FACT SHEET ON LATINO YOUTH EDUCATION by hqs46504

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									FACT SHEET ON
LATINO YOUTH: EDUCATION                                                                                       NOVEMBER 2002

HIGHLIGHTS                                 Background
                                           Education is a primary route to rewarding employment and economic security. It
The math scores of                         is particularly significant for the future prospects of children who are ethnic
                                           minorities, born into disadvantaged economic circumstances and/or dealing with
Latino 9 year olds rose                    language barriers. Although Latinos have made some progress in their educa-
by 4% between 1982                         tional achievements, families, schools and policy makers must continue to focus
and 1999, while reading                    on increasing and improving educational opportunities for this growing segment
scores have remained                       of the US population.
fairly steady.
                                           School Progress and Achievement                         FIGURE 1
63% of young Latino                        Math scores of young students in all racial             Math scores at age 9,
adults are high school                     and ethnic groups have improved since                   by race/ethnicity, 1982-1999
                                           the early 1980s. Between 1982 and                       250     Non-Latino White
graduates.                                 1999, the math scores of 9 year old
                                           Latinos rose by 4%, those of African
One in ten young Latino                    Americans rose by 8% and scores of non-
                                                                                                   200
adults has a college                       Latino whites rose by 7%.1 Still, the                             African American
                                                                                                                                                 Latino

degree.                                    scores of African Americans and Latinos                 150
                                                                                                         1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999
                                           continue to lag behind those of non-                    SOURCE: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.
Among Latinos, Cubans                      Latino whites; in fact, the gap between                 2002. America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2002.
                                                                                                   Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
are the most likely to                     Latinos and non-Latino whites increased
have high school diplo-                    slightly during this period (See Figure 1).1            FIGURE 2
                                           Meanwhile, the reading test scores of 9
mas and college degrees.                   year-olds have remained fairly consistent.
                                                                                                   Reading scores at age 9,
                                                                                                   by race/ethnicity, 1980-1999
                                           The scores of Latinos increased by less
High school graduation                     than 2% during this time, while the scores              250                             Non-Latino White
rates increase with                        of non-Latino whites were the same in
immigrant generation,                      1999 as they were in 1980 and African                   200
rates of college                           Americans’ reading scores decreased by
graduation do not.                         less than 2% (See Figure 2).1 These                                Latino                       African American
                                                                                                   150
                                           trends hold not just among younger stu-                       1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999
Latino high school grad-                   dents but for middle and high school stu-               SOURCE: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.
                                                                                                   2002. America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2002.
                                           dents as well.                                          Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
uates are less likely to go
to college than others.                    Educational Attainment Patterns            FIGURE 3
                                           In 2000, 63% of 25-29 year old Latinos     High school completion rates by
Latinos are more likely                    were high school graduates, compared to    race/ethnicity, 25-29 year olds,
than African Americans                     87% of African Americans and 94% of        1975-2000
                                                                                                                  Non-Latino White
and non-Latino whites to                   non-Latino whites (See Figure 3).2 These 100 PERCENTAGE
attend two-year colleges                   figures represent improvement in the past
and go to school                           25 years for both African Americans and 80                                           African American
                                           Latinos. One in ten young Latino adults 60
part-time.                                 (ages 25-29) had a college degree in
                                           2000, a proportion that has remained sta- 40               Latino
                                           ble since 1975. In comparison, college
Center for Reproductive Health             graduation rates increased from 11% to 20
Research and Policy, Department            18% for African Americans and from 23%     0
of Obstetrics, Gynecology and              to 34% for non-Latino whites during this     1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Reproductive Sciences                              2                                 SOURCE: US Census. 2000. Table A-2. http://www.census.gov/
and                                        period.                                   population/socdemo/education/tableA-2.txt

The Institute for Health Policy Studies,
University of California,
San Francisco
  FACT SHEET ON LATINO YOUTH: EDUCATION                                                                                               NOVEMBER 2002
Among Latinos, educational attainment patterns vary by national origin. Half                                       REFERENCES
(51%) of Mexican-origin adults (ages 25 and older), almost two-thirds of Puerto                                    1 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family
Rican and Central and South Americans (64%) and three-quarters (73%) of                                            Statistics. 2002. America’s Children: Key
                                                                                                                   National Indicators of Well-Being, 2002.
Cuban adults have a high school diploma.3 One-quarter of Cubans have a col-                                        Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
lege degree compared to 18% of Central and South Americans, 11% of Puerto                                          2 US Census. 2000. Table A-2. http://www.cen-
Ricans and 7% of Mexicans.4                                                                                        sus.gov/population/socdemo/education/tableA-
                                                                                                                   2.txt
High school completion rates improve      FIGURE 4                                                                 3 Therrien M, Ramirez R. 2001. The Hispanic
with each immigrant generation (See       High school & college graduation                                         Population in the United States: March 2000.
                                                                                                                   Current Population Reports, P20-535, US Census
Figure 4). Just over half (56%) of 16-24  rates by immigrant generation, 2000                                      Bureau, Washington, DC.
year old foreign-born Latinos are in        1st Generation                        High School Graduates            4 Ramirez R. 2000. The Hispanic Population in
school or have finished high school;                                        56% College Graduates                  the United States: March 1999. Current
                                                                                                                   Population Reports, P20-527, US Census Bureau,
this figure increases sharply to 80% for       9%                                                                  Washington, DC.
second generation youth and to 84%          2nd Generation
                                                                                                                   5 National Center for Education Statistics. 1999.
for third generation Latino youth.5 The                                                   80%                      Dropout Rates in the United States: 1998. (NCES
generational pattern of college com-                18%                                                            2000-022). Washington, DC: US Department of
                                                                                                                   Education.
                                            3rd Generation
pletion among adults, however, is not                                                        84%                   6 Newburger ER, Curry AE. 2000. Educational
linear (See Figure 4). About one in ten         11%                                                                Attainment in the United States (Update). Table
                                                                                                                   10. Current Population Reports, P20-536, US
(9%) foreign-born Latino adults (ages      NOTE: 1st Generation: Foreign-born child who immigrated to the US.      Census Bureau.
25-44) has a college degree, increasing   2nd Generation: US-born child with at least 1 foreign-born parent.
                                          3rd Generation: US-born child of US-born parents.                        7 Jamieson A, Curry A, Martinez G. 2001.
to 18% of second-generation Latinos.      SOURCE: Newburger ER, Curry AE. 2000. Educational Attainment in          School Enrollment in the United States – Social
                                          the United States (Update). Table 10. Current Population Reports,        and Economic Characteristics of Students:
For third generation Latino adults,       P20-536, US Census Bureau.                                               October, 1999. Current Population Reports, P20-
                                   6
however, this figure falls to 11%.                                                                                 533, US Census Bureau.



College Enrollment                         FIGURE 5
Latino high school graduates are less      Percent of 18-24 year-olds enrolled
likely to go to college than non-Latino    in college by race/ethnicity, 1999
white or African American graduates.                                                                   All
                                            Latino                               High School Graduates
Almost half (46%) of non-Latino whites                                19%
and two-fifths (39%) of African                                                           33%
Africans who graduated from high            African American
school attend college. In comparison,                                                 30%
one-third (33%) of Latino high school                                                            39%
                                            Non-Latino White
graduates go on to college (See Figure
                                                                                                 39%               Fact Sheet on Latino Youth: Education
5).7 One-fifth (19%) of Latino young                                                                      46%      One in a series of fact sheets on Latino
adults, ages 18-24, are enrolled in col-   SOURCE: Jamieson A, Curry A, Martinez G. 2001. School                   youth, 2002.
lege, as opposed to 30% of African         Enrollment in the United States – Social and Economic Characteristics
                                                                                                                   We would like to thank the Annie E. Casey
                                           of Students: October, 1999. Current Population Reports, P20-533,
Americans and four in ten (39%) non-       US Census Bureau.                                                       Foundation for funding this project.
Latino whites.7                                                                                                    Cite as: Brindis CD, Driscoll AK, Biggs MA,
Latinos who attend college are more likely than either non-Latino whites or                                        Valderrama LT. 2002. Fact Sheet on Latino
African Americans to enroll in a two-year school than a four-year institution.                                     Youth: Education. University of California,
                                                                                                                   San Francisco, Center for Reproductive
Of all 15-19 year old Latinos enrolled in college in 1999, half (51%) were in                                      Health Research and Policy, Department of
two-year schools, while 30% of non-Latino whites and 36% of African                                                Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive
American college students attended two-year institutions.7                                                         Health Sciences and the Institute for Health
                                                                                                                   Policy Studies, San Francisco, CA.
Latinos were more likely to attend college part-time than either non-Latino
whites or African Americans. Four-fifths (81%) of Latino college students, 91%
non-Latino whites and 93% of African Americans attended school full-time.
Latinos (84%) are more likely than non-Latino whites (75%) and African
Americans (79%) to attend public colleges.7

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                                                                                                                   San Francisco, CA 94118
                                                                                                                   Phone: 415.476.9813
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