, I went to the sweat lodge and the

376 experience was much like [Name] and [Name] just talked about, but so the next day I go up to Prescott and meet my family for lunch and it was right when I met them we went to the restaurant, and my wife said, “Oh, here, we have something for you.” I opened the gift, and it was a little Christmas ornament, because it was in December, in the shape of a baby. Basically that was her way of telling me that we were expecting. I know, like I said, the timing does not work out, but I kind of point to that as being a sign that if you have a faith, whatever that is, and you trust in that and you know that things are going to work out, things generally do. In the same, I have told anyone that is in this class that I have talked to, said hey, make sure you do that sweat lodge because it is an experience that you would not forget. Like I said, the timing does not work out because obviously the work was already done before that sweat lodge, but it is kind of a neat story to think about. -Q1: Here is the first question: “Provide two examples of your most fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were most satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: I found the most fulfilling experiences were the opportunity to network with my peers in my community. Oftentimes when you work in a place of business, you are not necessarily surrounded by your peers in the sense of the hierarchy and in Value Leadership I felt as though I were surrounded by my peers in terms of skill level and leadership level and so I found that to be the most valuable experience. A: I am also going to say networking. But I will say that the reason I chose that is because just the breadth of experience and perspective that I had access to through that networking, I guess that was just a unique experience for me. A: I am going to say very similar but mostly it was the opportunity to, I guess, meet people within the community and feel connected to the community at that level because you realize just how involved the people are and how they create the community that you live in but you never really get to meet those people that really influence your community like that. So, that was a first for me in Arizona since I have been here and I felt that the people were very inspirational and in meeting them and learning what they do, it helped to change my perspective but also gave me a reason for wanting to stay in Arizona for so long. Q1a: Are there any specific pieces within the program, yearlong program itself, that were particularly fulfilling, that you might want to sight and talk about why they were fulfilling for you from a values perspective? A: I really liked at our retreat, the circle thing we did where [Name] would read a statement and if we identified with it we went towards him to the degree with which we identified with it. I know that was a really helpful exercise in terms of bringing the group close almost immediately and kind of defining how we identify ourselves and looking

377 around a sea of faces that may not seem as though we have anything in common; that kind of identified some strategic alignment amongst people in the group. So I would have to say that is a specific thing. A: I was going to say that the retreat was probably the most beneficial for us because you got to know everyone outside of their own environment and strip them away of all the things that kind of make them who they are and you really got to see who they are as a result and I say also the Emergenetics profiling, I know some people are against that but I think it helped us to not take things personally because we were about to spend a lot of time with one another on a lot of very deep topics. I think it made you realize that these people sometimes feel a certain way because of not only what they’ve been through by the circle that we did but also because they act out a certain way due to their profile and so what might offend me in the past did not offend me once I got an understanding of their personality and their thought process. A: I will agree with the Emergenetics piece, but I will also say that the group projects really provided an opportunity for some of us to get to know each other on deeper level. I just felt like there was not a lot of time to interact during the class days so those group projects provided that time. Q1b: Excellent, other responses to the question of specific items or things within the program that were very fulfilling or satisfying for you? A: All the happy hours. Q1c: Particularly what value did those happy hours satisfy for you? A: Once again, it [happy hours] is the ability to just get to know each other by venting or by sharing special moments of your day or week that were difficult and realizing that there were other people that relate to those things because they are going through similar emotions and you cannot always talk about those things with people at work because of the politics or… So it is like the support and the strength that you gain out of those networking events or social events. Q1d: If you were looking at the list of values, would there be any in particular that you could state by name? A: Like the caring about people or helping people? I feel like that is one of the things that you get out of being with each other in social situations, you wind up either lending support or getting the support that you need. Okay, I am trying to think of some of the other values. I do not have them in front of me.

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QUESTION 2 Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: One of the things I did not like about the program was at the beginning, we did the circle [where you step in if you are this, and you step out if you are that], and I just did not think it was [effective]. A: Yeah, that circle where you step in if you are this, and you step out if you are that? A: I thought it [circle exercise] was poorly run. I thought it was it did not really have the structure it needed, as far as the definition for what the terms meant. Then on top that I just felt like it put people in boxes. It [circle exercise] made a lot of people uncomfortable because there were things that they shared or they did not share or really were uncomfortable in sharing in the first place. A: Right [participants were uncomfortable sharing information in the circle exercise]. Q2a: Why did not you like that? What about it was not fulfilling for you? A: Personally, I did not like it [circle exercise] because I saw the position it put certain people in, who did not [break in tape] want to share certain things about themselves at, they did not either share, or they did share and they did not want to do it. A: Yeah, I can definitely see [Name] point because people were visibly uncomfortable with certain things and when you are in that situation, in such a new environment I think it kind of hangs you out there as being pretty vulnerable. Not to just harp on that one exercise but if that was an exercise that people did at the end of the thing when we all kind of knew each other, it might have been a little bit better. A: I agree with that [an exercise that people did at the end of the thing when we all kind of knew each other, it might have been a little bit better]. A: It was an odd exercise to do right in the beginning anyway. So that is one example of something that was not so fulfilling. I think that at times facilitation, when you are dealing with the caliber of people that are in these groups, you really cannot skimp on facilitation, and that is where [Name- Program Director] was key. You knew that if you are showing up to something and [Name] was there, that it was going to be massively facilitated and the discussion was going to move and nobody’s point was going to get lost in the shuffle. It was going to be thought-provoking and critical thinking and blah, blah, blah. So, unfortunately, when [Name] left, the facilitation was not at the same standard, and even when they brought people in to facilitate that just like a wedding. If you are

379 going to spend money on one thing, if the one thing about your wedding is your cake, you put all your money into the cake or whatever, that is thing to put your money into. It is knowing how to keep facilitating the group or if you are going to bring someone in to facilitate, hire a really good facilitator. The other thing that was not so fulfilling was how much time and energy we spent on the colors or the Emergenetics or whatever it was called. I think it was a useful precursor to the year but I think we all got it after a certain point, and it did not need to be so ongoing. I do not know; how do you feel about that one? A: I thought the colors adventures thing, obviously they did an assessment, and they have done this quite a few places, but mine said that I had no red at all, which is interesting ‘cause those are all the people skills. A: Oh, yeah, which is odd [some had no red at all, which are all the people skills]. A: Yeah, which I thought was odd too [some had no red at all, which are all the people skills]. Everybody else was like, “Whoa, what happened there?” I am like alright. I literally had no red, but the colors were useful but really, 9.5 hours, I do not know. I think I got it in an hour-and-a-half. A: Yeah [9.5 hours, I do not know. I understood the exercise in an hour-and-a-half]. Q2b: Why was that so unfulfilling for you? A: Because it [circle exercise] feels like a waste of time, I mean you are giving your time. You are away from your family in the evening or you are taking the time off work and you feel like you need to be stimulated newly and freshly every single time. So, it was kind of just like re-introducing something that we had already gone through, we already covered, and forcing you to sit through a whole ‘nother iteration of it. A: Yeah [it was kind of just like re-introducing something that we had already gone through, we already covered, and forcing you to sit through a whole ‘nother iteration of it]. A: With this type of program [circle exercises] and with these, I do not know. I think with these types of personalities you cannot you got to keep it fresh and new every single time. A: You just need to move on at some point [and get more creative]. A: Yeah, [you just need to move on at some point and get more creative]. Q2c: Any other examples of thing that were as fulfilling for you in the program?

380 A: I think too and I know this is going to sound like a really petty point but you also need to take really good care of your participants with the food and there were times when you are working really hard and you are having your day there, and one way that you honor your participants is by making sure that you have good food there. There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. A: That is right. . .[There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled]. A: I just think that as an organization that is something you cannot skimp on [food, quality facilitators]. What do you think about that? A: I do not know [about the things you cannot skimp on]. I did not really care so much just because I knew it was what it was. One of the things that I did not like or appreciate was they had sent me to the wrong place on numerous occasions, for different things. A: We were surprised because you did show up late [that is because of being sent to the wrong place]. A: Well, remember the police, it was like the evidence check-up place? A: Yeah. A: They [police] had a map to the downtown precinct; well, it was nowhere near the downtown precinct, and I had taken the afternoon off. A: It is stuck with people, just kind of every once in a while something would get screwed and people would get crossed up as far as where they were supposed to be. But that is just something that happens on a day-to-day, it is just a day-to-day operation type of thing, but when it happens two or three times, then you have got to start looking at “Okay, what are we doing wrong here?” A: Right [when something happens often, we have to ask ourselves, what are we doing wrong here]. Q2d: Other experiences within the program that you might want to talk about? A: I got to meet him and get closer to the staff. Aside from the glitches that happened here and there, they worked so hard. Meeting all the people that you are in the group with, there is no other feeling like, [name], do not you feel like you could pick up the phone with any one of those 50 people right now and just say, “I need this or how’s it going or whatever?” A: Genuinely, I think I could [I could pick up the phone and say, “I need this or how is it going”].

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A: Yeah, I mean it is a bond that you do not really believe can be created past high school or college. It is, and I think that it is just an amazing tool for growing leadership, aside from any of the program challenges or things that happened during the year, I am a far better community leader than I was before I started the program, hands down. That is because of the heart of the people that run it too; they are just amazing in their enthusiasm and their dedication. --

Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: I think I already stated this before. The social networking piece, which was highly optional, and a wonderful tool for people that are really looking to build networks and get socially connected I think are a good thing and I do not think they should go away. That was not something I was into it for. I have a son and a daughter. They are both incredibly active, even though they have grown up. I spend a lot of my time on their extra-curricular activities. For me the whole get together, the mixers, and all of that, was probably the least satisfying. I just cannot say this enough. I think it was because they were optional, I think they were good for Valley Leadership to have because there is a diverse group. The class is very diverse. The get a lot out of that. A: I would share her view on the social piece of it. Both the negative and the positive. I mean it is not a negative; it is just simply something that I did not plug into like others. I also have two children. Mine are 6 and 4 and I guess I did not take advantage of that the way I could have. Also, some of the tours were not particularly enlightening for me. Some of them were great. There was this one that I went to and basically the person who hosted us on the tour talked about how she did not like her boss and she was looking forward to getting out of there in the next couple of years. That was really not a good use of my time and the other folks who were on the tour. Some of the other tours were interesting, but I think they need to be careful about some of the tours. I made those comments on the valuation forms. A: I have to say that most of the tours I went on were amazing. I picked really institutional ones like the Fire Department, the Vet’s Hospital, bigger places. So, I was very wowed by the tours. There was a whole laundry list to pick from, and they [tours] maybe should have been planned out a little better. Q2a: What did you get out of them that made them so amazing for you? Why were the tours so fulfilling for you? A: I think they [tours] were really well done. The one that just blew my socks off was the Fire Department. I learned so many things about the Fire Department and how much

382 more they do than just what we expect them to do. I just felt incredibly informed. I actually felt inspired as a person. I am looking for my next line of community service work. I have always been a servant leader and served on boards in one way or another and I am interested in maybe going through some training through the Fire Department in terms of actually some of the social counseling which has to go on with emergency responses and neighborhood organizing during emergencies, and whatnot. I was professionally inspired. It gave me some insights on how to direct some of our donor’s philanthropic interests to help the community in terms of the programs that they do. But also personally, I am thinking about what I am going to do as a citizen to help and go through some of their training. Q2c: If there are other examples of things that were not satisfying? A: I will just share one other thing and that was the fact the Executive Director left midstream. That was really hard for us. Things like that happen, but probably that was the most negative experience because we were headed in a direction and [Name] was really a leader of the group and once he was gone, I know they did everything they could to fill the gap, but I felt a little left at the altar. It is not about us, they are people and they have issues and things happen, I the utmost respect for [Name] and fortunately had the chance to see him recently, but I think we could have had a better experience if that would not have happened. That probably goes without saying. A: I totally forgot about it, but I know it was a really big issue for some people and things do change, but it was sort of how it was handled. There was a really lack of closure. Could be a lot of resistance on the part of the leadership to help us work through that. We never saw Scott again, we never heard from him again. People sent him all these messages. I do acknowledge that really did have a negative impact on some people. --

Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: Obviously, we love this program; nobody wants to say anything bad. I am probably the only person who is going to say this. I did not find the tours that valuable, and I cannot define anything specific to it, but they felt like homework to me. There may simply have been the ones [tours] that I chose. There was some of the getting to understand the community better came out of those tours, but they felt like a task I had to sort of push my way through. It was the only part of the program that I felt that way about. It just felt like make work and maybe it is because I did not get as much out of it as I could because I know other people adored them. But if I had to say anything was unfulfilling, it was probably that.

383 Q2a: Would there be any value as you look at it that was not satisfied for you, something that made you unhappy or made you not like it? A: I guess for me one of the challenges and I do not where this falls, maybe you can help me figure this out, they [tours] did not for me relate to the overall program or relate to any specific interdependence or fulfilling some sort of responsibility. I could not connect the dots with that long list of things to look at and what I was trying to get out of the program, because I was trying to get much more of the concern for others and the belonging and that interdependence. So, just running around on a tour for an hour or 4 hours, I did not get that. A: That is what I had written down to say. The tours were independently perhaps okay but there was no overarching strategy on how those tours coordinated with the program. For instance, on Education Day, we had the whole Education Day but there was not necessarily a tour that we specifically went and looked at a school or looked at the State Mental Hospital and the educational component within it. There was absolutely no relationship between the tours and the program. So, probably the most unfulfilling or frustrating thing to me was that and too the program, although meaningful, seemed to be being compiled at the last minute with perhaps no rhyme or reason to the overall scheduling of them. I think maybe this year they are working on a whole year’s plan where maybe it will be more meaningful. But those two things really, I somewhat felt like a pinball being shot in different directions because there was no building on a foundation and moving forward with the topics at hand. Q2b: From a values perspective, if at all you can make a link, why did those things dissatisfy you? What values were not satisfied for you by the fact that those things were happening? A: Well, probably primarily achievement and responsibility and although you might consider that a stretch in the values, I did not glean, from the tours I learned but I did not really apply and/or it was not all that meaningful. The same with responsibility, for example DC Ranch, I learned about DC Ranch and that was a good experience. On the other hand it did not provide any level of achievement or responsibility to me regarding the issues at hand that we had throughout the program. A: I would echo the first two people. There did not seem to great continuity throughout the program. We did jump around in topics, which are understandable, but it did not seem to tie together. One of the problems that I had with the year, I think we expressed it toward the end of the program anyway, was the loss of the Executive Director. It seemed that at that point the tone of the program changed a bit, and I am sure it was because there had to be new people step up and take over certain responsibilities, and that could have changed the way that we perceived the program for the rest of the year. My problem with it is in the responsibility are: I think it is important to honor your commitments and be dependable, and even though I know things happen where people have to make changes,

384 it seemed to be an extremely disruptive problem throughout the program, and I appreciate the fact that people were able to step up and fill in and make the program happen. But I think it [change of presentors] tainted the year and made all of this feel as if we might not be as important because somebody would just, for want of a better term, abandon us. A: I felt overall that the program was great and I really encouraged friends and colleagues to apply and definitely have overall very good feelings. I think this is very similar to lots of the things that have already been said, but one thing I found a little unfulfilling was just kind of the lack of continuity in the quality of the days. I felt like some of the days were just great and really well planned and really engaging, and then some of the other days I kind of felt like I was sitting in class. I think for all of us it was a really big commitment of time, and I think I left different days feeling different levels of satisfaction about the other things I had given up to be there. Q2c: From a values perspectives, which values did that least satisfy for you? A: I think achievement was probably the big one because I was thinking like gosh, I did not achieve that much here today but I could have achieved so much if I was not here. But that was really the minority of the days and again, loved the experience. I think that the days that I did walk away feeling not great, that was why. -Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: A difficult question. I will go ahead and start on this one again. One of the least satisfying for me, being a veterinarian was the zoo tour, and I think that was because they did not really tell us a whole lot, I did not think. So, I was disappointed in that. But, for the most part, it is hard to find things to criticize because most of the work that was put into organizing and presenting the Friday sessions was all, I thought, quite good. So, it is hard to criticize. I think I will let somebody else talk. Maybe somebody’s got something that will jar my memory. A: I would agree with him. I think that the program is very difficult to criticize in the sense of with any other program that you do, whatever you put into it is what you get out of it. I think that when people are taking time out of their work schedule and are really dedicated to the program, [inaudible words] Valley Leadership, you have already bought into it and you really want to make it a good program. I would say for my year, which was Class 28, I would think the most dissatisfying part of the experience was actually in the beginning when we had other people from other, previous classes come in and tell us that we were not being good Valley Leadership students. Like, when they came in, I do not know if other people from Class 28 can kind of remember that, but I think it kind of set a tone for us of like, we were already on our way of building our own synergy as a group and what we were as Class 28. I think that sometimes maybe having other people

385 from previous classes impose their traditions or norms that they had in their groups onto our group, I think at moments was kind of like, wait, we are not like that. So, I think that maybe a part of it is keeping each class separate and allowing each class to develop as the year goes on and not try to expect each class to be similar, but that each class will have its own personality. Q2a: So, for that example, what was dissatisfying for you? Why did you not like the other folks coming in and giving you that feedback? A: I think it was dissatisfying because I do not think that there were maybe other people in our group that maybe felt like that or were not aware of that. So then, it kind of, I think having, it broke a, for me personally, I think that it kind of was like, wait, if there are other people in our class who are not having a good experience here and I think for me, it kind of bothered me, because I was like, wow, I thought everyone was having a good time. This was only program day two or three. So, it kind of set a tone of like well, give us a chance to develop as a group. I think that is the beauty of these 50 people being selected for this full year and allowing them to develop. So, the dissatisfying part for me was maybe not given the opportunity to allow that to evolve on its own and having other people coming into what we were trying to develop as a group and telling us we were right or wrong in that. So, I think that was maybe just dissatisfying. It was interesting because afterwards it kind of became an inside joke to some of us, like we’ve got to go out and be social because we do not want to not be social. So, I think for us or for me personally, that was something that was dissatisfying, but nothing about the actual program, but just some of the other participants from other classes coming in. Q2b: Thank you very much for that clarification. Any other examples? A: I, too, find it challenging to criticize the program. I mean, obviously, there were some days that were better than others and that kind of depended on your personal view and what you were interested in. When you say least fulfilling experiences, it makes me think of a program day or a tour, and I really did not have any bad experiences or not fulfilling experiences in that way. One of the things that I do think that our class overall was a diverse group of people from different backgrounds in all different kinds of ways, although as a Latino, I would always like to see more ethnic minority professionals participating in these kinds of programs. That is just my own personal thing. We had a handful of people and that was great. But I always like to see more diversity. A: I cannot really think of anything else. A: One thing that kind of was interesting and kind of changed maybe some of the focus or some of the flavor of our class was the sudden departure of the Executive Director pretty early on in the year. It was never really fully disclosed why he left so abruptly. Right about the time where I think the class had moved on, at our graduation, it was brought up again. It was just awkward, because we never really had any closure to it,

386 because a lot of us never got a chance to say goodbye or some people tried to contact him afterwards and some were successful and some were not. But it just kind of cast a cloud of uncertainty over it, because one time he was there and then the next time he was gone. It was just very quick and abrupt. Q2c: Why was that problematic for you? Why was that disturbing to you? A: Well, one, out of concern for him as a person, you did not know if he was ill or if something traumatic had happened and just because we had bonded with him at that point, to have him leave so suddenly was disheartening, for whatever reason that it was. The fact that it was never fully explained just kind of kept a real uneasy feeling about it, because it was never, well, he left for this reason or for that reason. It was just, he just had other things he wanted to do, so he left. But, the rumors kept going around and so it just kept it in motion for a while. Q2d: Thank you. Any other additional examples, from anyone? A: I did think of and I do not know. This is very specific. But I do remember that our class day on immigration and the panel of individuals that were there, it was kind of a one-sided panel. But I know that that was not the intent. The people that were supposed to represent the other side did not show up. I think overall, the program in Valley Leadership, I think, the administration and the coordinators, did a really good job of trying to make the panels balanced. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not. A: I would like to add to the comment about our Executive Director. I do agree that that was poorly handled. We are in a group of people who are looking for ways to be leaders in our community and that kind of hints at political in the way that it came down. I know that it affected many, many people in our class, because of the talk that went on. I think it had a negative effect on the class overall. Q2e: Why was it particularly problematic for you? A: Well, I think it was problematic in that I am curious. Just like anyone else, I wondered why and I think people sometimes tend to look in the mirror and see themselves as the cause, maybe what did I do that may have discouraged or caused a person to leave. It just kind of, without having a closing, I think it leaves me with a little empty feeling, like I wish there was something that I could have done to not let that happen. -Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: Oh, I can think of one, and I might, it might trigger my memory when I hear what other people share. But one of the least fulfilling, if I want to label it that, the most

387 stressful, was the project. We are all busy people, work wise, personal lives, and I do not know that that added a significant part to my experience. It added work; it added additional work to me. I felt like we were all just trying to find something to do, what was a topic we could all agree upon. So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. A: Of course I had a totally different experience in terms of the project. So the project for me, and that goes back to the first question, was probably one of the most fulfilling, just because of all of the, it is almost like what [Name] was talking about, but there was something about the synergy of the seven people that I was with, and [Name] was one of them, that allowed us to work, to truly work as leaders in our project where I have never been on that kind of team before where it did not, there was a lot of work involved [in the projects], but we also had a project where we had to do something, and we had an end product. None of it worked out the way that we thought, but it was extremely fulfilling. We kind of bonded at the level of the sweat lodge. But I think the least fulfilling for me really was probably the book. I am an avid reader but the books that were chosen were a little outdated and there was something that missed, for me, in the conversations about the book. I am not sure of how they were, if there were too many people, that is what I think, there were too many people in the room for a good book discussion. So, that was least fulfilling for me. Q2a: Can you tell me what the name of the book was? A: “Rise of the Creative Class” and “Bowling Alone”. “Rise of the Creative Class” was a very heavy, more demographic, more statistical analysis. It also was a little outdated. I mean, I am not sure how outdated, it gave us some good food for conversation, but I felt the conversation fell flat because it was, because the facilitation, I am not quite sure, we had a lot of questions but for some reason it made it very, I was very dissatisfied when I left that discussion and I did not go to the “Bowling Alone” discussion. A: I do not have any outstanding least experiences in the program, but just one suggestion. I thought the camping that we had in the beginning of the program was very wonderful; it is a way for us to get to know our members in the class and also to be relationship. I thought it was nice to have the similar camping at the end of the program, that way when we know people already, and I think it would be even more memorable and a good ending that way. So, I do not know but maybe in the future to have a camping at the beginning of the program and maybe at the end of the program for at least one day or two days, something like that. That way we, I thought the program, the color instrument, about the personality, I forgot the name of it [emergenetics]. I thought that really wonderful experience I never know about, and then I thought we should do something similar at the end of the program. Q2b: Were there any experiences that you had that definitely were not really fulfilling for you that you might want to site? Why they were not fulfilling.

388

A: I can add one there. We, I was, this is [Name] and [Name] mentioned that we were in the same group for our final project, and we would not, we do not need to go into all the details because it would be a 3 hour call. But our project was one that was offered by the previous head of the program, he ended up leaving the, [Name] ended up leaving the program. We kept going forward with the project, well then as the project was coming to an end, there was some disagreement among the Board of Valley Leadership and the acting director of the program about whether we should go forward with that and the tough part for us is, as [Name] said, we were full forward, 100% on this, and we had done a lot of work and committed resources from, for example, my employer and another team members employer as well, and we had done a lot of outreach only to have to pull back at the last minute. Well, if the organization wants to make decisions, I mean, that is their prerogative and that is their right but we all felt like that these were things that could of and should have been examined much earlier in the process, would have saved us a lot of work, but more important than that is just a lot of heartache and uncomfortable feelings. So, I would say that the lesson learned going forward is if you are going to ask your class to do things and there are changes, make sure that that is communicated up front and make clear the expectations. A: I guess I can provide a couple and it is more of a mea culpa kind of thing, where I did not quite, I did not finish the book and it was at a time where the job was really busy and the book was not that great to begin with, but that was just an excuse. So I do not feel that I got as much as I could have out of the book discussion, and I think there were a lot of people that did not complete the book, and I think the people that did read the book probably felt like, “Man, I did not have to read the book.” So, I think that might have worked both ways. The group project was, I had a good group and we met on a regular basis, but it did, and it, the thing is that it was fulfilling when it was over, but the process of it was tedious and somehow I had become the group project leader and I felt like I was not giving it 100% as a group project leader. So it was, it was conflicting because here I am the group project leader but I was not giving it 100% that I, that I in some cases could have, in some cases I was just very swamped with other things, just like all of us. So I think that took away a little bit from my experience, but we did pull it together in the end and it worked out nicely and it was a great presentation. Just if I can add one more thing to that, I used to run another leadership program and we used to do conceptual or theoretical group projects that we changed. We changed them from, for example, okay, let’s say you are the other health organization and how would you handle BC. Then we would, the groups would come up with great ideas, but nothings really going to happen. So, we changed those to community action projects where they went out into the community and picked on their own, they picked something that they picked during the course of the program, which is a lot shorter than the course of Valley Leadership’s program, that they could go out and actually approach an organization or something, an effort or something that was going on and say, “Hey, there’s five or six of us, what can we do with you throughout the year to actually make a difference in what you are doing?” Then that was presented in the end. That actually has resulted in youth

389 leadership programs, it has resulted in existing programs today that are helping the community, and I think that would be probably more rewarding. A: Oh, this is [Name]. I cannot really think of anything else that was least fulfilling. I kind of expressed it already. Q2b: Any other examples? A: I found the entire, with the exception of the story I just mentioned, I found the entire class to be extremely fulfilling. It was the one thing that I looked forward to each month and I do not know about everyone else, but the weeks that we did have class, I found myself extremely productive because I was trying to tie up every single thing I could by the end of Thursday so I could be at our class fully engaged and not having to call in or check messages that way. If there was such thing as a second year of the program I would actually love to do it. I looked forward to every single thing about it. A: I agree with him, this is [Name]. I do kind of miss it. I mean it was, I put aside that year to be able to do it, and I felt like I was back in school. I mean, so I enjoyed the days a lot. Toward the end I think some of the topics, they, I do not know if it fizzled out for me because of the change in leadership, but I did not find them as engaging as the first ones. I do not know if anyone else felt that way, the topics, I was so excited at the beginning of the year, and then. . . A: Seems like they [topics] got a little repetitive. Did not it? A: I am not quite sure what happened, but well we were freezing in a few of them [topics], the education one. Another thing that I thought was very fulfilling was the Principle for a day that some of, I think we all had to do, and it really, what was interesting for me, and my background is an educator, but I had not been in the educational system I had been in corporations for the last 20 years, was I really connected to the inner city school and the Principle, it kind of surprised me. I am still doing work with her and with her staff. I kept thinking I did not know how I could contribute to her school [inner city] if it was not financial, because I do not have a business that is behind to me, because it is my own business that could contribute. But I could contribute some of my time and energy [to the inner city school], and so that is been very fulfilling. A: I know I echo on what both of them just said about the looking forward to it every month. It was that time where you got to reconnect with everyone. I think building relationships and the friendships was probably the biggest thing for me, and so being able to see these people and reconnect and just bond again with those friends, that is what I looked forward to every time. In fact, more than what I was going to learn, what the issue was, it was more of getting to see the people and connecting with the people. A: I really enjoyed the course; in particular I really liked the police ride along. It gave me a kind of view, a wider view of how police, through their eyes, what they look at the neighborhoods and those really what, an eye opening experience for myself just to see

390 exactly what they go through, how they, when they pulled to somebody, the mindset of how they view people, it was just an experience I think I looked at over and over again. -Q2: Here is the second question: “Provide two examples of your least fulfilling experiences while participating in the program. Then in relation to the experiences, provide the values that were least satisfied, and explain how the experiences satisfied the values?” A: I would say that I found several of the program days to be the least desirable part of the program because they did not seem relevant to the mission statement of Value Leadership. The tasks at hand seemed juvenile. So, I would have to say that. I am sorry I do not remember. A: I think what [name] is saying is actually what I was just about to say which was the value that it goes along with. It is independence. Because I remember [name], and I, at many occasions, feel like we could not express our independence. We were kind of pushed here, or you have to do this at this time. It was very rigid and for a lot of creative, very independent people who are very busy in their work and in their career, there was not a lot of understanding for what we do on a daily basis. So, if we have to step out to use the phone it was very frowned upon, or if you were 2 minutes late it was kind of, you know, frowned upon again. They were also, they kind of had you combined in one room for four straight hours and you have these very scheduled breaks and so I just felt like our independence, I felt like I was back in second grade at times. A: But I guess on the flip side, I will say to that is that we did have a schedule but many days we were not on schedule because speakers ran over or the facilitators were not able to control the panels or whatever and so that was really frustrating for me because we are very busy. We have got things to do. If we have things we are trying to accomplish for the day, let us just get it done and then have scheduled opportunities for us to interact and get to know each other so that during break times it is not so exciting to have 2 minutes to get to talk to your friend.I will also say that the program days were a lot less interactive than they should be for an organization that specializes in adult learning. They [facilitators] do not seem to know very much about the actual science of adult learning and just the program days were not structured very well given that fact. Q2a: So why did that make you unhappy. Why did you not like that? A: Because I am creative and I need to be doing things that are interesting and intriguing to me. If I have heard someone speak already a couple of times within the community, or it is just, wa, wa, wa, talking heads for 7 hours when I am used to spending my day running around like a crazy person doing 50,000 things, it creates a dissidence in me that creates unhappiness. Q2b: Other not fulfilling experiences in the program that anybody would like to talk about?

391 A: I would say that whether there was a perceived kind of disorganization when [Name] left or many of us came to Value Leadership hoping to work with [Name] for a year and then he left suddenly; I think that added to some of the disconnect and maybe disgruntledness of some of the people who were in the program. I was personally greatly disappointed that he was not there and there was no specific leader to replace him. So often I just felt like it was not handled very well. We were not informed. I, for one, felt like the program kind of fell apart after that. Not fell apart completely but there was not a structure. There was not like one person that was clearly in charge. There was no executive director. I was just going to say it is not inherent to the program. I mean that was the unexpected loss to Value Leadership. A: So I was going to say to go along with that, I think that it was just the charisma that [Name] represented. He was very analytical, very thought provoking and would really make our programs day a little bit more intriguing for a lot of us. Then when he was gone, he was not there to ask those questions and to get us thinking about the things in different ways. He enjoyed pushing buttons and provoking people and that was really a loss. A: I would add to that by saying that [Name], it just seemed like he was more in it to make sure that we learned and got something out of it, not just to do the task. So, he was not concerned with who he offended. If he brought in a speaker, he was not there to rub palms with the speaker. He was there to make sure that our time was not wasted in the sense that we got what we needed out of it and we were thinking and we were questioning people and we were questioning decisions whether it be considered not politically correct. He did not care. So, I think that attitude, his caring for others and his caring for insuring that we were learning was evident. [End of Interviews]

392 APPENDIX N: ACTUAL STUDY ANALYSIS BY VALUE

393 Actual Study Master Code List, Code Frequency All Data, Coded Source Data: Responses and Frequency, Analysis by Value The Master Code ValueAchievement ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost ValueAchievementSatisfyLeast ValueAchievementSatisfyMost ValueBelonging ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost ValueBelongingSatisfyLeast ValueBelongingSatisfyMost ValueConcernForOthers ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost ValueConcernForTheEnvironment ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceLeast ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceMost ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentSatisfyLeast ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentSatisfyMost ValueCreativity ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast ValueCreativitySatisfyMost ValueFinancialProsperity ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceMost ValueFinancialProsperitySatisfyLeast ValueFinancialProsperitySatisfyMost ValueHealthAndActivity ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost ValueHealthAndActivitySatisfyLeast ValueHealthAndActivitySatisfyMost ValueHumility ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost ValueHumilitySatisfyLeast ValueHumilitySatisfyMost ValueIndecisive

394 ValueIndependence ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost ValueInterdependence ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceLeast ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceMost ValueInterdependenceLoyaltySatisfyLeast ValueInterdependenceLoyaltySatisfyMost ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost ValuePrivacy ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceMost ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast ValuePrivacySatisfyMost ValueResponsibility ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceMost ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost ValueSpirituality ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceLeast ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost ValueSpiritualitySatisfyLeast ValueSpiritualitySatisfyMost

395 Code Frequency All Data Value Most Most Least Least

Fulfill Satisfy Fulfill Satisfy Achievement Belonging Concern for the Environment Concern for Others Creativity Financial Prosperity Health and Activity Humility Independence Loyalty to Family or Group (Interdependence) Privacy Responsibility Scientific Understanding (Objective Analysis) Spirituality 6 3 0 0 4 4 19 2 6 9 11 16 18 5 8 5 22 32 4 14 7 2 6 9 12 4 6 24 1 7 5 0 0 1 6 0 11 8 2 18 19 3 2 1 8 3 2 1 1 11 21 0 1 0 6 1

396 Coded Source Data: Responses and Frequency Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'Value'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueAchievement'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: there were times when you are working really hard and you are having your day there, and one way that you honor your participants is by making sure that you have good food there. There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: So, unfortunately, when [Name] left, the facilitation was not at the same standard, and even when they brought people in to facilitate that just like a wedding. If you are going to spend money on one thing, if the one thing about your wedding is your cake, you put all your money into the cake or whatever, that is thing to put your money into. It is knowing how to keep facilitating the group or if you are going to bring someone in to facilitate, hire a really good facilitator. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I did not glean, from the tours I learned but I did not really apply and/or it was not all that meaningful. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: The tours were independently perhaps okay but there was no overarching strategy on how those tours coordinated with the program. For instance, on Education Day, we had the whole Education Day but there was not necessarily a tour that we specifically went and looked at a school or looked at the State Mental Hospital and the educational component within it. There was absolutely no relationship between the tours and the program. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I think achievement was probably the big one because I was thinking like gosh, I did not achieve that much here today but I could have achieved so much if I was not here. But that was really the minority of the days and again, loved the experience. I think that the days that I did walk away feeling not great, that was why. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material:

397 One of the least satisfying for me, being a veterinarian was the zoo tour, and I think that was because they did not really tell us a whole lot, I did not think. So, I was disappointed in that. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: the process of it was tedious and somehow I had become the group project leader and I felt like I was not giving it 100% as a group project leader. So it was, it was conflicting because here I am the group project leader but I was not giving it 100% that I, that I in some cases could have, in some cases I was just very swamped with other things, just like all of us. So I think that took away a little bit from my experience, but we did pull it together in the end and it worked out nicely and it was a great presentation. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I would say that I found several of the program days to be the least desirable part of the program because they did not seem relevant to the mission statement of Value Leadership. The tasks at hand seemed juvenile. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: But I guess on the flip side, I will say to that is that we did have a schedule but many days we were not on schedule ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I, for one, felt like the program kind of fell apart after that. Not fell apart completely but there was not a structure. There was not like one person that was clearly in charge. There was no executive director. I was just going to say it is not inherent to the program. I mean that was the unexpected loss to Value Leadership. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: Then when he was gone, he was not there to ask those questions and to get us thinking about the things in different ways. He enjoyed pushing buttons and provoking people and that was really a loss. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: we also got to talk [on Education Day] about a lot of issues dealing with education that I did not necessarily know, I did not exactly know the issue. I knew it was an issue but I did not know exactly why it was an issue, and so that was a lot of fun for me. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material:

398 There was a bank robbery in Scottsdale that we responded to that was pretty interesting. It [engaging in the activity with the police] just exposed me to that aspect of policing that I had not been exposed to before. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: So, you get to develop yourself as an individual community leader [during group work] and process some of your opinions and your takes on situations. It [group work] helps you to formulate that when you are bouncing those off of other people and you are hearing other sides of the argument and things like that. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: In particular, for my business, I have to meet with a lot of non-profits and deal with their issues that they are struggling with and trying to deliver services, and what I really appreciated was a chance to actually look at some sectors that relate to those things, but maybe on a little bit on a different level in terms of the Fire Department, how much they do for the community, I would not have thought about that before I would have just thought they were an agency, but they do a lot of community work for homeless people, for isolated people, they do a lot of social services and it was really a great eye opener for me. I never would have done some of those tours if I had not been a part of Valley Leadership. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: Well, I just felt like I gained a lot of information about how different aspects of our community worked that I really did not have before and as a leader, in terms of how to make decisions and impact some of those problems and make change in our community, I really feel much better informed. For instance, we are doing an affordable housing program at the Arizona Community Foundation. Well, I learned a lot about water needs, infrastructure needs, transportation needs, electric, utility needs, so it is a complex world that we live in. So often you will get informed and maybe get one side of an issue, and Valley Leadership was always really good about presenting balanced perspectives on a topic. I guess that would be how it impacted me the most ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: Being new to the community, I think I had only been here a year when I started the program, it certainly was an emersion into Phoenix's culture and all of the different issues that Phoenix faces, that perhaps would have taken me years to figure out. It [the program] really gave us an overall viewpoint of, or an overall opportunity to glean additional information on major issues throughout the community. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: the program days were great because you learned something,

399 ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: one of the most rewarding parts of the program was just the opportunity to discuss important social issues in learning about organizations in the Valley that work with these issues, both the issues that I was already familiar with myself and passionate about, as well as others that I was not as in touch with. I think because of the breadth of the organizations and the issues that we discussed, it really kind of broadened my view on various social issues. So, that kind of to me was an important part of the program. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I have a little bit different of an example, I was not sure what my goal was in being as part of this group but one of the things that happened for me was being involved in arts and the theatre, which is not something that I have done before and now that is something that I will continue and do in my life that I had not done before, and that was a good result of being in this program. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: getting to know people that I otherwise would not have thought of having relationships with. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I learned to develop leadership skills by gaining broader knowledge and learning these skills from great leaders across the valley that the program introduced us to. In addition, the program had introduced us to different topics, such as art, technology, education, history, issues in a community, and that we are aware or have an aware of. One of the examples that I have learned from, so many things that I have learned from the program and benefit from, is visiting the homeless site and seeing how these people live their life and what we can do to help them. I think it makes us feel like very fortunate to have our life but then what we can do to help the other people's better. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: learning something new, again. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: Some of the other experiences that we had in the tours were things where maybe we each had some kind of experience, either with homeless or if we went, I went on most of them, or to the zoo, or just, it was something where you had another kind of experience so you learned something but you were not stretched to the level that you were in that. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material:

400 Meeting all the people that you are in the group with, there is no other feeling like, [name], do not you feel like you could pick up the phone with any one of those 50 people right now and just say, "I need this or how's it going or whatever?" ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: Genuinely, I think I could [I could pick up the phone and say, "I need this or how is it going"]. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I learned so many things about the Fire Department and how much more they do than just what we expect them to do. I just felt incredibly informed. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I felt overall that the program was great and I really encouraged friends and colleagues to apply and definitely have overall very good feelings. I think this is very similar to lots of the things that have already been said, ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: program day or a tour, and I really did not have any bad experiences or not fulfilling experiences in that way. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: Of course I had a totally different experience in terms of the project. So the project for me, and that goes back to the first question, was probably one of the most fulfilling, just because of all of the, it is almost like what [Name] was talking about, but there was something about the synergy of the seven people that I was with, and [Name] was one of them, that allowed us to work, to truly work as leaders in our project where I have never been on that kind of team before where it did not, there was a lot of work involved [in the projects], but we also had a project where we had to do something, and we had an end product. ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I thought the program, the color instrument, about the personality, I forgot the name of it [Emergenetics]. I thought that really wonderful experience I never know about, ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: The group project was, I had a good group and we met on a regular basis, but it did, and it, the thing is that it was fulfilling when it was over,

401 ValueAchievementFulfillExperienceMost 22 Source Material: I found the entire, with the exception of the story I just mentioned, I found the entire class to be extremely fulfilling. It was the one thing that I looked forward to each month and I do not know about everyone else, but the weeks that we did have class, I found myself extremely productive because I was trying to tie up every single thing I could by the end of Thursday so I could be at our class fully engaged and not having to call in or check messages that way. If there was such thing as a second year of the program I would actually love to do it. I looked forward to every single thing about it. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueAchievementSatisfyLeast 2 Source Material: probably primarily achievement ValueAchievementSatisfyLeast 2 Source Material: I would say that I found several of the program days to be the least desirable part of the program because they did not seem relevant to the mission statement of Value Leadership. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueAchievementSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: we also got to talk [on Education Day] about a lot of issues dealing with education that I did not necessarily know, I did not exactly know the issue. ValueAchievementSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: I really got a lot out of the information sessions and the tours. ValueAchievementSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: Well, I just felt like I gained a lot of information about how different aspects of our community worked that I really did not have before and as a leader, in terms of how to make decisions and impact some of those problems and make change in our community, I really feel much better informed. ValueAchievementSatisfyMost Source Material: achievement ValueAchievementSatisfyMost Source Material: achievement 6

6

402 ValueAchievementSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: I do not have any outstanding least experiences in the program, __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueBelonging'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: So the tours were good but you are still sort of separate from the whole group on all of them. I do not know. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: I think I was a little less about building the relationships than maybe some other folks. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: So that whole networking piece maybe was not as important to me, but I could see where that would be very important for emerging leaders. I came back to the office and I really championed a younger lady who works with me to apply. I just said you have to do this, it is the best thing for you. She really needed to build sort of those networks and gain a better understanding of our community. So, I am a big fan that way. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: I just felt like there was not a lot of time to interact during the class days so those group projects provided that time. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: to build networks and get socially connected I think are a good thing and I do not think they should go away. That was not something I was into it for. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: I could not connect the dots with that long list of things to look at and what I was trying to get out of the program, because I was trying to get much more of the concern for others and the belonging ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: One of the things that I do think that our class overall was a diverse group of people from different backgrounds in all different kinds of ways, although as a Latino, I would always like to see more ethnic minority professionals participating in these kinds of programs.

403 That is just my own personal thing. We had a handful of people and that was great. But I always like to see more diversity. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: I do not know about everyone else, 8

__________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: Well, it was in the course of our everyday life you do not necessarily meet that many different types of people from that many different types of background talking about a single issue. Getting everyone's perspective I think was really valuable because that is something that you are not necessarily exposed to on a daily basis. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I really enjoyed the Education Day, and the reason why I enjoyed the Education Day was because we got to meet a lot of good people who are currently in the education field, ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I liked it particularly because it really broadened my horizons, it brought in the breadth of the experience from the standpoint that it introduced me to new opinions and new outlooks on things that I did not necessarily think before. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I enjoyed the retreat because we all got introduced to each other. The program days were great; I think all the program things were good. I was just saying from the retreat it was great. We all really got to meet each other and know each other and at least set up the first program day very well. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I think the retreat was a great start to the whole dynamic and set the tone for how relationships were meant to foster and blossom throughout the whole year. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I am trying to think of what I really looked forward to and I think it was the group work that we did. Also the tours were good ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: 32

404 Atheists?" He stepped out into the middle of the group. I thought that was just a fascinating, it just sort of blew out all of my stereotypes that I may have had of this particular gentlemen, [and stereotypes] that I may have of Atheists; for example, and as time went on, it really made me look at that particular issue in a different way. In fact, what he did at Christmas time, ironically, at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I would say my values scored really high with belonging, and I think that started for me at the retreat. There was a real nice connection with a big group of people that then sort of focused on small groups throughout the year, whether it was the organized group projects or just class days. I have friends that came out of this experience that I think I will be friends with for a long time, people I would have never met because we do not work or live in the same social circles. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I think that is one of their core themes is just to be able to participate in other people's success, I think, is also really important to me. So, I think that is what Valley Leadership had the opportunity to do for me. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I think just the opportunity to be around other people who were motivated and excited to be in Phoenix and were dedicated to Arizona and the success of Arizona and what was happening here. As a young professional, I think that it was just really exciting to see that and it was motivating. So, that is the part of the program. I mean, the program days were great because you learned something, but that really, the program days could come and go. But, it was truly an opportunity to be around 50 just amazing people where you did not feel like you belonged there, just because you are like, "Wow, these people are incredible." So, that was the best part of the program for me. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I think one of the most fulfilling aspects for me was the dialogue that we had from such a diverse cross-section of the Valley. As someone who is new to Arizona, it was a very educational component for me, but it also gave me a great sense of interaction, ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I would say that I join in, in agreeing with having the social interaction with other people that are quite outstanding in their various fields and the results that came from that. As I said before, we had a very mixed group, so there was very much that I was not familiar with. I did not know of hardly any of the City or County programs for helping people. I

405 discovered I kind of lived in a pretty narrow world and it opened it up to me quite a bit and I look forward to being able to participate more in helping the people in my city in areas that I have some expertise in. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: But just developing the relationships was one of the key fulfilling in the programs that I felt, just being the different diverse groups throughout the program and gaining an understanding of each individuals backgrounds ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: When you work for a long time you tend to keep the same circles of people so I was looking for an opportunity to expand that and that is definitely what I found meeting all these wonderful people, but another thing that came out of that for me was just an appreciation for people and getting to know people that I otherwise would not have thought of having relationships with. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: Besides I made good friends from the people that I met through the program, so once again, it is a wonderful program, and I think it should continue ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: also agree with what [Name] said in that it allowed me to understand more clearly that I can have effective relationships and effective partnerships with people that are on a completely different side of the way I think maybe politically, or socially, or just in general areas that just because that one issue we may not agree on we may be able to establish effective partnerships in other areas. I think that a lot of the people came away feeling similar to that. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: like everyone's mentioning, the relationships and the diversity among those relationships has been very rewarding. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: The sweat lodge, the field trips, every single field trip was just amazing to me, I walked away from every one of them just like a wow moment. I got something out of every single one. So to me those were, those were wonderful. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: 32

406 it [at the sweat lodge] was a connection, my first connection actually, to other people in Valley Leadership. That was, I mean, it was very powerful because it connected you in a way that is so different than your ordinary let us go to lunch or I am on a certain committee with someone because you are stretched and your minds very expanded in a way where you do not know what will happen next. A: We were kind of vulnerable. A: Right. We all are, we all were and it was really the not knowing. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I found the most fulfilling experiences were the opportunity to network with my peers in my community. Oftentimes when you work in a place of business, you are not necessarily surrounded by your peers in the sense of the hierarchy and in Value Leadership I felt as though I were surrounded by my peers in terms of skill level and leadership level and so I found that to be the most valuable experience. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I am also going to say networking. But I will say that the reason I chose that is because just the breadth of experience and perspective that I had access to through that networking, I guess that was just a unique experience for me. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I am going to say very similar but mostly it was the opportunity to, I guess, meet people within the community and feel connected to the community at that level because you realize just how involved the people are and how they create the community that you live in but you never really get to meet those people that really influence your community like that. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I really liked at our retreat, the circle thing we did where [Name] would read a statement and if we identified with it we went towards him to the degree with which we identified with it. I know that was a really helpful exercise in terms of bringing the group close almost immediately and kind of defining how we identify ourselves and looking around a sea of faces that may not seem as though we have anything in common; that kind of identified some strategic alignment amongst people in the group. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I was going to say that the retreat was probably the most beneficial for us because you got to know everyone outside of their own environment and strip them away of all the

407 things that kind of make them who they are and you really got to see who they are as a result and I say also the Emergenetics profiling ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: Once again, it [happy hours] is the ability to just get to know each other by venting or by sharing special moments of your day or week that were difficult and realizing that there were other people that relate to those things because they are going through similar emotions and you cannot always talk about those things with people at work because of the politics or... So it is like the support and the strength that you gain out of those networking events or social events. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I think I already stated this before. The social networking piece, which was highly optional, and a wonderful tool for people that are really looking to build networks and get socially connected I think are a good thing and I do not think they should go away. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: there was a lot of work involved [in the projects], but we also had a project where we had to do something, and we had an end product. None of it worked out the way that we thought, but it was extremely fulfilling. We kind of bonded at the level of the sweat lodge. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I thought the camping that we had in the beginning of the program was very wonderful; it is a way for us to get to know our members in the class and also to be relationship. I thought it was nice to have the similar camping at the end of the program, that way when we know people already, and I think it would be even more memorable and a good ending that way ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: The group project was, I had a good group and we met on a regular basis ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: Another thing that I thought was very fulfilling was the Principle for a day that some of, I think we all had to do, and it really, what was interesting for me, and my background is an educator, but I had not been in the educational system I had been in corporations for the last 20 years, was I really connected to the inner city school and the Principle, it kind of surprised me. I am still doing work with her and with her staff. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32

408 Source Material: It was that time where you got to reconnect with everyone. I think building relationships and the friendships was probably the biggest thing for me, and so being able to see these people and reconnect and just bond again with those friends, that is what I looked forward to every time. In fact, more than what I was going to learn, what the issue was, it was more of getting to see the people and connecting with the people. ValueBelongingFulfillExperienceMost 32 Source Material: I really enjoyed the course; in particular I really liked the police ride along. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueBelongingSatisfyLeast 1 Source Material: see more diversity. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: the thing that I enjoyed the everybody coming together and the differences of backgrounds that all met at the same time. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I really enjoyed the Education Day, and the reason why I enjoyed the Education Day was because we got to meet a lot of good people who are currently in the education field, ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I enjoyed the retreat because we all got introduced to each other. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I agree. I think the retreat was a great start to the whole dynamic ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: The tours were good. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: One of the most valuable experiences out of it was when we were down at our leadership retreat in the beginning. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material:

409 I certainly did enjoy the relationship building ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I would say my values scored really high with belonging, ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: Then also I think just the sense of belonging and being a part of something fun and important. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: But I think that the values that it really fulfilled for me I think is a sense of belonging and also just a sense of community. That is really important to me in Valley Leadership. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I think just the opportunity to be around other people who were motivated and excited to be in Phoenix and were dedicated to Arizona and the success of Arizona and what was happening here. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: belonging ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: But just developing the relationships was one of the key fulfilling in the programs that I felt, ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I also felt that one of the key points was the developing of relationships and the diversity of the people that I met in the program. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: One of my motivations for joining the program was just another outlet and being part of something else. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: Well the first thing that I wrote down was the ability to interact with others who are on a similar mission

410 ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: Experiences that I thought were fulfilling, other than what I have heard touched on again about the relationship building, ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: it [at the sweat lodge] was a connection, ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I found the most fulfilling experiences were the opportunity to network with my peers in my community. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I am also going to say networking. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I am going to say very similar but mostly it was the opportunity to, I guess, meet people within the community and feel connected to the community at that level ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: I was going to say that the retreat was probably the most beneficial for us ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: All the happy hours. ValueBelongingSatisfyMost 24 Source Material: It was that time where you got to reconnect with everyone. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueConcernForOthers'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: sometimes the food was even spoiled]. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I just think that as an organization that is something you cannot skimp on [food, quality facilitators]. What do you think about that?

411 ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: Also, some of the tours were not particularly enlightening for me. Some of them were great. There was this one that I went to and basically the person who hosted us on the tour talked about how she did not like her boss and she was looking forward to getting out of there in the next couple of years. That was really not a good use of my time and the other folks who were on the tour. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I will just share one other thing and that was the fact the Executive Director left midstream. That was really hard for us. Things like that happen, but probably that was the most negative experience because we were headed in a direction and [Name] was really a leader of the group and once he was gone, I know they did everything they could to fill the gap, but I felt a little left at the altar. It is not about us, they are people and they have issues and things happen, I the utmost respect for [Name] and fortunately had the chance to see him recently, but I think we could have had a better experience if that would not have happened. That probably goes without saying. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I totally forgot about it, but I know it was a really big issue for some people and things do change, but it was sort of how it was handled. There was a really lack of closure. Could be a lot of resistance on the part of the leadership to help us work through that. We never saw Scott again, we never heard from him again. People sent him all these messages. I do acknowledge that really did have a negative impact on some people. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I could not connect the dots with that long list of things to look at and what I was trying to get out of the program, because I was trying to get much more of the concern for others ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: But I think it [change of presenters] tainted the year and made all of this feel as if we might not be as important because somebody would just, for want of a better term, abandon us. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I would say for my year, which was Class 28, I would think the most dissatisfying part of the experience was actually in the beginning when we had other people from other, previous classes come in and tell us that we were not being good Valley Leadership students. Like, when they came in, I do not know if other people from Class 28 can kind of remember that, but I think it kind of set a tone for us of like, we were already on our

412 way of building our own synergy as a group and what we were as Class 28. I think that sometimes maybe having other people from previous classes impose their traditions or norms that they had in their groups onto our group, I think at moments was kind of like, wait, we are not like that. So, I think that maybe a part of it is keeping each class separate and allowing each class to develop as the year goes on and not try to expect each class to be similar, but that each class will have its own personality. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I think it was dissatisfying because I do not think that there were maybe other people in our group that maybe felt like that or were not aware of that. So then, it kind of, I think having, it broke a, for me personally, I think that it kind of was like, wait, if there are other people in our class who are not having a good experience here and I think for me, it kind of bothered me, because I was like, wow, I thought everyone was having a good time. This was only program day two or three. So, it kind of set a tone of like well, give us a chance to develop as a group. I think that is the beauty of these 50 people being selected for this full year and allowing them to develop. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: Well, one, out of concern for him as a person, you did not know if he was ill or if something traumatic had happened and just because we had bonded with him at that point, to have him leave so suddenly was disheartening, for whatever reason that it was. The fact that it was never fully explained just kind of kept a real uneasy feeling about it, because it was never, well, he left for this reason or for that reason. It was just, he just had other things he wanted to do, so he left. But, the rumors kept going around and so it just kept it in motion for a while. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: One thing that kind of was interesting and kind of changed maybe some of the focus or some of the flavor of our class was the sudden departure of the Executive Director pretty early on in the year. It was never really fully disclosed why he left so abruptly. Right about the time where I think the class had moved on, at our graduation, it was brought up again. It was just awkward, because we never really had any closure to it, because a lot of us never got a chance to say goodbye or some people tried to contact him afterwards and some were successful and some were not. But it just kind of cast a cloud of uncertainty over it, because one time he was there and then the next time he was gone. It was just very quick and abrupt. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: maybe what did I do that may have discouraged or caused a person to leave. It just kind of, without having a closing, I think it leaves me with a little empty feeling, like I wish there was something that I could have done to not let that happen.

413 ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: for a lot of creative, very independent people who are very busy in their work and in their career, there was not a lot of understanding for what we do on a daily basis. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: But I guess on the flip side, I will say to that is that we did have a schedule but many days we were not on schedule because speakers ran over or the facilitators were not able to control the panels or whatever and so that was really frustrating for me because we are very busy. We have got things to do. If we have things we are trying to accomplish for the day, let us just get it done and then have scheduled opportunities for us to interact and get to know each other so that during break times it is not so exciting to have 2 minutes to get to talk to your friend. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I will also say that the program days were a lot less interactive than they should be for an organization that specializes in adult learning. They [facilitators] do not seem to know very much about the actual science of adult learning and just the program days were not structured very well given that fact. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I would say that whether there was a perceived kind of disorganization when [Name] left or many of us came to Value Leadership hoping to work with [Name] for a year and then he left suddenly; I think that added to some of the disconnect and maybe disgruntledness of some of the people who were in the program. I was personally greatly disappointed that he was not there and there was no specific leader to replace him. So often I just felt like it was not handled very well. We were not informed. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: would add to that by saying that [Name], it just seemed like he was more in it to make sure that we learned and got something out of it, not just to do the task. So, he was not concerned with who he offended. If he brought in a speaker, he was not there to rub palms with the speaker. He was there to make sure that our time was not wasted in the sense that we got what we needed out of it and we were thinking and we were questioning people and we were questioning decisions whether it be considered not

414 politically correct. He did not care. So, I think that attitude, his caring for others and his caring for insuring that we were learning was evident. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: [at the leadership retreat] the facilitator reads off a series of sort of statements or even words and what we were required to do was step in the middle of the circle if we identified with that. Anything from political issues to racial groups to sexual orientation, all these different things ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: in terms of how to make decisions and impact some of those problems and make change in our community, I really feel much better informed. For instance, we are doing an affordable housing program at the Arizona Community Foundation. Well, I learned a lot about water needs, infrastructure needs, transportation needs, electric, utility needs, so it is a complex world that we live in. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: The concern for others, I think that we really spoke to what we should do to assist the homeless and really encouraged our peers to also ask [break in tape]. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: It [the program] really gave us an overall viewpoint of, or an overall opportunity to glean additional information on major issues throughout the community. So, that was pretty important to me, and I think that comes under again concern for others ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: one of the most rewarding parts of the program was just the opportunity to discuss important social issues in learning about organizations in the Valley that work with these issues, both the issues that I was already familiar with myself and passionate about, as well as others that I was not as in touch with. I think because of the breadth of the organizations and the issues that we discussed, it really kind of broadened my view on various social issues. So, that kind of to me was an important part of the program. Honestly, part of the reason why I applied for the program was because I wanted to learn more about Phoenix and organizations and of course, meet great people that are involved.

415 I mean, that is the other thing, too, learning from the presenters and the tours and also from other people in our class, as well. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: understanding how the inequities are and kind of the thought process of what each individual person kind of goes through within that mindset. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: I learned to develop leadership skills by gaining broader knowledge and learning these skills from great leaders across the valley that the program introduced us to. In addition, the program had introduced us to different topics, such as art, technology, education, history, issues in a community, and that we are aware or have an aware of. One of the examples that I have learned from, so many things that I have learned from the program and benefit from, is visiting the homeless site and seeing how these people live their life and what we can do to help them. I think it makes us feel like very fortunate to have our life but then what we can do to help the other people's better. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: I am going to say very similar but mostly it was the opportunity to, I guess, meet people within the community and feel connected to the community at that level because you realize just how involved the people are and how they create the community that you live in but you never really get to meet those people that really influence your community like that. So, that was a first for me in Arizona since I have been here and I felt that the people were very inspirational and in meeting them and learning what they do, it helped to change my perspective but also gave me a reason for wanting to stay in Arizona for so long. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: Like the caring about people or helping people? I feel like that is one of the things that you get out of being with each other in social situations, you wind up either lending support or getting the support that you need. Okay, I am trying to think of some of the other values. I do not have them in front of me. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: I have told anyone that is in this class that I have talked to, said hey, make sure you do that sweat lodge because it is an experience that you would not forget. Like I said, the timing does not work out because obviously the work was already done before that sweat lodge, but it is kind of a neat story to think about. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material:

416 I actually felt inspired as a person. I am looking for my next line of community service work. I have always been a servant leader and served on boards in one way or another and I am interested in maybe going through some training through the Fire Department in terms of actually some of the social counseling which has to go on with emergency responses and neighborhood organizing during emergencies, and whatnot. I was professionally inspired. It gave me some insights on how to direct some of our donor's philanthropic interests to help the community in terms of the programs that they do. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: I used to run another leadership program and we used to do conceptual or theoretical group projects that we changed. We changed them from, for example, okay, let's say you are the other health organization and how would you handle BC. Then we would, the groups would come up with great ideas, but nothings really going to happen. So, we changed those to community action projects where they went out into the community and picked on their own, they picked something that they picked during the course of the program, which is a lot shorter than the course of Valley Leadership's program, that they could go out and actually approach an organization or something, an effort or something that was going on and say, "Hey, there's five or six of us, what can we do with you throughout the year to actually make a difference in what you are doing?" Then that was presented in the end. That actually has resulted in youth leadership programs, it has resulted in existing programs today that are helping the community, and I think that would be probably more rewarding. ValueConcernForOthersFulfillExperienceMost 14 Source Material: But I could contribute some of my time and energy [to the inner city school], and so that is been very fulfilling. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: I think that at times facilitation, when you are dealing with the caliber of people that are in these groups, you really cannot skimp on facilitation, and that is where [NameProgram Director] was key. You knew that if you are showing up to something and [Name] was there, that it was going to be massively facilitated and the discussion was going to move and nobody's point was going to get lost in the shuffle. It was going to be thought-provoking and critical thinking and blah, blah, blah. So, unfortunately, when [Name] left, the facilitation was not at the same standard, and even when they brought people in to facilitate that just like a wedding. If you are going to spend money on one thing, if the one thing about your wedding is your cake, you put all your money into the cake or whatever, that is thing to put your money into. It is knowing how to keep facilitating the group or if you are going to bring someone in to facilitate, hire a really good facilitator. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11

417 Source Material: I think too and I know this is going to sound like a really petty point but you also need to take really good care of your participants with the food ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: something you cannot skimp on [food, quality facilitators]. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: I will just share one other thing and that was the fact the Executive Director left midstream. That was really hard for us. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast Source Material: There was a really lack of closure. 11

ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: That is right. . .[There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled]. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: there are other people in our class who are not having a good experience here and I think for me, it kind of bothered me, ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: maybe what did I do that may have discouraged or caused a person to leave. It just kind of, without having a closing, I think it leaves me with a little empty feeling, ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: But I guess on the flip side, I will say to that is that we did have a schedule but many days we were not on schedule ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast 11 Source Material: I would say that whether there was a perceived kind of disorganization when [Name] left or many of us came to Value Leadership hoping to work with [Name] for a year and then he left suddenly; ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyLeast Source Material: 11

418 I would add to that by saying that [Name], it just seemed like he was more in it to make sure that we learned and got something out of it, not just to do the task. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: it is the whole reason why I do what I do, it is serving the community. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: concern for others, which were all high on my list. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: I think for me it was really building community and I would say that throughout the course of the year the thing that was most satisfying for me was the sense of concern for others and for our community as a group of people being concerned about our community and the other people. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: Concern for others [underprivileged kids] would be way up there too. ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: the program days were great because you learned something, ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost Source Material: concern for others 7

ValueConcernForOthersSatisfyMost 7 Source Material: For me it is the same as [Name] and [Name] as they have mentioned. But for me I learned so much from this program, __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueConcernForTheEnvironment'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceLeast 2 Source Material: I think too and I know this is going to sound like a really petty point but you also need to take really good care of your participants with the food and there were times when you are working really hard and you are having your day there, and one way that you honor your participants is by making sure that you have good food there. There were times

419 when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceLeast 2 Source Material: But our project was one that was offered by the previous head of the program, he ended up leaving the, [Name] ended up leaving the program. We kept going forward with the project, well then as the project was coming to an end, there was some disagreement among the Board of Valley Leadership and the acting director of the program about whether we should go forward with that and the tough part for us is, as [Name] said, we were full forward, 100% on this, and we had done a lot of work and committed resources from, for example, my employer and another team members employer as well, and we had done a lot of outreach only to have to pull back at the last minute. Well, if the organization wants to make decisions, I mean, that is their prerogative and that is their right but we all felt like that these were things that could of and should have been examined much earlier in the process, would have saved us a lot of work, but more important than that is just a lot of heartache and uncomfortable feelings. So, I would say that the lesson learned going forward is if you are going to ask your class to do things and there are changes, make sure that that is communicated up front and make clear the expectations. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: A great example of this was a gentlemen who was just wonderful in the group [leadership retreat circle exercise], probably in his 50's, 60's, something like that, and a veterinarian here in Phoenix, been here for years and the question came up "do you identify with Atheists?" He stepped out into the middle of the group. I thought that was just a fascinating, it just sort of blew out all of my stereotypes that I may have had of this particular gentlemen, [and stereotypes] that I may have of Atheists; for example, and as time went on, it really made me look at that particular issue in a different way. In fact, what he did at Christmas time, ironically, at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: we are doing an affordable housing program at the Arizona Community Foundation. Well, I learned a lot about water needs, infrastructure needs, transportation needs, electric, utility needs, so it is a complex world that we live in. ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: Phoenix's culture and all of the different issues that Phoenix faces, ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentFullfillExperienceMost 4

420 Source Material: understanding how the inequities are __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentSatisfyLeast 1 Source Material: I would say that the lesson learned going forward is if you are going to ask your class to do things and there are changes, make sure that that is communicated up front and make clear the expectations. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueConcernForTheEnvironmentSatisfyMost 1 Source Material: I think for me it was really building community and I would say that throughout the course of the year the thing that was most satisfying for me was the sense of concern for others and for our community as a group of people being concerned about our community and the other people. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueCreativity'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: I thought it [circle exercise] was poorly run. I thought it was it did not really have the structure it needed, as far as the definition for what the terms meant. Then on top that I just felt like it put people in boxes. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Yeah, I can definitely see [Name] point because people were visibly uncomfortable with certain things and when you are in that situation, in such a new environment I think it kind of hangs you out there as being pretty vulnerable. Not to just harp on that one exercise but if that was an exercise that people did at the end of the thing when we all kind of knew each other, it might have been a little bit better. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: The other thing that was not so fulfilling was how much time and energy we spent on the colors or the Emergenetics or whatever it was called. I think it was a useful precursor to the year but I think we all got it after a certain point, and it did not need to be so ongoing. I do not know; how do you feel about that one? ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 19

421 I thought the colors adventures thing, obviously they did an assessment, and they have done this quite a few places, but mine said that I had no red at all, which is interesting 'cause those are all the people skills. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Yeah, which I thought was odd too [some had no red at all, which are all the people skills]. Everybody else was like, "Whoa, what happened there?" I am like alright. I literally had no red, but the colors were useful but really, 9.5 hours, I do not know. I think I got it in an hour-and-a-half. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Because it [circle exercise] feels like a waste of time, I mean you are giving your time. You are away from your family in the evening or you are taking the time off work and you feel like you need to be stimulated newly and freshly every single time. So, it was kind of just like re-introducing something that we had already gone through, we already covered, and forcing you to sit through a whole 'nother iteration of it. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Some of the other tours were interesting, but I think they need to be careful about some of the tours. I made those comments on the valuation forms. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Obviously, we love this program; nobody wants to say anything bad. I am probably the only person who is going to say this. I did not find the tours that valuable, and I cannot define anything specific to it, but they felt like homework to me. There may simply have been the ones [tours] that I chose. There was some of the getting to understand the community better came out of those tours, but they felt like a task I had to sort of push my way through. It was the only part of the program that I felt that way about. It just felt like make work and maybe it is because I did not get as much out of it as I could because I know other people adored them. But if I had to say anything was unfulfilling, it was probably that. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: That is what I had written down to say. The tours were independently perhaps okay but there was no overarching strategy on how those tours coordinated with the program. For instance, on Education Day, we had the whole Education Day but there was not necessarily a tour that we specifically went and looked at a school or looked at the State Mental Hospital and the educational component within it. There was absolutely no relationship between the tours and the program. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19

422 Source Material: probably the most unfulfilling or frustrating thing to me was that and too the program, although meaningful, seemed to be being compiled at the last minute with perhaps no rhyme or reason to the overall scheduling of them. I think maybe this year they are working on a whole year's plan where maybe it will be more meaningful. But those two things really, I somewhat felt like a pinball being shot in different directions because there was no building on a foundation and moving forward with the topics at hand. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: but one thing I found a little unfulfilling was just kind of the lack of continuity in the quality of the days. I felt like some of the days were just great and really well planned and really engaging, and then some of the other days I kind of felt like I was sitting in class. I think for all of us it was a really big commitment of time, and I think I left different days feeling different levels of satisfaction about the other things I had given up to be there. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: I would say for my year, which was Class 28, I would think the most dissatisfying part of the experience was actually in the beginning when we had other people from other, previous classes come in and tell us that we were not being good Valley Leadership students. Like, when they came in, I do not know if other people from Class 28 can kind of remember that, but I think it kind of set a tone for us of like, we were already on our way of building our own synergy as a group and what we were as Class 28. I think that sometimes maybe having other people from previous classes impose their traditions or norms that they had in their groups onto our group, I think at moments was kind of like, wait, we are not like that. So, I think that maybe a part of it is keeping each class separate and allowing each class to develop as the year goes on and not try to expect each class to be similar, but that each class will have its own personality. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: This is very specific. But I do remember that our class day on immigration and the panel of individuals that were there, it was kind of a one-sided panel. But I know that that was not the intent. The people that were supposed to represent the other side did not show up. I think overall, the program in Valley Leadership, I think, the administration and the coordinators, did a really good job of trying to make the panels balanced. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: But one of the least fulfilling, if I want to label it that, the most stressful, was the project. We are all busy people, work wise, personal lives, and I do not know that that added a significant part to my experience. It added work; it added additional work to me. I felt like we were all just trying to find something to do, what was a topic we could all agree

423 upon. So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: maybe in the future to have a camping at the beginning of the program and maybe at the end of the program for at least one day or two days, something like that. That way we, I thought the program, the color instrument, about the personality, I forgot the name of it [Emergenetics]. I thought that really wonderful experience I never know about, and then I thought we should do something similar at the end of the program. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: Toward the end I think some of the topics, they, I do not know if it fizzled out for me because of the change in leadership, but I did not find them as engaging as the first ones. I do not know if anyone else felt that way, the topics, I was so excited at the beginning of the year, and then. . . ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: I am not quite sure what happened, but well we were freezing in a few of them [topics], the education one. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: I would say that I found several of the program days to be the least desirable part of the program because they did not seem relevant to the mission statement of Value Leadership. The tasks at hand seemed juvenile. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceLeast 19 Source Material: I, for one, felt like the program kind of fell apart after that. Not fell apart completely but there was not a structure. There was not like one person that was clearly in charge. There was no executive director. I was just going to say it is not inherent to the program. I mean that was the unexpected loss to Value Leadership. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: There was a very interesting exercise we did which was a circle exercise. I do not know if others have referenced that. What we had to do, again we had just met one another the same day essentially, and [at the leadership retreat] the facilitator reads off a series of sort of statements or even words and what we were required to do was step in the middle of the circle if we identified with that. Anything from political issues to racial groups to

424 sexual orientation, all these different things [at the leadership retreat while participating in the circle exercise], and it was very interesting to see what you are first impressions are of people when you first meet them and then to see when they would step out into the middle. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: Because for me it was, and again I understand this is far from perfect, Emergenetics but it is a great sort of quick hand way of evaluating situations. I have found myself using it a lot with people in the workplace since I went through the program, and so for my wife, it essentially sort of reconfirmed what I knew about her, but it is fun. We love talking about it. Now, we can both use the language of Emergenetics when we are dealing with others. Oh, well you know, your mom is green, she is a green so that explains that, or that person has a lot of red that is why, blah, blah, blah. So it has been a lot of fun. I think it is a helpful tool. But more importantly I think it's great with my wife being involved in this year's class because it sort of grows that circle that I was sort of welcomed into with our class, now that circle has doubled in size through my wife. Also for her too, that is something that she really wanted to do was develop her appreciation and understanding of all the things that were going on in the valley. Which, obviously I was able to get that out of the program too. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: being involved in arts and the theatre, 7

ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: I have to say that most of the tours I went on were amazing. I picked really institutional ones like the Fire Department, the Vet's Hospital, bigger places. So, I was very wowed by the tours. There was a whole laundry list to pick from, ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: I used to run another leadership program and we used to do conceptual or theoretical group projects that we changed. We changed them from, for example, okay, let's say you are the other health organization and how would you handle BC. Then we would, the groups would come up with great ideas, but nothings really going to happen. So, we changed those to community action projects where they went out into the community and picked on their own, they picked something that they picked during the course of the program, which is a lot shorter than the course of Valley Leadership's program, that they

425 could go out and actually approach an organization or something, an effort or something that was going on and say, "Hey, there's five or six of us, what can we do with you throughout the year to actually make a difference in what you are doing?" Then that was presented in the end. That actually has resulted in youth leadership programs, it has resulted in existing programs today that are helping the community, and I think that would be probably more rewarding. ValueCreativityFulfillExperienceMost 7 Source Material: Because I am creative and I need to be doing things that are interesting and intriguing to me. If I have heard someone speak already a couple of times within the community, or it is just, wa, wa, wa, talking heads for 7 hours when I am used to spending my day running around like a crazy person doing 50,000 things, it creates a dissidence in me that creates unhappiness. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: One of the things I did not like about the program was at the beginning, we did the circle [where you step in if you are this, and you step out if you are that], and I just did not think it was [effective]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: I agree with that [an exercise that people did at the end of the thing when we all kind of knew each other, it might have been a little bit better]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Yeah, I can definitely see [Name] point because people were visibly uncomfortable with certain things and when you are in that situation, in such a new environment I think it kind of hangs you out there as being pretty vulnerable. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: It was an odd exercise to do right in the beginning anyway. So that is one example of something that was not so fulfilling. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Oh, yeah, which is odd [some had no red at all, which are all the people skills]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Yeah [9.5 hours, I do not know. I understood the exercise in an hour-and-a-half].

426 ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Yeah [it was kind of just like re-introducing something that we had already gone through, we already covered, and forcing you to sit through a whole 'nother iteration of it]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: With this type of program [circle exercises] and with these, I do not know. I think with these types of personalities you cannot you got to keep it fresh and new every single time. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: You just need to move on at some point [and get more creative]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Yeah, [you just need to move on at some point and get more creative]. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: they [tours] maybe should have been planned out a little better. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Obviously, we love this program; nobody wants to say anything bad. I am probably the only person who is going to say this. I did not find the tours that valuable, and I cannot define anything specific to it, but they felt like homework to me. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: There was absolutely no relationship between the tours and the program. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: I would echo the first two people. There did not seem to great continuity throughout the program. We did jump around in topics, which are understandable, but it did not seem to tie together. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: But those two things really, I somewhat felt like a pinball being shot in different directions because there was no building on a foundation and moving forward with the topics at hand. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast Source Material: 21

427 Toward the end I think some of the topics, they, I do not know if it fizzled out for me ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Seems like they [topics] got a little repetitive. Did not it? ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: I am not quite sure what happened, but well we were freezing in a few of them [topics], ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: I will also say that the program days were a lot less interactive ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: Because I am creative and I need to be doing things that are interesting and intriguing to me. ValueCreativitySatisfyLeast 21 Source Material: I, for one, felt like the program kind of fell apart after that. Not fell apart completely but there was not a structure. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueCreativitySatisfyMost 5 Source Material: One of the most valuable experiences out of it was when we were down at our leadership retreat in the beginning. There was a very interesting exercise we did which was a circle exercise. ValueCreativitySatisfyMost 5 Source Material: Emergenetics but it is a great sort of quick hand way of evaluating situations. I have found myself using it a lot with people in the workplace since I went through the program, and so for my wife, it essentially sort of reconfirmed what I knew about her, but it is fun. We love talking about it. Now, we can both use the language of Emergenetics when we are dealing with others. Oh, well you know, your mom is green, she is a green so that explains that, or that person has a lot of red that is why, blah, blah, blah. So it has been a lot of fun. I think it is a helpful tool. ValueCreativitySatisfyMost 5 Source Material: I would say one of the best parts of the program was participating in the group project, and what I liked about it was that it did provide an avenue for creativity

428 ValueCreativitySatisfyMost 5 Source Material: I have to say that most of the tours I went on were amazing. ValueCreativitySatisfyMost 5 Source Material: I think, the administration and the coordinators did a really good job of trying to make the panels balanced. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueFinancialProsperity'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceLeast 3 Source Material: So, unfortunately, when [Name] left, the facilitation was not at the same standard, and even when they brought people in to facilitate that just like a wedding. If you are going to spend money on one thing, if the one thing about your wedding is your cake, you put all your money into the cake or whatever, that is thing to put your money into. It is knowing how to keep facilitating the group or if you are going to bring someone in to facilitate, hire a really good facilitator. ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceLeast 3 Source Material: There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceLeast 3 Source Material: I kept thinking I did not know how I could contribute to her school [inner city] if it was not financial, because I do not have a business that is behind to me, because it is my own business that could contribute. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceMost 2 Source Material: In particular, for my business, I have to meet with a lot of non-profits and deal with their issues that they are struggling with and trying to deliver services, and what I really appreciated was a chance to actually look at some sectors that relate to those things, ValueFinancialProsperityFulfillExperienceMost 2 Source Material: what their thought processes are, how to fund education, __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueFinancialProsperitySatisfyLeast'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency

429 No Cases contained the code 'ValueFinancialProsperitySatisfyMost'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueHealthAndActivity'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceLeast 2 Source Material: There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceLeast 2 Source Material: But one of the least fulfilling, if I want to label it that, the most stressful, was the project. We are all busy people, work wise, personal lives, and I do not know that that added a significant part to my experience. It added work; it added additional work to me. I felt like we were all just trying to find something to do, what was a topic we could all agree upon. So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: The sweat lodge, ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type of faith. When we were told to bring something for this event, we were told to bring tobacco. So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: affordable housing program at the Arizona Community Foundation. Well, I learned a lot about water needs, infrastructure needs, transportation needs, electric, utility needs,

430 ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I can add a story . . . about the sweat lodge experience. I know the time line would not add up but it is kind of something that I have thought about a lot. Prior to the sweat lodge, we had been trying to have another baby, and it had not been successful for awhile. My family, we were going to a cabin that weekend up in Prescott, and because I talked to other people who had done the sweat lodge, they said the one tour that you have to do is the sweat lodge, I told my family it was important enough that I was going to stay behind and go to the sweat lodge and then I would meet them in Prescott the next morning. So we went, and of course, those that were there that are on the phone, remember that one of the things that they talked about is a benefit of the sweat lodge is fertility, and I remembered it stuck with me, I thought, "Hey, who knows, maybe this is going to help do the trick and get us with another baby." ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I agree with him, this is [Name]. I do kind of miss it. I mean it was, I put aside that year to be able to do it, and I felt like I was back in school. I mean, so I enjoyed the days a lot. ValueHealthAndActivityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I know I echo on what both of them just said about the looking forward to it every month. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHealthAndActivitySatisfyLeast 1 Source Material: So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueHealthAndActivitySatisfyMost'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueHumility'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceLeast 1 Source Material: I thought it [circle exercise] was poorly run. I thought it was it did not really have the structure it needed, as far as the definition for what the terms meant. Then on top that I just felt like it put people in boxes. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material:

431 You know also I think humility too. Because just this concept of you need to be humble because you may have certain impressions of certain types of folks, but once you get to know them [through networking, such as participating in hayride], those stereotypes are often times destroyed. That is a good reminder that we all need to remain humble when we interact with others [Atheists]. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: I believe I was open minded but just open-minded to people that may not agree with me on some things, we may be total allies on other things. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: I got to meet him and get closer to the staff. Aside from the glitches that happened here and there, they worked so hard. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: Yeah, I mean it is a bond that you do not really believe can be created past high school or college. It is, and I think that it is just an amazing tool for growing leadership, aside from any of the program challenges or things that happened during the year, I am a far better community leader than I was before I started the program, hands down. That is because of the heart of the people that run it too; they are just amazing in their enthusiasm and their dedication. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: I know they did everything they could to fill the gap, ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: 9

432 But, for the most part, it is hard to find things to criticize because most of the work that was put into organizing and presenting the Friday sessions was all, I thought, quite good. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: I would agree with him. I think that the program is very difficult to criticize in the sense of with any other program that you do, whatever you put into it is what you get out of it. I think that when people are taking time out of their work schedule and are really dedicated to the program, [inaudible words] Valley Leadership, you have already bought into it and you really want to make it a good program. ValueHumilityFulfillExperienceMost 9 Source Material: it was kind of a one-sided panel. But I know that that was not the intent. The people that were supposed to represent the other side did not show up. I think overall, the program in Valley Leadership, I think, the administration and the coordinators, did a really good job of trying to make the panels balanced. Sometimes it worked and sometimes it did not. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueHumilitySatisfyLeast'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueHumilitySatisfyMost 1 Source Material: You know also I think humility too. Because just this concept of you need to be humble because you may have certain impressions of certain types of folks, but once you get to know them __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: Well, not having the list in front of me, ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: t is hard to narrow down to one thing. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I think that the values, and I am sorry, I do not actually have the information in front of me. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: So, I think that is all I have to say. I do not know if I answered the question completely. Is that what you were looking for?

433 ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: think as we went throughout the year, we were able to understand better what value sets people brought to the table that guided their dialogue. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I do not have the form in front of me so I am just going to kind of ad lib it, you can help me out as far as the values or what have you. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I do not have my list in front of me so I am not sure what values those were. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I do not know what value to attach to that but that is what I found fulfilling out of the experience. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I do not know [about the things you cannot skimp on]. I did not really care so much just because I knew it was what it was. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I guess for me one of the challenges and I do not where this falls, maybe you can help me figure this out, ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: A difficult question. I will go ahead and start on this one again. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: So, it is hard to criticize. I think I will let somebody else talk. Maybe somebody's got something that will jar my memory. ValueIndecisive Source Material: 19

434 I, too, find it challenging to criticize the program. I mean, obviously, there were some days that were better than others and that kind of depended on your personal view and what you were interested in. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I cannot really think of anything else. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I did think of and I do not know. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: Oh, I can think of one, and I might, it might trigger my memory when I hear what other people share. ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: So, I do not know but maybe in the future ValueIndecisive 19 Source Material: I am sorry I do not remember. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueIndependence'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: Now, I think the downside of that [being inspired during the program days] is that they do charge you up and they get you thinking and formulating but then, I wonder if there is a way to capture that and actually put it into some sort of action plan, even if it is just for yourself, after that. Does that make sense? Like how would you act on what you were just inspired to do, whether it is join the Boards and Commissions or get two groups together that need to actually sit down and meet, and it would help them very much or organize this community event. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: You sort of suspended that [privacy, independence, and judgment] when you arrived there [community and group projects], ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 8

435 I could not connect the dots with that long list of things to look at and what I was trying to get out of the program, because I was trying to get much more of the concern for others and the belonging and that interdependence. So, just running around on a tour for an hour or 4 hours, I did not get that. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: So, the dissatisfying part for me was maybe not given the opportunity to allow that to evolve on its own and having other people coming into what we were trying to develop as a group and telling us we were right or wrong in that. So, I think that was maybe just dissatisfying. It was interesting because afterwards it kind of became an inside joke to some of us, like we've got to go out and be social because we do not want to not be social. So, I think for us or for me personally, that was something that was dissatisfying, but nothing about the actual program, but just some of the other participants from other classes coming in. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: the process of it was tedious and somehow I had become the group project leader and I felt like I was not giving it 100% as a group project leader. So it was, it was conflicting because here I am the group project leader but I was not giving it 100% that I, that I in some cases could have, in some cases I was just very swamped with other things, just like all of us. So I think that took away a little bit from my experience, but we did pull it together in the end and it worked out nicely and it was a great presentation. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: Because I remember [name], and I, at many occasions, feel like we could not express our independence. We were kind of pushed here, or you have to do this at this time. It was very rigid and for a lot of creative, very independent people who are very busy in their work and in their career, there was not a lot of understanding for what we do on a daily basis. So, if we have to step out to use the phone it was very frowned upon, or if you were 2 minutes late it was kind of, you know, frowned upon again. They were also, they kind of had you combined in one room for four straight hours and you have these very scheduled breaks and so I just felt like our independence, I felt like I was back in second grade at times. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: The tasks at hand seemed juvenile. 8

ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceLeast 8 Source Material: So I was going to say to go along with that, I think that it was just the charisma that [Name] represented. He was very analytical, very thought provoking and would really make our programs day a little bit more intriguing for a lot of us. Then when he was

436 gone, he was not there to ask those questions and to get us thinking about the things in different ways. He enjoyed pushing buttons and provoking people and that was really a loss. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: So, you get to develop yourself as an individual community leader [during group work] and process some of your opinions and your takes on situations. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: Well, I just felt like I gained a lot of information about how different aspects of our community worked that I really did not have before and as a leader, in terms of how to make decisions and impact some of those problems and make change in our community, I really feel much better informed. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: Because for me it was, and again I understand this is far from perfect, Emergenetics but it is a great sort of quick hand way of evaluating situations. I have found myself using it a lot with people in the workplace since I went through the program, and so for my wife, it essentially sort of reconfirmed what I knew about her, but it is fun. We love talking about it. Now, we can both use the language of Emergenetics when we are dealing with others. Oh, well you know, your mom is green, she is a green so that explains that, or that person has a lot of red that is why, blah, blah, blah. So it has been a lot of fun. I think it is a helpful tool. But more importantly I think it's great with my wife being involved in this year's class because it sort of grows that circle that I was sort of welcomed into with our class, now that circle has doubled in size through my wife. Also for her too, that is something that she really wanted to do was develop her appreciation and understanding of all the things that were going on in the valley. Which, obviously I was able to get that out of the program too. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: gave me the opportunity to analyze my thoughts about those issues and listen to both sides, ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: it helped me establish a better understanding of how I can live my life, do work, work with customers along those areas. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material:

437 I, for me that is opened my mind to really lots of possibilities of who I can include in my life, both professionally and personally, and I think, speaking for myself, it is made me a more open-minded person, I believe I was open minded but just open-minded to people that may not agree with me on some things, we may be total allies on other things. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: I learned to develop leadership skills by gaining broader knowledge and learning these skills from great leaders across the valley that the program introduced us to. In addition, the program had introduced us to different topics, such as art, technology, education, history, issues in a community, and that we are aware or have an aware of. One of the examples that I have learned from, so many things that I have learned from the program and benefit from, is visiting the homeless site and seeing how these people live their life and what we can do to help them. I think it makes us feel like very fortunate to have our life but then what we can do to help the other people's better. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: Also the ability to provide input into discussions that may impact others. I am a facilitator as well and I guess I have enjoyed that over the past few years and I had a glimpse of what Valley Leadership was like because we've done a joint program with Valley Leadership for a few years, and so I was very excited to actually participate because I knew that I was going to be able to be involved in very interesting scenarios, projects, and basically everything that Valley Leadership has or offers, so that was very fulfilling. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: hearing other peoples viewpoints, having my own mindset stretched, because I realize as I get older I am getting more set in my ways, even being single being even more set in my ways, living my life kind of for myself, in a sense. So having myself stretched and my opinions stretched, and seeing that wow, there are a lot of different ways to look at things and I can be pretty stubborn sometimes so it was a growing experience in that regard. What I found very fulfilling though were, in addition to relationship, were the exposure to experiences. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type of faith. When we were told to bring something for this event, we were told to bring tobacco. So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will

438 never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: It is, and I think that it is just an amazing tool for growing leadership, aside from any of the program challenges or things that happened during the year, I am a far better community leader than I was before I started the program, hands down. ValueIndependenceFulfillExperienceMost12 Source Material: I found the entire, with the exception of the story I just mentioned, I found the entire class to be extremely fulfilling. It was the one thing that I looked forward to each month and I do not know about everyone else, but the weeks that we did have class, I found myself extremely productive because I was trying to tie up every single thing I could by the end of Thursday so I could be at our class fully engaged and not having to call in or check messages that way. If there was such thing as a second year of the program I would actually love to do it. I looked forward to every single thing about it. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast 6 Source Material: Because it [group work] gives you an opportunity away from the organization that you are in to stand in your own values and your own community vision, which is not something you could always do as you can attest to when you belong a larger organization. ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast Source Material: independence 6

ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast 6 Source Material: just some of the other participants from other classes coming in. ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast 6 Source Material: the process of it was tedious and somehow I had become the group project leader and I felt like I was not giving it 100% as a group project leader. ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast 6 Source Material: I think what [name] is saying is actually what I was just about to say which was the value that it goes along with. It is independence.

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ValueIndependenceSatisfyLeast 6 Source Material: I would add to that by saying that [Name], it just seemed like he was more in it to make sure that we learned and got something out of it, not just to do the task. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: Because it [group work] gives you an opportunity away from the organization that you are in to stand in your own values and your own community vision, ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: So, you get to develop yourself as an individual community leader [during group work] ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: feeling just completely inspired to do more and to, to be more active. ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost 6 Source Material: I would say one of the best parts of the program was participating in the group project, and what I liked about it was that it did provide an avenue for creativity and for independence, which are high on my list. ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost Source Material: hearing other peoples viewpoints, ValueIndependenceSatisfyMost Source Material: having my own mindset stretched 6

6

__________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueInterdependence'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceLeast 3 Source Material: Because it [circle exercise] feels like a waste of time, I mean you are giving your time. You are away from your family in the evening or you are taking the time off work and you feel like you need to be stimulated newly and freshly every single time. So, it was kind of just like re-introducing something that we had already gone through, we already covered, and forcing you to sit through a whole 'nother iteration of it. ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceLeast 3

440 Source Material: I have a son and a daughter. They are both incredibly active, even though they have grown up. I spend a lot of my time on their extra-curricular activities. For me the whole get together, the mixers, and all of that, was probably the least satisfying. I just cannot say this enough. I think it was because they were optional, I think they were good for Valley Leadership to have because there is a diverse group. The class is very diverse. They get a lot out of that. ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceLeast 3 Source Material: We are in a group of people who are looking for ways to be leaders in our community and that kind of hints at political in the way that it came down. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: how to fund education, it helped me gain perspective being a single, being a newly parent myself and who is now going to have a daughter going to school in the next 4 or 5 years, ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type of faith. When we were told to bring something for this event, we were told to bring tobacco. So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: I can add a story . . . about the sweat lodge experience. I know the time line would not add up but it is kind of something that I have thought about a lot. Prior to the sweat lodge, we had been trying to have another baby, and it had not been successful for awhile. My family, we were going to a cabin that weekend up in Prescott, and because I talked to other people who had done the sweat lodge, they said the one tour that you have to do is the sweat lodge, I told my family it was important enough that I was going to stay behind and go to the sweat lodge and then I would meet them in Prescott the next morning. So we went, and of course, those that were there that are on the phone, remember that one of the things that they talked about is a benefit of the sweat lodge is fertility, and I

441 remembered it stuck with me, I thought, "Hey, who knows, maybe this is going to help do the trick and get us with another baby." So, I went to the sweat lodge and the experience was much like [Name] and [Name] just talked about, but so the next day I go up to Prescott and meet my family for lunch and it was right when I met them we went to the restaurant, and my wife said, "Oh, here, we have something for you." I opened the gift, and it was a little Christmas ornament, because it was in December, in the shape of a baby. Basically that was her way of telling me that we were expecting. I know, like I said, the timing does not work out, but I kind of point to that as being a sign that if you have a faith, whatever that is, and you trust in that and you know that things are going to work out, things generally do. In the same, I have told anyone that is in this class that I have talked to, said hey, make sure you do that sweat lodge because it is an experience that you would not forget. Like I said, the timing does not work out because obviously the work was already done before that sweat lodge, but it is kind of a neat story to think about ValueInterdependenceLoyaltyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: But our project was one that was offered by the previous head of the program, he ended up leaving the, [Name] ended up leaving the program. We kept going forward with the project, __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueInterdependenceLoyaltySatisfyLeast 1 Source Material: they [tours] did not for me relate to the overall program or relate to any specific interdependence __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueInterdependenceLoyaltySatisfyMost'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstanding'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: You sort of suspended that [privacy, independence, and judgment] when you arrived there [community and group projects], ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: You knew that if you are showing up to something and [Name] was there, that it was going to be massively facilitated and the discussion was going to move and nobody's point was going to get lost in the shuffle. It was going to be thought-provoking and critical thinking and blah, blah, blah. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 18

442 Also, some of the tours were not particularly enlightening for me. Some of them were great. There was this one that I went to and basically the person who hosted us on the tour talked about how she did not like her boss and she was looking forward to getting out of there in the next couple of years. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: Obviously, we love this program; nobody wants to say anything bad. I am probably the only person who is going to say this. I did not find the tours that valuable, and I cannot define anything specific to it, but they felt like homework to me. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I could not connect the dots with that long list of things to look at and what I was trying to get out of the program, ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I did not glean, from the tours I learned but I did not really apply and/or it was not all that meaningful. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: That is what I had written down to say. The tours were independently perhaps okay but there was no overarching strategy on how those tours coordinated with the program. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: but one thing I found a little unfulfilling was just kind of the lack of continuity in the quality of the days. I felt like some of the days were just great and really well planned and really engaging, and then some of the other days I kind of felt like I was sitting in class. I think for all of us it was a really big commitment of time, and I think I left different days feeling different levels of satisfaction about the other things I had given up to be there. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: previous classes come in and tell us that we were not being good Valley Leadership students. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: Well, I think it was problematic in that I am curious. Just like anyone else, I wondered why and I think people sometimes tend to look in the mirror and see themselves as the cause, maybe what did I do that may have discouraged or caused a person to leave.

443 ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: But one of the least fulfilling, if I want to label it that, the most stressful, was the project. We are all busy people, work wise, personal lives, and I do not know that that added a significant part to my experience. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I am an avid reader but the books that were chosen were a little outdated and there was something that missed, for me, in the conversations about the book ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: "Rise of the Creative Class" and "Bowling Alone". "Rise of the Creative Class" was a very heavy, more demographic, more statistical analysis. It also was a little outdated. I mean, I am not sure how outdated, it gave us some good food for conversation, but I felt the conversation fell flat because it was, because the facilitation, I am not quite sure, we had a lot of questions but for some reason it made it very, I was very dissatisfied when I left that discussion and I did not go to the "Bowling Alone" discussion. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: We, I was, this is [Name] and [Name] mentioned that we were in the same group for our final project, and we would not, we do not need to go into all the details because it would be a 3 hour call. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: I guess I can provide a couple and it is more of a mea culpa kind of thing, where I did not quite, I did not finish the book and it was at a time where the job was really busy and the book was not that great to begin with, but that was just an excuse. So I do not feel that I got as much as I could have out of the book discussion, and I think there were a lot of people that did not complete the book, and I think the people that did read the book probably felt like, "Man, I did not have to read the book." ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: the process of it was tedious 18

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast 18 Source Material: They [facilitators] do not seem to know very much about the actual science of adult learning ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 18

444 So I was going to say to go along with that, I think that it was just the charisma that [Name] represented. He was very analytical, very thought provoking and would really make our programs day a little bit more intriguing for a lot of us. Then when he was gone, he was not there to ask those questions and to get us thinking about the things in different ways. He enjoyed pushing buttons and provoking people and that was really a loss. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: It was a police helicopter, and so we were actually on a police mission. So we went up in the helicopter and basically tracked some of the ground units that were on the operation that night. There was a bank robbery in Scottsdale that we responded to that was pretty interesting. It [engaging in the activity with the police] just exposed me to that aspect of policing that I had not been exposed to before. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: The program days were great; I think all the program things were good. 19

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: I just remember ideas just flying through my head when we were working on certain community topics, and I would leave [during the program days] really charged and really inspired to act on one thing or another. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: connecting the dots and maximizing opportunities for people and for organizations to further some community goals, further communications. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: Anything from political issues to racial groups to sexual orientation, all these different things [at the leadership retreat while participating in the circle exercise], and it was very interesting to see what you are first impressions are of people when you first meet them and then to see when they would step out into the middle. A great example of this was a gentlemen who was just wonderful in the group [leadership retreat circle exercise], probably in his 50's, 60's, something like that, and a veterinarian here in Phoenix, been here for years and the question came up "do you identify with Atheists?" He stepped out into the middle of the group. I thought that was just a fascinating, it just sort of blew out all of my stereotypes that I may have had of this particular gentlemen, [and stereotypes] that I may have of Atheists; for example, and as time went on, it really made me look at that particular issue in a different way. In fact, what he did at Christmas time, ironically, at Christmas time he does a hayride through the

445 Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. By the way, he almost sort of resembles Santa Claus in some ways, and I mean that in a very positive way. So, that was a really very interesting experience for me. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: In particular, for my business, I have to meet with a lot of non-profits and deal with their issues that they are struggling with and trying to deliver services, and what I really appreciated was a chance to actually look at some sectors that relate to those things, but maybe on a little bit on a different level in terms of the Fire Department, how much they do for the community, I would not have thought about that before I would have just thought they were an agency, but they do a lot of community work for homeless people, for isolated people, they do a lot of social services and it was really a great eye opener for me ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: The actual learning sessions and the tours. That is for me where the rubber met the road. I certainly did enjoy the relationship building and the creative problem solving part of it. I am maybe you know a little more advanced in my career that a lot of folks were. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: Because for me it was, and again I understand this is far from perfect, Emergenetics but it is a great sort of quick hand way of evaluating situations. I have found myself using it a lot with people in the workplace since I went through the program, and so for my wife, it essentially sort of reconfirmed what I knew about her, but it is fun. We love talking about it. Now, we can both use the language of Emergenetics when we are dealing with others. Oh, well you know, your mom is green, she is a green so that explains that, or that person has a lot of red that is why, blah, blah, blah. So it has been a lot of fun. I think it is a helpful tool. But more importantly I think it's great with my wife being involved in this year's class because it sort of grows that circle that I was sort of welcomed into with our class, now that circle has doubled in size through my wife. Also for her too, that is something that she really wanted to do was develop her appreciation and understanding of all the things that were going on in the valley. Which, obviously I was able to get that out of the program too. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: Another good experience was just listening to the issues that we discussed each month gave me the opportunity to analyze my thoughts about those issues and listen to both sides, and the analytical part of me is very high. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: 19

446 and for all the sense of community and group projects and spending all that time with another, it was a tremendously respectful program, no feeling of judgment. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: Scientific understanding, trying to see how that we can better help people [kids] in underprivileged status. I think that just like this study is doing right now, looking at what would motivate me personally to join Valley Leadership, and then after being in, what would keep me motivated and wanting to do further things after I get out. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: So I will give you an example is basically is education. Looking at everyone's backgrounds and the education and what their thought processes are, how to fund education, it helped me gain perspective being a single, being a newly parent myself and who is now going to have a daughter going to school in the next 4 or 5 years, understanding how the inequities are and kind of the thought process of what each individual person kind of goes through within that mindset. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: I really liked at our retreat, the circle thing we did where [Name] would read a statement and if we identified with it we went towards him to the degree with which we identified with it. I know that was a really helpful exercise in terms of bringing the group close almost immediately and kind of defining how we identify ourselves and looking around a sea of faces that may not seem as though we have anything in common; that kind of identified some strategic alignment amongst people in the group. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: you got to know everyone outside of their own environment and strip them away of all the things that kind of make them who they are and you really got to see who they are as a result and I say also the Emergenetics profiling, I know some people are against that but I think it helped us to not take things personally because we were about to spend a lot of time with one another on a lot of very deep topics. I think it made you realize that these people sometimes feel a certain way because of not only what they've been through by the circle that we did but also because they act out a certain way due to their profile and so what might offend me in the past did not offend me once I got an understanding of their personality and their thought process. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: I will agree with the Emergenetics piece, but I will also say that the group projects really provided an opportunity for some of us to get to know each other on deeper level. I just felt like there was not a lot of time to interact during the class days so those group projects provided that time.

447

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: Yeah, I mean it is a bond that you do not really believe can be created past high school or college. It is, and I think that it is just an amazing tool for growing leadership, aside from any of the program challenges or things that happened during the year, I am a far better community leader than I was before I started the program, hands down. That is because of the heart of the people that run it too; they are just amazing in their enthusiasm and their dedication. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: I think they [tours] were really well done. The one that just blew my socks off was the Fire Department. I learned so many things about the Fire Department and how much more they do than just what we expect them to do. I just felt incredibly informed. I actually felt inspired as a person. I am looking for my next line of community service work. I have always been a servant leader and served on boards in one way or another and I am interested in maybe going through some training through the Fire Department in terms of actually some of the social counseling which has to go on with emergency responses and neighborhood organizing during emergencies, and whatnot. I was professionally inspired. It gave me some insights on how to direct some of our donor's philanthropic interests to help the community in terms of the programs that they do. But also personally, I am thinking about what I am going to do as a citizen to help and go through some of their training. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: I used to run another leadership program and we used to do conceptual or theoretical group projects that we changed. We changed them from, for example, okay, let's say you are the other health organization and how would you handle BC. Then we would, the groups would come up with great ideas, but nothings really going to happen. So, we changed those to community action projects where they went out into the community and picked on their own, ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingFulfillExperienceMost 19 Source Material: It gave me a kind of view, a wider view of how police, through their eyes, what they look at the neighborhoods and those really what, an eye opening experience for myself just to see exactly what they go through, how they, when they pulled to somebody, the mindset of how they view people, it was just an experience I think I looked at over and over again. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast 5 Source Material:

448 Also, some of the tours were not particularly enlightening for me. Some of them were great. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: Well, I think it was problematic in that I am curious. Just like anyone else, I wondered why and I think people sometimes tend to look in the mirror and see themselves as the cause, ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast Source Material: I felt the conversation fell flat because it was, 5

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: So I do not feel that I got as much as I could have out of the book discussion, ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: I think that it was just the charisma that [Name] represented. He was very analytical, very thought provoking and would really make our programs day a little bit more intriguing for a lot of us. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: I got to ride in a helicopter, so that was kind of cool. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: The actual learning sessions and the tours. That is for me where the rubber met the road. I certainly did enjoy the relationship building and the creative problem solving part of it. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: The Emergenetics profile was very interesting to me. In fact, it was so interesting to me, it was just driving me crazy. I wanted to know what my wife was, what colors? I talked her into applying, and now, she is in the current class. Now, I know that she is yellow or blue, so I understand her a lot better now. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: Another good experience was just listening to the issues that we discussed each month ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost Source Material: 9

449 Scientific understanding, trying to see how that we can better help people [kids] in underprivileged status ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost Source Material: their thought process on how to better the community, 9

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: I really liked at our retreat, the circle thing we did where [Name] would read a statement and if we identified with it we went towards him to the degree with which we identified with it. ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost Source Material: I will agree with the Emergenetics piece, 9

ValueObjectiveAnalysisScientificUnderstandingSatisfyMost 9 Source Material: I really enjoyed the course; in particular I really liked the police ride along. __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValuePrivacy'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: You sort of suspended that [privacy, independence, and judgment] when you arrived there [community and group projects], and that is pretty critical to me. Psychologists would call it a safe haven probably. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: As I said before, we had a very mixed group, so there was very much that I was not familiar with. I did not know of hardly any of the City or County programs for helping people. I discovered I kind of lived in a pretty narrow world and it opened it up to me quite a bit and I look forward to being able to participate more in helping the people in my city in areas that I have some expertise in. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: When you work for a long time you tend to keep the same circles of people ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 11

450 in arts and the theatre, which is not something that I have done before and now that is something that I will continue and do in my life that I had not done before, and that was a good result of being in this program. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: Oftentimes when you work in a place of business, you are not necessarily surrounded by your peers in the sense of the hierarchy ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: Then on top that I just felt like it put people in boxes. It [circle exercise] made a lot of people uncomfortable because there were things that they shared or they did not share or really were uncomfortable in sharing in the first place. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: Personally, I did not like it [circle exercise] because I saw the position it put certain people in, who did not [break in tape] want to share certain things about themselves at, they did not either share, or they did share and they did not want to do it.

ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I do not know if other people from Class 28 can kind of remember that, but I think it kind of set a tone for us of like, we were already on our way of building our own synergy as a group and what we were as Class 28. I think that sometimes maybe having other people from previous classes impose their traditions or norms that they had in their groups onto our group, I think at moments was kind of like, wait, we are not like that. So, I think that maybe a part of it is keeping each class separate and allowing each class to develop as the year goes on and not try to expect each class to be similar, but that each class will have its own personality. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: But I think the least fulfilling for me really was probably the book. I am an avid reader but the books that were chosen were a little outdated and there was something that missed, for me, in the conversations about the book. I am not sure of how they were, if there were too many people, that is what I think, there were too many people in the room for a good book discussion. So, that was least fulfilling for me. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: Because I remember [name], and I, at many occasions, feel like we could not express our independence. We were kind of pushed here, or you have to do this at this time. It was very rigid and for a lot of creative, very independent people who are very busy in their

451 work and in their career, there was not a lot of understanding for what we do on a daily basis. So, if we have to step out to use the phone it was very frowned upon, or if you were 2 minutes late it was kind of, you know, frowned upon again. They were also, they kind of had you combined in one room for four straight hours and you have these very scheduled breaks and so I just felt like our independence, I felt like I was back in second grade at times. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceLeast 11 Source Material: I am used to spending my day running around like a crazy person doing 50,000 things __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: I think I was a little less about building the relationships than maybe some other folks. In particular, for my business, I have to meet with a lot of non-profits and deal with their issues that they are struggling with and trying to deliver services, and what I really appreciated was a chance to actually look at some sectors that relate to those things, but maybe on a little bit on a different level in terms of the Fire Department, how much they do for the community, I would not have thought about that before I would have just thought they were an agency, but they do a lot of community work for homeless people, for isolated people, they do a lot of social services and it was really a great eye opener for me. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: I came back to the office and I really championed a younger lady who works with me to apply. I just said you have to do this; it is the best thing for you. She really needed to build sort of those networks and gain a better understanding of our community. So, I am a big fan that way. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: One thing that kind of was interesting and kind of changed maybe some of the focus or some of the flavor of our class was the sudden departure of the Executive Director pretty early on in the year. It was never really fully disclosed why he left so abruptly. Right about the time where I think the class had moved on, at our graduation, it was brought up again. It was just awkward, because we never really had any closure to it, because a lot of us never got a chance to say goodbye or some people tried to contact him afterwards and some were successful and some were not. But it just kind of cast a cloud of uncertainty over it, because one time he was there and then the next time he was gone. It was just very quick and abrupt. ValuePrivacyFulfillExperienceMost Source Material: 4

452 Well, one, out of concern for him as a person, you did not know if he was ill or if something traumatic had happened and just because we had bonded with him at that point, to have him leave so suddenly was disheartening, for whatever reason that it was. The fact that it was never fully explained just kind of kept a real uneasy feeling about it, because it was never, well, he left for this reason or for that reason. It was just, he just had other things he wanted to do, so he left. But, the rumors kept going around and so it just kept it in motion for a while. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: I think I was a little less about building the relationships than maybe some other folks. ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast Source Material: privacy 5

ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: in arts and the theatre, which is not something that I have done before ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: Right [participants were uncomfortable sharing information in the circle exercise]. ValuePrivacySatisfyLeast 5 Source Material: But I think the least fulfilling for me really was probably the book. I am an avid reader but the books that were chosen were a little outdated and there was something that missed, for me, in the conversations about the book. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValuePrivacySatisfyMost 2 Source Material: One thing that kind of was interesting and kind of changed maybe some of the focus or some of the flavor of our class was the sudden departure of the Executive Director pretty early on in the year. It was never really fully disclosed why he left so abruptly. ValuePrivacySatisfyMost 2 Source Material: The fact that it was never fully explained just kind of kept a real uneasy feeling about it, __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueResponsibility'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16

453 Source Material: We were surprised because you did show up late [that is because of being sent to the wrong place]. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: They [police] had a map to the downtown precinct; well, it was nowhere near the downtown precinct, and I had taken the afternoon off. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: It is stuck with people, just kind of every once in a while something would get screwed and people would get crossed up as far as where they were supposed to be. But that is just something that happens on a day-to-day, it is just a day-to-day operation type of thing, but when it happens two or three times, then you have got to start looking at "Okay, what are we doing wrong here?" ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I think too and I know this is going to sound like a really petty point but you also need to take really good care of your participants with the food and there were times when you are working really hard and you are having your day there, and one way that you honor your participants is by making sure that you have good food there. There were times when it just did not feel like we were being considered that way to the point where sometimes the food was even spoiled. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I mean it is not a negative; it is just simply something that I did not plug into like others. I also have two children. Mine are 6 and 4 and I guess I did not take advantage of that the way I could have. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I will just share one other thing and that was the fact the Executive Director left midstream. That was really hard for us. Things like that happen, but probably that was the most negative experience because we were headed in a direction and [Name] was really a leader of the group and once he was gone, I know they did everything they could to fill the gap, but I felt a little left at the altar. It is not about us, they are people and they have issues and things happen, I the utmost respect for [Name] and fortunately had the chance to see him recently, but I think we could have had a better experience if that would not have happened. That probably goes without saying. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 16

454 I totally forgot about it, but I know it was a really big issue for some people and things do change, but it was sort of how it was handled. There was a really lack of closure. Could be a lot of resistance on the part of the leadership to help us work through that. We never saw Scott again, we never heard from him again. People sent him all these messages. I do acknowledge that really did have a negative impact on some people. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: they [tours] did not for me relate to the overall program or relate to any specific interdependence or fulfilling some sort of responsibility. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: The same with responsibility, for example DC Ranch, I learned about DC Ranch and that was a good experience. On the other hand it did not provide any level of achievement or responsibility to me regarding the issues at hand that we had throughout the program. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: One of the problems that I had with the year, I think we expressed it toward the end of the program anyway, was the loss of the Executive Director. It seemed that at that point the tone of the program changed a bit, and I am sure it was because there had to be new people step up and take over certain responsibilities, and that could have changed the way that we perceived the program for the rest of the year. My problem with it is in the responsibility are: I think it is important to honor your commitments and be dependable, and even though I know things happen where people have to make changes, it seemed to be an extremely disruptive problem throughout the program, and I appreciate the fact that people were able to step up and fill in and make the program happen. But I think it [change of presentors] tainted the year and made all of this feel as if we might not be as important because somebody would just, for want of a better term, abandon us.

ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: So, the dissatisfying part for me was maybe not given the opportunity to allow that to evolve on its own and having other people coming into what we were trying to develop as a group and telling us we were right or wrong in that. So, I think that was maybe just dissatisfying. It was interesting because afterwards it kind of became an inside joke to some of us, like we've got to go out and be social because we do not want to not be social. So, I think for us or for me personally, that was something that was dissatisfying, but nothing about the actual program, but just some of the other participants from other classes coming in. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast Source Material: 16

455 I would like to add to the comment about our Executive Director. I do agree that that was poorly handled. We are in a group of people who are looking for ways to be leaders in our community and that kind of hints at political in the way that it came down. I know that it affected many, many people in our class, because of the talk that went on. I think it had a negative effect on the class overall. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I guess I can provide a couple and it is more of a mea culpa kind of thing, where I did not quite, I did not finish the book and it was at a time where the job was really busy and the book was not that great to begin with, but that was just an excuse. So I do not feel that I got as much as I could have out of the book discussion, and I think there were a lot of people that did not complete the book, and I think the people that did read the book probably felt like, "Man, I did not have to read the book." ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I would say that whether there was a perceived kind of disorganization when [Name] left or many of us came to Value Leadership hoping to work with [Name] for a year and then he left suddenly; I think that added to some of the disconnect and maybe disgruntledness of some of the people who were in the program. I was personally greatly disappointed that he was not there and there was no specific leader to replace him. So often I just felt like it was not handled very well. We were not informed. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: I, for one, felt like the program kind of fell apart after that. Not fell apart completely but there was not a structure. There was not like one person that was clearly in charge. There was no executive director. I was just going to say it is not inherent to the program. I mean that was the unexpected loss to Value Leadership. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceLeast 16 Source Material: So I was going to say to go along with that, I think that it was just the charisma that [Name] represented. He was very analytical, very thought provoking and would really make our programs day a little bit more intriguing for a lot of us. Then when he was gone, he was not there to ask those questions and to get us thinking about the things in different ways. He enjoyed pushing buttons and provoking people and that was really a loss. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: Well, I do remember leaving some of the program days after learning about the different organizations in town, feeling just completely inspired to do more and to, to be more active. I just remember ideas just flying through my head when we were working on

456 certain community topics, and I would leave [during the program days] really charged and really inspired to act on one thing or another. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: what we should do to assist the homeless and really encouraged our peers to also ask [break in tape]. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: Honestly, part of the reason why I applied for the program was because I wanted to learn more about Phoenix and organizations and of course, meet great people that are involved. ValueResponsibilityFulfillExperienceMost 4 Source Material: I want to label it that, the most stressful, was the project. We are all busy people, work wise, personal lives, and I do not know that that added a significant part to my experience. It added work; it added additional work to me. I felt like we were all just trying to find something to do, what was a topic we could all agree upon. So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value. __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: Right [when something happens often, we have to ask ourselves, what are we doing wrong here]. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: I think too and I know this is going to sound like a really petty point but you also need to take really good care of your participants with the food ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: I will just share one other thing and that was the fact the Executive Director left midstream. That was really hard for us. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast Source Material: There was a really lack of closure. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast Source Material: 8

8

457 responsibility ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: y problem with it is in the responsibility are: ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: I would like to add to the comment about our Executive Director. I do agree that that was poorly handled. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyLeast 8 Source Material: I think there were a lot of people that did not complete the book, __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: responsibility ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: I would say that one of the most valuable things that I got from our experiences was seeing the programs that help teenagers and children. I guess part of that comes from a feeling of responsibility for kids that are underprivileged. So, that would be one. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: a sense of responsibility for community, ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: the responsibility to serve and be an active part of my community is what drives me and what I enjoyed about the program and those aspects of Valley Leadership. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: One of the things that I did not like or appreciate was they had sent me to the wrong place on numerous occasions, for different things. ValueResponsibilitySatisfyMost 6 Source Material: So, I do not know if that was the same across the board, but I just kind of felt like from a personal standpoint the project was not that beneficial to me. I did not gain a lot out of it other than just having more work, more pressure, put on top of me for that whole responsibility value.

458

__________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueSpirituality'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceLeast'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: A great example of this was a gentlemen who was just wonderful in the group [leadership retreat circle exercise], probably in his 50's, 60's, something like that, and a veterinarian here in Phoenix, been here for years and the question came up "do you identify with Atheists?" He stepped out into the middle of the group. I thought that was just a fascinating, it just sort of blew out all of my stereotypes that I may have had of this particular gentlemen, [and stereotypes] that I may have of Atheists; for example, and as time went on, it really made me look at that particular issue in a different way. In fact, what he did at Christmas time, ironically, at Christmas time he does a hayride through the Moon Valley area, and my family and I went on this hayride at Christmas where we drove around Moon Valley in the back of a big truck looking at Christmas lights. By the way, he almost sort of resembles Santa Claus in some ways, and I mean that in a very positive way. So, that was a really very interesting experience for me. I guess for that, what values would that fall under? Well, you know, in an odd way spirituality, because even though he [gentleman in the class exercise at the leadership retreat] was Atheist, he showed a wonderful spirit and actually very spiritual in some ways ironically. It sort of helped to change in some ways from views of spirituality, which is something that is important to me. ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I believe I was open minded but just open-minded to people that may not agree with me on some things, we may be total allies on other things. So it is, we are not all defined by Black and White, and I think this class really helped illustrate that for me.

ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I also agree with what [Name] said in that it allowed me to understand more clearly that I can have effective relationships and effective partnerships with people that are on a completely different side of the way I think maybe politically, or socially, or just in general areas that just because that one issue we may not agree on we may be able to establish effective partnerships in other areas. ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: Well, if I can explain this, for those that know me in the class know that where my faith is, I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type

459 of faith. When we were told to bring something for this event, we were told to bring tobacco. So remember being my stubborn self, I am not going to bring tobacco, why would I want to encourage them smoking. I just remember having that narrow minded mindset and I was extremely humbled when we went and it was explained to me what the tobacco was for, why we were bringing it, how significant of a gift it was to them, and what it meant to them. Then to be in the experience with them, it is a pure cleansing experience physically, emotionally, mentally, to experience that with them, the power of that, it pushed me physically, it was painful. I have not been that hot in my life. I will never forget it. I will never do it again because it was that painful, but yeah, it was very moving for me, and it was also very, it put me in my place in a sense. Made me realize that darn, I can be so stubborn and so narrow-minded, and it really opened my eyes to that. Does that make sense? ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I also went on the sweat lodge, and I will kind of coattail on that. I had experienced quite a few sweat lodges before this sweat lodge. But I felt that it was a very powerful experience because it [sweat lodge] really was the experience where you could do something that was totally on your own in a way because it was very spiritual, but on the other hand, it [at the sweat lodge] was a connection, my first connection actually, to other people in Valley Leadership. That was, I mean, it was very powerful because it connected you in a way that is so different than your ordinary let us go to lunch or I am on a certain committee with someone because you are stretched and your minds very expanded in a way where you do not know what will happen next. A: We were kind of vulnerable. A: Right. We all are, we all were and it was really the not knowing. Some of the other experiences that we had in the tours were things where maybe we each had some kind of experience, either with homeless or if we went, I went on most of them, or to the zoo, or just, it was something where you had another kind of experience so you learned something but you were not stretched to the level that you were in that. That was probably the most, one of my values was the spirituality, and so that was very exciting that they had that as part of Valley Leadership. ValueSpiritualityFulfillExperienceMost 6 Source Material: I can add a story . . . about the sweat lodge experience. I know the time line would not add up but it is kind of something that I have thought about a lot. Prior to the sweat lodge, we had been trying to have another baby, and it had not been successful for awhile. My family, we were going to a cabin that weekend up in Prescott, and because I talked to other people who had done the sweat lodge, they said the one tour that you have to do is the sweat lodge, I told my family it was important enough that I was going to stay behind and go to the sweat lodge and then I would meet them in Prescott the next morning. So we went, and of course, those that were there that are on the phone, remember that one of the things that they talked about is a benefit of the sweat lodge is fertility, and I

460 remembered it stuck with me, I thought, "Hey, who knows, maybe this is going to help do the trick and get us with another baby." So, I went to the sweat lodge and the experience was much like [Name] and [Name] just talked about, but so the next day I go up to Prescott and meet my family for lunch and it was right when I met them we went to the restaurant, and my wife said, "Oh, here, we have something for you." I opened the gift, and it was a little Christmas ornament, because it was in December, in the shape of a baby. Basically that was her way of telling me that we were expecting. I know, like I said, the timing does not work out, but I kind of point to that as being a sign that if you have a faith, whatever that is, and you trust in that and you know that things are going to work out, things generally do. In the same, I have told anyone that is in this class that I have talked to, said hey, make sure you do that sweat lodge because it is an experience that you would not forget. Like I said, the timing does not work out because obviously the work was already done before that sweat lodge, but it is kind of a neat story to think about __________________________________________________Code Frequency No Cases contained the code 'ValueSpiritualitySatisfyLeast'! __________________________________________________Code Frequency ValueSpiritualitySatisfyMost 3 Source Material: I guess for that, what values would that fall under? Well, you know, in an odd way spirituality, because even though he [gentleman in the class exercise at the leadership retreat] was Atheist, he showed a wonderful spirit and actually very spiritual in some ways ironically. It sort of helped to change in some ways from views of spirituality, which is something that is important to me. ValueSpiritualitySatisfyMost 3 Source Material: Well, if I can explain this, for those that know me in the class know that where my faith is, I am a Christian, and I went to an experience of someone that practices a different type of faith. ValueSpiritualitySatisfyMost 3 Source Material: my wife said, "Oh, here, we have something for you." I opened the gift, and it was a little Christmas ornament, because it was in December, in the shape of a baby. Basically that was her way of telling me that we were expecting. I know, like I said, the timing does not work out, but I kind of point to that as being a sign that if you have a faith, whatever that is, and you trust in that and you know that things are going to work out, things generally do.

461 Analysis by Value Achievement Achievement is fulfilled when class participants acquire new knowledge, particular concerning social issues. Learning about the arts, technology, education, history, and issues in a community (homeless) also give participants a sense of achievement. Issues concerning education are often discussed on Education Day. Learning about the techniques followed when the police encounter criminals and firefighters conduct social service work broaden class participants’ knowledge. Achievement is also fulfilled when class participants emerge as a leader during group settings and are able to make decision that impact and solve community problems. Achievement is not fulfilled when class participants cannot acquire knowledge due to unfavorable conditions created by the association members. Unfavorable conditions include listening to unqualified facilitators, consuming spoiled foods, and participating in tours that do not relate to the Valley Leadership program. Belonging Belonging is fulfilled when class participants network with other professional who have different background and experiences, which include religious orientation. Other professionals include the police, firefighters, veterans, and family members. Networking events include Education Day, program days, happy hours, retreats (leadership), and tours. Tours include the sweat lodges, zoo, state mental and veteran hospitals, campsites, and the DC Ranch. A sense of belonging tends to result in long-term friendship or relationships. Belonging is not fulfilled during some tours. Some class

462 participants become estranged when class members network with other professionals who are external constituents. Concern for the Environment Concern for the environment (Valley) is fulfilled when class participants promote equality and world peace. Networking with other associations (Arizona Community Foundation) to address the needs of communities is an avenue to establish order in a complex society. Needs include; the building affordable housing and preparing the infrastructure, transportation, electric, utility, and education systems. Participating in organized activities, such as a hayride organized by an Atheist to view Christmas décor, also promotes peace between different religion sectors. Concern for Others Concern for others is fulfilled when class participants are able to serve the community and advance the awareness of others. Concern for others arises when class participants learn about certain issues that affect the community, such as the cost of education. During retreats and tours, presenters (facilitators) lead exercises to help participants understand political, racial, environmental, and gender issues. The initiative to build affordable housing demonstrates a profound concern for the disparate communities. Concern for others is not fulfilled when members of the association compromise the education and health of class participants. Facilitators who are unqualified and focus on self do not display a concern for participants. Serving spoiled foods compromises the health of participants and displays a concern for the association to reduce costs and sustain profits. Participants also feel a sense of abandonment when association members

463 (executive director) resign without informing the participants. Concern for others may increase if association members are empathic to class participants who have formed a bond with the members. Creativity Creativity is fulfilled when class participants organize or participate in new ventures. The arts and theatre allow participants to enhance their creative skills. Organizing circle exercises at the leadership retreat allows participants to understand political, racial, gender, religious issues in a different manner. The language of emergenetics profile (colors) was designed to label participants so others can understand the knowledge-level and experience of others. The organization of hayrides is also a creativity measure that allows participants to observe the beauty of the community. Creativity extends beyond inanimate elements. One participant believes that time spent in sweat lodges increases fertility. Creativity is not fulfilled when class participants are mandated to participate in activities that are ineffective. Some participants feel that some tours, projects, and circle exercise are time consuming (up to 9.5 hr), unproductive, and do not add to the body of knowledge. Enthusiasm may be increased if (a) tours are better planned, (b) qualified facilitators who are concerned for others are hired to lead the exercises, and (c) former graduates do not criticize present class participants. Financial Prosperity Financial prosperity is fulfilled when class participants are able to link activities to profits and losses. Many non-profit businesses are struggling with issues while delivering services. Understanding the community (sectors) may help determine the

464 cause and effect of issues that arise in the business sectors. Financial prosperity also involves finding means to fund education. Financial prosperity is not fulfilled when the education and health of participants are compromised to reduce costs. Health and Activity Health and activity are fulfilled when class participants engage in activities that improve the health and appearance of the citizens and community. In addition to building affordable houses, and restructuring the transportation, electric, utility, and education systems, citizens engage in activities that improve personal health. Class participants meet in the classrooms and at sweat lodges to network, have lunch, and take part in rituals, which stimulate participants physically, emotionally, and mentally. Health and activity are not fulfilled when members of the association fail to provide a safe haven for participants. Serving spoiled foods and adding additional pressures (projects) compromise the health of class participants. Humility Humility is fulfilled when class participants are open-minded and highlight the accomplishment of other participants. The creation of a hayride to prompt community awareness fascinated other class participants. The use of tobacco products in worship ceremonies brought awareness to a class participant who practiced Christianity on how another religious sector meditates or wins souls. Humility is not fulfilled when class participants become close-minded and highlights the failure of other participants or members of the association. Recognizing the hard work and dedication that association members put into constructing the program and exercises despite the deficiencies (absentees) displays humility.

465 Independence Independence is fulfilled when class participants achieve social recognition through participants’ own values. Independence emerges when leaders learn, analyze, and implement new knowledge to solve community problems. Class leaders acquire independence when participants share their opinions and take into consideration other opinions and remain open-minded. Opinions embrace the arts, technology, education, history, and issues in the communities. Independence is not fulfilled when class participants are unable to implement their ideas and give 100% participation. Independence is compromised during group projects when a feeling of judgment arises. Interdependence (Loyalty) Interdependence is fulfilled when a class participant put the needs of the group or family above the needs of self. The Valley Leadership program gives participants insight on initiatives that helps family prepare for the future, such as the cost of education. Initiating one’s spouse into the program (class exercise) helps family members understand their position in the community. Interdependence is not fulfilled when class participants engage in unproductive activities that limit time that may be spent with family members. Through mandatory cooperatives with family members (offspring), interdependence may be increased. Objective Analysis (Scientific Understanding) Objective analysis is fulfilled when class participants engage in activities that allow understanding. “Connecting the dots” helps participants obtain a metaview of community situations. In-depth thought processes help participants understand the self, family, and community. The language of emergenetics profile also helps participants

466 analyze and form a perception of others based on the color selection. Participating in program days allows class participants to formulate creative ideas when discussing and working on projects. Participating in circle activities at leadership retreats allow participants to formulate perceptions of others that may contradict first impressions. Participating in tours allow participants to form objective analysis of professionals who perform community service, such as firefighters (social counselors) who assist homeless and isolated citizens. Participating in exercises with the police also allows class participants the opportunity to analyze the techniques used when police encounters criminals. Objective analysis is not fulfilled when class participants fail to use logical principals to understand the community, association, and behavior of self or other participants. Some participants neglect to engage in thought-provoking and critical thinking exercises because some feel their personal values are being compromised. Refraining from providing constructive criticisms and levels of satisfaction about the references (books) and deficiencies of the Valley Leadership program may also be an indicator that class participants do not enjoy conducting objective analysis. Privacy Privacy is fulfilled when class participants are able to spend time alone to reflex on community situations. A sense of belonging sometimes emerges when class participants come together and experience different situations. Once some class participants return to their environment (the office; narrow world), some participants are able to form objective analysis of the situations encountered and make decisions on the necessary resolutions to approach the situations.

467 Privacy is not fulfilled when class participants tour or become a part of mixed groups. While completing projects, the classroom is often times filled with many participants, and discussions that center on selected references are not profound. During the circle exercise, some participants are not comfortable sharing personal information with distant participants. Privacy becomes less important when participants form friendship or long-term relationships. Class participants freely share personal information after an extended period. When close constituents (executive director) depart from the Valley Leadership program with no explanation, most class participants tend to feel rejected. Responsibility Responsibility is fulfilled when class participants take on certain duties to solve community problems. Learning about Phoenix and issues surrounding the Valley has become the responsibility of class participants in the Valley Leadership program. Assisting the homeless and encouraging peers drives active community service representatives (participants). Some class participants feel that some projects lead to additional responsibilities that induce stress and resentment. Responsibility is not fulfilled when members of the association neglect the welfare of members or visitors. Members of the association fail when the Valley Leadership program does not provide a safe haven for participants, unqualified facilitators are hired, spoiled foods are served, and tours that do not relate to the program, such as the DC Ranch, are organized. Class participants neglect the community (family members) when participants do not take advantage of organized family events and projects.

468 Spirituality Spirituality is fulfilled when class participants are able to gain harmony with others who share different beliefs. Experiencing how and understanding why others (Atheists) hold certain beliefs and behave and act in certain manners (during Christmas time) may alleviate stereotypes. Techniques used in worship ceremonies are usually different in religious strings, which include Christianity. Tobacco products are used in non-Christian meditation rituals. Faith is a technique used to approach certain situations (conception of an offspring). Thus, understanding and acceptance are essential measures in diverse group settings.

469 APPENDIX O: PERMISSIONS FOR TABLES AND FIGURES

470 Permissions for Tables and Figures Permissions for Tables Table 3. Challenges to Community Leadership Program Growth

471 Permission for Figures Permission - Figure 1. Types of Study Designs and Figure 2. Forms of Data Collection in Survey Research

472 Permission - Figure 3. Comparison of Team Types and Figure 5. How Companies Grow

473 Permission Figure 4. Growth Stages of Communities of Practice


				
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Description: This case study focused on how community leadership programs can reduce the gap between the community’s leadership needs and the available supply. Citizen involvement in leadership efforts is decreasing and the need to identify, train, and transform leaders who can fulfill leadership roles in the community is increasing. Community leadership programs have arisen as one venue to reduce the gap between a community’s needs and the supply of leaders committed to supporting future community involvement. A review of the current literature revealed little research on why people join and maintain membership in community leadership programs from personal values satisfaction perspective. Corporate leadership development programs can increase effectiveness by training formal and self-leaders using company values as a base.
ilene ringler ilene ringler Principal http://www.ileneringler.com/
About Do you want to know...How to find and retain top notch employees? How to attract great customers? How you can keep your passion for your business strong every day?Ilene Ringler Associates will help you answer these questions and more with a straightforward, easy to use process based on your personal values. Dr. Ilene Ringler has over thirty years of experience in the field of business and individual growth