(Radio Frequency IDentification) Donia Malekian Winter 2006 Outline: • • • • • • • Definition How does it work? Advantages and Disadvantages Frequency & Standards Application Security Future Donia Malekian Definition • Short for radio frequency identification.The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. Donia Malekian Bar codes VS RFID Thinks barcodes and how much easier they’ve made our lives .For shoppers the checkout is faster ,for companies it is easier to control stocks. Donia Malekian how does it work? RFID tags are tiny microchips - about the size of a full stop on your computer screen - that hold a unique identifier number. They are attached to a small antenna. RFID System Components: 1. Chip: will include memory and some form of processing capability. 2. Reader: read the radio frequency and identify tags. 3. Antenna: provides the means for the integrated circuit to transmit its information to the reader. Donia Malekian Two different kind of tags: • Passive Tags: are small and cheap (about 6 pence each), get all their power from the signal sent by the reader, but only work at a range of up to five meters and require you to install an array of expensive readers (£250 - £3,000 each). • Active Tags: are larger, because they need a battery, and more expensive (about £6), but have a much wider range and can be read with fewer and cheaper readers. Disadvantage: 1. adds cost to the tag 2. run out of power eventually Note: RFID tags can be combined with sensors. which have been used to monitor the temperature of perishable goods. Other sensors that have been married with active RFID include humidity, shock/vibration, light, radiation, temperature. Frequency RFID tags and readers must be tuned into the same frequency to enable communications. 1.Low frequency:(125 to 134 KHz) 2.High frequency : (850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz). 3.Ultra High Frequency:(850 to 950 MHz) Air-interface :This is a specification for how tag and reader talk to each other. Donia Malekian Advantage & Disadvantage • Advantage: Reducing costs Automation Speed up jobs,… • Disadvantage: Security problem High cost Range of ferequensy Donia Malekian Application RFID systems can be used just about anywhere, from clothing tags to missiles to pet tags to food-anywhere that a unique identification system is needed. • • • • • • • • • Supply chain management(SCM) Passport Transportation Automotive Identification Product tracking Sport Identification(Human&Animal) Health Donia Malekian RFID App : SCM • The United States Department of Defense has successfully used active tags to reduce costs and improve supply chain for more than 15 years. • inventory systems: 1. 2. eliminating the discrepancy between inventory record and physical inventory. prevent or reduce the sources of errors. Benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labour costs. Donia Malekian RFID App:Passport • Passport: RFID tags are being used in passports issued by many countries. The first RFID passports ("e-passports") were issued by Malaysia in 1998. (thin metal lining). Donia Malekian RFID App:Transportation • • • The Moscow Metro, was the first system in Europe to introduce RFID smartcards in 1998. Taiwan the transportation system uses RFID operated cards . The Easy Card is charged at local convenience stores and metro stations, and can be used in Metro, buses, parking lots and taxis. In Singapore, the public transport network of buses and trains employs passive RFID cards. Traffic into the crowded downtown areas of the country is regulated by variable tolls imposed using an active tagging system combined with the use of stored-value cards . Donia Malekian RFID App: Automotive • Microwave RFID tags are used in long range access control for vehicles. Since the 1990's RFID tags have been used in car keys to prevent theft. Without the correct RFID, the car will not start. Starting with the 2004 model year, a Smart Key/Smart Start option became available to the Toyota Prius. Since then, Toyota has been introducing the feature on various models around the world under both the Toyota and Lexus brands, including the Toyota Avalon (2005 model year), Toyota Camry (2007 model year), and the Lexus GS (2006 model year). The driver can open the doors and start the car while the key remains in a purse or pocket. • Donia Malekian RFID App:Identification 1. Animal Identification: RFID chips for animals are extremely small devices injected via syringe under skin. Under a government initiative to control rabies, all Portuguese dogs must be RFID tagged by 2007. When scanned the tag can provide information relevant to the dog's history and its owner's information. 2. Human Identification: Donia Malekian RFID App: Human Identification – Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging are now being used in humans. An early experiment with RFID implants was conducted by British professor of who implanted a chip in his arm in 1998. Night clubs in Barcelona, Spain and in Rotterdam, to identify their VIP customers, acts as a debit account from which they can pay for drinks. – Prison – Mexican general’s altorrey office did it hurt? made of glass , the frequencies used are in the normal radio spectrum and experts currently don't predict any particular health issues. Donia Malekian RFID App: Product Tracking & Sport Product tracking: • • library book or bookstore tracking airline baggage tracking Sport: 1. Football (Ticket) 2. Ski • RFID tags provide skiers hands-free access to ski lifts , Tracking skier. Donia Malekian RFID App:Health • track a patient's location. • provide real-time tracking of the location of doctors and nurses in the hospital. • track the whereabouts of expensive and critical equipment. • control access to drugs. Donia Malekian Future of RFID • Consumer goods are unlikely to be tagged on a large scale before 2010. • civil liberties groups are concerned that much of the talk about the technology has focused on the benefits to business, rather than the implications for consumers. • "When you look at these tags, you see an interesting technology that has the potential to save money for companies ". Donia Malekian Security • In the US, retail giant Wal-Mart “razor blades” . • Security experts are warned against using RFID for authenticating people due to the risk of Identity Theft. For instance a Mafia Fraud Attack . Donia Malekian Regulation and Standardization • EPCglobal – EPCglobal is working on international standards for the use of RFID. There is no global public body that governs the frequencies used for RFID. Donia Malekian Refrences: http://news.bbc.co.uk http://www.superrfid.net http://www.rfidgazette.org http://www.wikipedia.com http://www.Rfidjournal.com http://www.rfidinc.com http://www.rfidc.com http://www.edn.com Donia Malekian Thanks Question?