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Qualitative Method

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					QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS
Khuan Wai Bing Fakulti Perniagaan dan Ekonomi

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QUALITATIVE INQUIRY AS RESEARCH DESIGN
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Qualitative inquiry focuses on meaning of social phenomena in context with little disruption of natural setting as possible. Discovery and understanding of a phenomenon from the participant’s perspective
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Interpretive Naturalistic constructivist

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INTERPRETIVE TECHNIQUES
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Describe Decode Translate

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OTHER TERMS
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naturalistic inquiry, Interpretive research Constructivist research Descriptive research Field study Participant observation Observational study Inductive research Case study Ethnography Grounded theory Phenomenological study
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Reality is constructed by individuals interacting with their social worlds. Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed. Meaning is embedded in people’s experiences. Finding meaning, not the frequency that naturally occurs in the social world

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COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
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Can quantitative and qualitative be used together? Is qualitative research scientific? Are qualitative findings generalizable? What about the researcher’s opinions, prejudices, and other biases and their effect on the data? Doesn’t the presence of the researcher change the behavior of the people being studied? Will two researchers independently studying the same setting or subjects come up with the same findings? How does qualitative differ from quantitative?
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CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

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1.FOCUS OF RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE  Nature of  Essence of things QUANTITATIVE  How much  How many

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2. GOALS OF INVESTIGATION
QUALITATIVE  Understanding  Description  Discovery  Naturalistic  Grounded  Subjective  Generate hypothesis QUANTITATIVE  Experimental  Empirical  Statistical  Theory testing  Hypothesis testing  Prediction  control
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3. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
QUALITATIVE  Flexible  Evolving  Emergent QUANTITATIVE  Predetermined  structured

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4. SETTING
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QUALITATIVE Natural familiar

QUANTITATIVE  Artificial  unfamiliar

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5. SAMPLE
QUALITATIVE  Small  Nonrandom  Theoretical  purposive QUANTITATIVE  Large  Random  representative

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6. DATA COLLECTION
QUALITATIVE  Researcher as instrument  Interviews  Observation  Documents QUANTITATIVE  Inanimate instruments  Scales  Tests  Surveys  Questionnaires  Computers
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7. MODE OF ANALYSIS
QUALITATIVE  Inductive (by researcher) QUANTITATIVE  Deductive (by statistical methods)

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8. FINDINGS
QUALITATIVE  Comprehensive  Holistic  Expansive  Richly descriptive QUANTITATIVE  Precise  Narrow  Reductionist  Numerical

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9. ACADEMIC AFFILIATIONS
QUALITATIVE  Sociology  History  Anthropology QUANTITATIVE  Sociology  Psychology  Economics  Political science

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10. RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUBJECTS
QUALITATIVE  Empathy  Emphasis on trust  Intense contact  Subject as friend QUANTITATIVE  Circumscribed  Short-term  Stay detached  Distant  Subject-researcher

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11. INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS
QUALITATIVE  Tape recorder  Transcriber  Computer  Researcher often the only instrument QUANTITATIVE  Inventories  Questionnaires  Indexes  Scales  Tests  Computers

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12. PROBLEMS
QUALITATIVE  Time consuming  Data reduction  Procedures not standardized QUANTITATIVE  Controlling other variables  Reiteration  Obtrusiveness  Validity

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Qualitative Research is designed to …
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Clarify situations and phenomena when operative variables unclear Determine why an intervention has unanticipated effects

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Qualitative Research is designed to …
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Define fresh ways to look at over familiar problems Understand how tasks, policies, roles or other systemic elements are perceived by participants Build theory, hypotheses, generalizations

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QUANTITATIVE VS QUALITATIVE TOPICS
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QUANTITATIVE The relationship between types of learning activities of adults and geographic location (rural vs urban correlational)

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QUALITATIVE How a rural location shapes the learning activities of adults

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QUANTITATIVE VS QUALITATIVE TOPICS…
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QUANTITATIVE Who continues to work after retirement and why? (Survey)

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QUALITATIVE How retirees adjust to life after work

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MAJOR TYPES OF QUALITATIVE STUDIES
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Descriptive/Basic/Generic Grounded Theory Ethnography Phenomenology Case study Narrative analysis

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SAMPLE SELECTION
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Purposeful or Purposive (not random)
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Establish criteria for selection of sites and/or participants Can suggest an approximate number Actual number of participants is determined by saturation
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QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION
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Interviews Observations Documents

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SECTIONS OF A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Marshall & Rossman, 1999)
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Introduction A discussion of related literature Design and Methodology

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SECTIONS OF A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Marshall & Rossman, 1999)
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Introduction
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Overview Topic & purpose Potential significance Framework and general research questions Limitations

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SECTIONS OF A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Marshall & Rossman, 1999)…
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Review of Literature
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Theoretical traditions Essays by informed experts Related research

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SECTIONS OF A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Marshall & Rossman, 1999)…
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Design and Methodology
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Overall approach and rationale Site or population selection The researcher’s role Data-gathering methods Data management

Data analysis procedures

Trustworthiness (validity & reliability)  Ethical considerations Appendixes
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DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
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Analysis is not the last phase in the research process – it is concurrent with data collection or cyclic The analysis process is systematic & comprehensive, but not rigid Attending to data include a reflective activity that results in a set of analytical notes that guide the process
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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS…
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Data is segmented (divided into relevant & meaningful ‘units’ but connection to the whole is maintained) Data segments are categorized according to an organizing system derived from:
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The data themselves Research questions Conceptual framework literature
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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS…
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The main intellectual tool is comparison Categories for sorting segments are tentative and preliminary in the beginning (and they remain flexible) Manipulating qualitative data during analysis is an eclectic activity, there is no one ‘right’ way The result of the analysis is some type of higher-level synthesis The usual principles of good scholarship such as honesty and ethical conduct must also be applied.

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DATA ANALYSING METHODS
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Content analysis Inductive analysis Narrative analysis Constant comparative method Ethnographic analysis Phenomenological analysis

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ANALYSIS STRATEGIES (CRESWELL, 1998)
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Read (several times) through text to get a general sense of the overall data Write summaries (notes) of text /Reduce data/Identify codes in the margin of transcripts Look closely at the following  Words used by participants  Ideas/Metaphors used Write findings in form of memos & reflective notes (sentence, short phrases, ideas or key
concepts)

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Short list tentative codes Rephrase ideas – use new words & new orders (synonyms & antonyms)
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CODING
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The core physical activities of developing analysis The process of sorting data includes
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To To To To

label separate compile organize data
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ANALYSIS STRATEGIES (CRESWELL, 1998)
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Visualize information & represent it by case, by subject or by theme - Create diagrams, tables/graphs Create initial categories (5 or 6 then expand when review again) Relate categories (expand or collapse categories) Constantly Comparing  How is X similar or different from previous instances?  How is X in this setting similar to or different from X in another setting? Talking with fellow analysts to get clear ideas Look for multiple forms of evidence to support each category Write narrative/describe
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ANALYSIZING DATA USING COMPUTER SOFTWARE: NVivo

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NVivo
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NVivo and NUD*IST (Nonnumerical, Unstructured Data Indexing, Searching and Theorizing) – developed by Tom & Lyn Richards Designed for rich text data requiring finedetail methods of analysis NVivo is to be used with Microsoft Word (rich text format)
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GETTING STARTED
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Making and designing a project
Start a project Write your document Link document to other data

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Making and managing data
Import typed-up data Browse and annotate your data Change the document’s properties Make and print a report
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3. Coding different ways
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Descriptive coding Topic coding Analytic coding Creating and managing nodes (and categories) Browsing and reviewing coded data Storing memos

4. Creating concepts and storing ideas
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5. Making and using qualitative models

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Making and Designing a Project
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When you open NVivo, the Launch Pad appears on your screen. Select Create a Project

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Select Typical. Next, give the project a name & description. Select Finish.

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Write your document
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To type an interview transcript or observation field notes straight into the document, select Create a Document. Select Make a New Blank Document

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Import typed-up data
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Select Create a Document. A Document Wizard will appear. Select Locate and import readable external file(s) which should be in rich text format. Select Next

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Locate the Ismail data set from My Documents. Select Ismail Select Open. A New Document Wizard will appear. Select Use the source file name as document and first paragraph as description. Select Finish.

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Browse and annotate your data Change the document’s properties Make and print a report

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Browsetext you wish to illustrate. Click the DataBite and annotate your data Select some
icon (a green DB) on the toolbar. Select Internal Annotation. You can type in the information. Link Your Document to Other Data Select Link to File. Click Create. Find the folder/file that you want to link to. Select Open. Now you will find that the ‘anchor’ you selected for your DataBite is green and underlined. Right mouse click or click the icon to see what is there. The file opens.

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Change the Document’s Properties
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To describe document differently by changing its existing name, in the Document Explorer, select document and click the Properties icon on the toolbar.

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Change the properties as you wish. Select OK. You can also specify the document’s icon code color. You can also indicate if you wish this document to be a memo.
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Make and Print a Report
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Select a document in the Document Explorer. From the top menu select Document. Select Make Text Report. Leave the option to have the links listed as endnotes. Click OK.

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Coding
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Descriptive coding Topic coding

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Kajian Masalah PPSMI
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Objektif/Persoalan kajian
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Apakah proses pengajaran PPSMI? Apakah masalah-masalah yang dihadapi dalam pengajaran PPSMI?

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Kajian Bagaimana Wanita Kampung Menjadi Usahawan
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Objektif/Persoalan kajian
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Apakah aktiviti pembelajaran yang telah dipelajari oleh wanita kampung dalam usaha menjadi usahawan? Apakah proses pembelajaran yang dilalui oleh wanita kampung dalam usaha menjadi usahawan?

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KRITERIA SAMPEL
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Perlu ada sekurang-kurangnya 10 orang pekerja. Perlu daftar sebagai perniagaan sah

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KATEGORI DIHASILKAN
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Pembelajaran pra-perniagaan
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Dari ahli keluarga Melalui Pemerhatian Common sense

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Pembelajaran berasaskan perniagaan
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Melalui penyelesaian masalah Demonstrasi dan model perniagaan Belajar dari orang lain
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Doing Descriptive Coding
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On the Project Pad, click Documents, then Attributes. Select Edit a Document Attribute.

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Select Attributes icon from the tool bar. To create a new attribute, type (e.g. academic qualification) and click Apply.

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From the Project Pad, select Explore all Document Attributes. To create values for this new attribute, select the attribute and click Value from the tool bar.

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Type in the values that you want e.g. BA (Hons). Click OK. You can also invert table by selecting Invert Table from the tool bar.

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Doing Topic Coding
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Topic coding is to gather all the material about a topic and coding to develop a concept or explore a theme. From the Project Pad, select Documents, then select Document Browser. Highlight the text to be coded, click In-Vivo.

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At the Project Pad, select Nodes, then select Explore Node. You can check what you did with coding.

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Type in the name of the tree node e.g. masalah istilah. At tree node, right mouse click, select Create Tree Node for the next tree node. You can rename it, click in the title and type the title that you want.

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To move the free node under the tree node, click on the free node. Right mouse click at free node e.g. masalah elektrik, black out, then select Copy, go to tree node ‘masalah kemudahan’, right mouse click, select Paste. The ‘masalah elektrik’ node appears now as a subcategory of ‘masalah kemudahan’. You will notice that the symbol has been changed indicating that there is a child node within the tree node. Double click to see the child node.
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You can also use the drag-and-drop method if you wish to move nodes around. To check what you did, click Browse a Node. Select what you have coded, click OK.

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You will see this.

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To search, select Search, next select Text.

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Click OK. Select OK again.
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On the Project Pad, click Explore Models. Make a new model, click on it, select Properties. Name it. From the toolbar, select Tools, select Add to Model, select Node.

To Create Models

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Highlight the tree node that we want, click OK.

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You will see the model. You can adjust the model.

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To remove any item from the model, right mouse click and select Remove from Model.

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To change style of the node, right mouse click, select Style, select New Style, click.

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STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
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Triangulation Member checks Adequate engagement in data collection Researcher’s position or reflexivity Peer review/examination Audit trail Rich, thick descriptions
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WRITING THE REPORT
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Forms of writing
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Storytelling (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992: narratives in ‘storytelling’ modes blur the lines between fiction, journalism & scholarly studies) Chronological approach (culture; life of an individual; evolution of a program /organization) Heavy descriptions of events Small number of ‘themes’ or perspectives Heavily oriented towards theory
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Several Writing (Rhetorical) Issues
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Audience (Colleagues? Those involved in the interviews? Policymakers? General public?) Encoding the study for an audience – a writing style that is personal, familiar, highly readable, friendly, and transport the reader into the world of study Quotes  short eye-catching quotations  Embedded quotes, briefly quoted phrases within the narrative  Longer quotes to convey more complex understandings Authorial representation

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Authorial Representation
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What is the authorial stance of the writer? The position of the writer that may have shaped the narrative includes:
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the role of the researcher his or her biases values context
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