Summary of key data - Germany by rrboy


									Side Effects of Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (SETREC)
The SETREC project seeks to assess the positive and negative effects of tradable renewable energy
certificates (TRECs). The project will also formulate recommendations for potential harmonised trade
regulations on an EU and national level. In that sense, it seeks to prepare the ground for a Community
framework on TREC systems.

Summary of key data - Germany
For more information please refer to the SETREC Country Digest Reports on
(All data presented in this report is from 2002 unless stated differently.
Comma’s have been used as a decimal denominator and points for thousands as in 1.000)

    Geographical data
    (Worldbank 2003)
    Total area                                   357,0 thousand km
    Population                                   82,5 million
    Density of the population                    231 (total population/total area)
    Political data
    (UNFCCC 2001)
    Government type                              Federal Republic
    Municipalities (2000)                        Federal States: 16
                                                 Land administrative districts: 32
                                                 Total districts: 440
                                                 Of these non-district cities: 117
                                                 Of these rural districts: 323
                                                 Communities: 13.854
    Economic data
    (Worldbank 2003)
    GDP (US$ billions)                           1.976,2
    GDP/head(US$/head)                           23.954 (GDP/total population
    Average annual GDP growth                    1,5 %
    Energy data (2001)
    (ENERDATA 2003)
    National primary energy                      337 Mtoe
    consumption                                  4,1 toe/head
    Breakdown (energy balance)                   Coal: 23 %
                                                 Electricity: 14%
                                                 Gas: 23 %
                                                 Oil: 40 %
    Energy independence rate                     39 %
    RES-E data
    Gross production of electricity              579,8 TWh
    (IEA 2003)
    National electricity balance                 Hydro: 4,1 %
    (XXProduction/gross production)              Nuclear: 30,0 %
    (ENERDATA 2003)
                                                 Thermal: 63,5 %
    National total electricity                   505 TWh
    (ENERDATA 2003)
    Total gross national RES-E                   Production 46.993 GWh (2002          54.400 GWh)
    generation 1 2001 and 2002                   Imports …GWh
    ( : estimated)                               Exports …GWh
    (IEA 2003)                                   Consumption … GWh
    Imports, exports and consumption are being covered in Phase II.

                                            - Summary of Key Data – Germany -
    National RES-E Production                                                    2001              2002
    breakdown                                                                  (GWh)               (GWh)
    (IEA, 2003)                                 Wind                           10.700             16.500
                                                Biomass, solid                    639                700
                                                Gas from Biomass                1.986              2.000
                                                Hydro                          23.175             26.000
                                                Pumped storage                  2.274              2.800
                                                PV                                150                200
                                                MSW Renew                       2.044              2.035
                                                Industrial Waste                6.626              5.300

    RES-E potential 2010                        RES (all sources): 174.181 GWh
    (Huber et al. 2001)                         RES (MSW, large hydro excl.): 148.241 GWh
    RES-E average costs                         Biogas:            13
    eurocent/kWh)                               Biomass:            9
    (Huber et al. 2001)                         Geothermal:         0
                                                Small Hydro:      10
                                                Large Hydro:      10
                                                Landfill Gas:       3
                                                Photovoltaics:   107
                                                Sewage Gas:         4
                                                Solarthermal:     34
                                                Wave:             20
                                                Wind on-shore:      7
                                                Wind off-shore:     9
                                                MSW:                9
    RES-E policy
    EU indicative target for 2010 2             12,5 % RES-E
    (% of electricity production)               4,5 % RES-E baseline in 1997
    (EU Renewable Directive 2001)
    Share from Current RES-E                    2001: 6,2 %
    production of Total Electricity             (2002 : 7,7%)
    Generation                                  (does not include pumped storage production)
    (IEA 2003)
    Formal RES-E national policy                -    to increase the share of the energies renewables in primary
    targets                                           consumption
    (De Vries et al. 2003)                            to 4% in 2010,
                                                      to 25% in 2030 and
                                                      to 50% in 2050
                                                -    to increase the share of renewables in the electricity production
                                                      from 5% to 10% by 2010;
                                                -    to increase the share of renewables in the electricity consumption
                                                      from 4.5% to 12.5% by 2010.

    Current policy instruments                  -    feed-in tariffs (Renewable Energy Law/Act or Erneuerbare
    (Cremer 2002)                                    Energien Gesetz: EEG)
                                                -    investment subsidies & loans (Market Incentive Program, 100.000
                                                     Roof Photovoltaic Programs, 250 MW Wind Programme)
                                                -    voluntary agreements with German industry on climate protection
                                                     and use of CHP
                                                -     Act for Preserving, Modernisation and Development of CHP
                                                      (Kraft-Wärme-Kopplungsgesetz) from 19.03.2002. Objective of
                                                      the Act is to support modernisation of existing CHP plants,
                                                      extension of new small CHP facilities and market penetration of
  As stated in Directive 2001/77/EC: ‘ The percentage contributions of RES-E in 1997 and 2010 are based on the national
production of RES-E divided by the gross national electricity consumption. In the case of internal trade of RES-E (with
recognised certification or origin registered) the calculation of these percentages will influence 2010 figures by Member State
but not the Community total.’

                                           - Summary of Key Data – Germany -
                                            fuel cells.
                                        -   Since 2000, the taxation of energy use has been increased step
                                            by step. This so called eco-tax on petroleum products, natural
                                            gas and electricity should reduce the emission of greenhouse
                                            gases, increase energy efficiency and promote the use of
                                            renewable energies.
                                        -   promotion programme (e.g. the ‘Solar-na klar!’ campaign)

TREC system available                   Several electricity companies are members of the Renewable Energy
(Öko Institut 2003)                     Certificate System (RECS). Germany is one of the twelve countries
                                        which are currently participating in a test phase involving real
                                        transactions with real money.
                                        A few certification schemes have been developed to label green
GO implementation                       Implementation of the GO requirement will be integrated into the
(REGO 2003)                             revision of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). The draft legislation
                                        was published on 14th August 2003 and is now undergoing a period
                                        of consultation within the government and concerned associations
                                        representing the electricity sector.
Disclosure                              The German government supports the idea of electricity disclosure.
(Öko Institut 2003)                     The Ministry of Economic Affairs which is in charge of the issue
                                        emphasises the need of a simple, transparent and cost effective
                                        disclosure system. The Ministry underlines the need for a European
                                        wide pragmatic and target oriented regulation.

                                        With respect to market transparency and consumer protection
                                        electricity disclosure is considered to be an essential tool to facilitate
                                        consumers to make informed choices. A disclosure system should be
                                        implemented which is reliable, credible, cost-effective, and provides a
                                        high degree of transparency. Furthermore it should be adaptable or
                                        compatible to other verification schemes which are already in place
                                        (e.g. the RECS system) or that have to be established in the longer
                                        term (e.g. the GO within the EU-Directive on the support of
                                        renewable energy sources).
Electricity market liberalisation       The liberalisation of the German electricity sector entered into force
(Öko Institut 2003, Enerdata 2003)      on 29 April 1998 through the adoption of a new revised energy law.
                                        The German law opened immediately 100 % of the market. There is
                                        no eligibility threshold. Consequently, all final consumers, all
                                        distributors and other actors are eligible customers in the sense of
                                        the Directive.
                                        Despite the eligibility only a small number of consumers have taken
                                        the opportunity to change the supplier. Following the opening of the
                                        electricity market, approximately 10 % of the large consumers and
                                        only 1 % of residential consumers changed of suppliers. Surveys
                                        show a gap between domestic customers’ willingness to change the
                                        supplier and the actual switching rates (Enerdata 2003, Öko Institut

                                        Recent studies estimate the number of distribution companies should
                                        strongly decrease in the years to come, some projections counting
                                        even on a number of about 100 distribution companies.

                                     - Summary of Key Data – Germany -

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