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									PAPER 13. DEATH IN THE MIDDLE AGES, c.1050–c.1550 Dr Carl Watkins Dr Rosemary Horrox

Death in the Middle Ages has recently become an extremely fertile area of study and debate, moving the subject away from the bland generalities of Ariès’ ‘tame death’. This course focuses on England, but draws material freely from elsewhere in Europe. Among the issues to be included are the ‘rise’ of Purgatory and its consequences, sin and confession, death rituals and the memorialisation of the dead, and the good and bad death. The course ends with a look at the dismantling of medieval beliefs about the place of the dead at the Reformation, and assesses how quickly, and how thoroughly, the changes were accepted at a parochial level. The course will thus embrace the formation and destruction of a set of beliefs and their attendant rituals. Death, and particularly attitudes to the dead themselves, is an area where it is often possible to detect a marked discrepancy between the teachings of the Church and popular belief, and one of the aims of this course is to explore that distinction and its implications. The reading list is only a selection of the material to be used. Much of the recent work on the subject is in the form of articles and this will be reflected more fully in the supplementary reading lists for individual essay topics. In addition, students will be supplied with transcripts (and, where appropriate, translations) of selected primary sources, including visions, wills, funeral accounts and chronicles. Alongside the written sources (literary as well as historical), the paper will also draw extensively on visual evidence. Reading list Sources Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, transl. H.E. Scott & C.C. Swinton Bland (2 vols, London, 1929) Jacobus de Voraigne, The Golden Legend, transl. W.G. Ryan (2 vols, Princeton, 1995) Medieval Ghost Stories, transl. A. Joynes (Woodbridge, 2001) Medieval Handbooks of Penance: a translation of the principal libri poenitentiales and selections from related documents, ed. and transl. J.T. McNeill & H.M. Gamer (New York, 1938) The Prymer or Lay Folks’ Prayer Book, ed. H. Littlehales, Early English Text Soc., original series 105 (1895), pp. 52–78 The First and Second Prayer Books of King Edward VI, ed. D. Harrison (Everyman, 1910), pp. 259–77 The Dance of Death, ed. F. Warren, Early English Text Soc., original series 181 (1931) D.W. Atkinson, The English ars moriendi (Renaissance and Baroque Studies and Texts 5, 1994) P. Easting (ed.), The Vision of the Monk of Eynsham (2003) C. Gross (ed.), Select Cases from the Coroners’ Rolls, AD 1265–1413, Selden Society 9 (1896) J. Shinners, ed. and transl., Medieval Popular Religion 1000–1500: a reader (Peterborough, Ontario, 1997) chapter 10: Death and Judgement R. Swanson, ed. and transl., Catholic England: faith, religion and observance before the Reformation (Manchester, 1993), pp. 125–47, 222–58

General P. Ariès, The Hour of Our Death (1981) P. Ariès, Western Attitudes towards Death from the Middle Ages to the Present (Baltimore, 1974) M. Aston, ‘Death’ in R. Horrox (ed.), Fifteenth-century Attitudes (Cambridge, 1994) S. Bassett (ed), Death in Towns: urban responses to the dying and the dead, 100–1600 (Leicester, 1992) N. Beriou & D.L. D’Avray (eds), Modern Questions about Medieval Sermons: essays on marriage, death, history and sanctity (Spoleto, 1994) P. Binski, Medieval Death: ritual and representation (1996) T.S.R. Boase, Death in the Middle Ages: mortality, remembrance and judgement (1972) C. Daniell, Death and Burial in Medieval England (1997) P. Geary, Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages (Cornell, 1994), pp. 32–45 A. Gurevich, Medieval Popular Culture: problems of belief and perception (Cambridge, 1988) espec. chapter 3 D.M. Hadley, Death in Medieval England (Stroud, 2001) R. Houlbrooke (ed.), Death, Ritual and Bereavement (London, 1989 P. Jupp & C. Gittings (eds), Death in England, an illustrated history (Manchester, 1999), chaps 3–5. V. Thompson, Death and Dying in Anglo-Saxon England (Woodbridge, 2004) C. Walker Bynum and P. Freedman (eds), Last Things: death and the apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Pennsylvania, 1999) Sin & Confession M.F. Braswell, The Medieval Sinner: characterization and confession in the literature of the early Middle Ages (1983) J.A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law (1995) M. Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade (1993) J. Delumeau, transl. E. Nicolson, Sin and Fear: the emergence of a Western guilt culture, 13th–18th centuries (New York, 1991) S. Hamilton, The Practice of Penance 900–1050 (Woodbridge, 2001) M. Haren, Sin and Society in Fourteenth-century England: a study of the Memoriale Presbitorum (Oxford, 2000) M. Mansfield, The Humiliation of Sinners: public penance in thirteenth-century France (Ithaca, 1995) A.J. Minnis & P. Biller (eds), Handling Sin: confession in the Middle Ages (York, 1998) A. Murray, ‘Confession before 1215’, TRHS 6th series 3 (1993) B. Poschmann, transl. F. Courtenay, Penance and Anointing of the Sick (1969) T.N. Tentler, Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation (Princeton, 1977) E. Vodola, Excommunication in the Middle Ages (1986) Heaven, Hell and Purgatory, and the Last Things P. Dinzelbacher, Vision und Visionsliteratur im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1981) G.R. Edwards, ‘Purgatory: birth or evolution?’ Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 36 (1985) R.K. Emmerson, Antichrist in the Middle Ages: a study of medieval apocalypticism, art and literature (Manchester, 1981) R.K. Emmerson & B. McGinn (eds), The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, 1992) J. le Goff, transl. A. Goldhammer, The Birth of Purgatory (1984) A. Kabir, Paradise, Death and Doomsday in Anglo-Saxon Literature (Cambridge, 2001)

S.F. Kruger, Dreaming in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1992) B. McDonnell & C.M. Lang, Heaven: a history (1988) D.D.R. Owen, The Vision of Hell: infernal journeys in French literature (Edinburgh 1970) C. Zaleski, Otherworld Journeys: accounts of near-death experience in medieval and modern times (Oxford, 1987), parts I and II Monastic Commemoration and Intercession J. Burton, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain, 1000–1300 (Cambridge, 1994) G. Constable, Cluny from the tenth to the twelfth centuries: further studies (2000) H.E.J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford, 1970) E. Cownie, Religious Patronage in Anglo-Norman England, 1066–1135 (Woodbridge, 1998) C. Harper-Bill, ‘The Piety of the Anglo-Norman Knightly Class’, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2 (1979) C. Holdsworth, The Piper and the Tune: medieval patrons and monks (Reading, 1991) P. Geary, Phantoms of Remembrance: memory and oblivion at the end of the first millennium (Princeton, 1994) M. McLaughlin, Consorting with Saints: prayer for the dead in early medieval France (Ithaca, 1994) B.H. Rosenwein, To be the Neighbour of St Peter: the social meaning of Cluny’s property, 909–1049 (1989) Ghosts and the Life of the Corpse P. Barber, Vampires, Burial and Death: folklore and reality (New Haven, 1988) C. Walker Bynum, The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200–1336 (New York, 1995) N.K. Chadwick, Norse Ghosts: a study in the draugr and the haugbui (1946) R.C. Finucane, Appearances of the Dead: a cultural history of ghosts (1982) C. Lecouteux, Fantômes et revenants au moyen âge (Paris, 1986) P. Marshall & B. Gordon (eds), The Place of the Dead (Cambridge, 2000), chaps 4–5. K. Park, ‘The life of the corpse: division and dissection in late medieval Europe’, Journal of the History of Medicine 50 (1995), 111–32 J.-C. Schmitt, transl. T.L. Fagan, Ghosts in the Middle Ages (1998) Thinking about Death N.L. Beaty, The Craft of Dying: a study of the literary tradition of the ars moriendi in England (New Haven, 1970) M. Camille, Master of Death (New Haven, 1996) J.M. Clark, The Dance of Death in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Glagow, 1950) K. Rogers Cohen, Metamorphosis of a Death Symbol: the transi tomb in the late middle ages and the renaissance (Berkeley, 1973) D. D’Avray, Death and the Prince: memorial preaching before 1350 (Oxford, 1994) A.M. Morganstern, Gothic Tombs of Kinship in France, the Low Countries and England (Pennsylvania, 2000) A. Murray, Suicide in the Middle Ages (3 vols, Oxford 1999- ) P. Tristram, Figures of Life and Death in Medieval English Literature (1976)

Death Rituals and Burial E.A.R. Brown, ‘Death and the human body in the later middle ages: the legislation of Boniface VIII on the division of the corpse’, Viator 12 (1981), 221–70 D. Crouch, ‘The culture of death in the Anglo-Norman World’, in Culture and the Twelfth- Century Renaissance, ed. C. Warren Hollister (Woodbridge, 1997) R.C. Finucane, ‘Sacred Corpse, Profane Carrion: social ideals and death rituals in the later middle ages’, in Mirrors of Mortality: studies in the social history of death, ed. J. Whaley (1981), 40–60 S.C. Humphreys & H. King (eds), Mortality and Immortality: the archaeology and anthropology of death (1981) P. Metcalfe & R. Huntingdon, Celebrations of Death: the anthropology of mortuary ritual (Cambridge, revised ed. 1991) F. Paxton, Christianizing Death: the creation of a ritual process in early medieval Europe (Ithaca, 1990) G. Rowell, The Liturgy of Christian Burial (1977) J. Woodward, The Theatre of Death: the ritual management of royal funerals in renaissance England, 1570–1625 (Woodbridge, 1997), espec. chaps 1–3 Commemoration and the late-medieval church A. Brown, Popular Piety in late medieval England: the diocese of Salisbury 1250–1550 (Oxford, 1995), chapter 4 C. Burgess, ‘“A Fond Thing vainly invented”: an essay on purgatory and pious motive in late medieval England’ in S. Wright (ed.), Parish, Church and People: local studies in lay religion, 1350–1750 (1988), pp. 56–84 S.K. Cohn, The Cult of Remembrance and the Black Death: six renaissance cities in central Italy (Baltimore, 1992) G.H. Cook, Medieval Chantries and Chantry Chapels (1947) E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: traditional religion in England 1400–1580 (New Haven, 1992) P. Lindley, Tomb Destruction and Scholarship: medieval monuments in early modern England (Donnington, 2007) J. Rosenthal, The Purchase of Paradise: the social function of aristocratic benevolence, 1307–1485 (1972) N. Saul, English Church Monuments: history and representation (Oxford, 2009) Dismantling medieval death D. Cressy, Birth, Marriage and Death: ritual, religion, and the life-cycle in Tudor and Stuart England (Oxford, 1997) C. Gittings, Death, Burial and the Individual in Early Modern England (1984) V. Harding, The Dead and the Living in Paris and London, 1500–1670 (Cambridge, 2002) R. Houlbrooke, Death, Religion and the Family in England, 1480–1750 (Oxford, 1998) P. Marshall, Beliefs and the Dead in Reformation England (Oxford, 2002) A. Kreider, English Chantries: the road to dissolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1979) K. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (1971) N. Tyacke (ed.), England’s Long Reformation, 1500–1800 (1998) R. Whiting, The Blind Devotion of the People: popular religion and the English reformation (Cambridge, 1989)

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