tenses

					Tenses
Hevi Riyanto
hevi@bahasa.web.id http://faezan.blogspot.com

Untuk mempelajari Bahasa Inggris, maka belajar tentang tenses adalah suatu keharusan. Setiap kalimat baik verbal maupun nominal dalam bahasa Inggris pasti menggunakan tenses. Oleh sebab itu, tenses merupakan pelajaran yang harus dikuasai.

Apakah Tenses itu ?
Tense : Berasal dari bahasa latin, tempus, yang berarti waktu. Tense adalah bentuk penggunaan kata kerja berdasarkan waktu terjadinya pekerjaan. Tenses adalah metode yang kita gunakan dalam berbahasa Inggris, berupa waktu lampau (past), waktu sekarang (present), atau waktu yang akan datang (future). Beberapa bahasa tidak mengenal tenses, termasuk bahasa Indonesia. Ada beberapa hal yang dibicarakan dalam tenses, yaitu :

Mood
Indicative Mood (kalimat berita) merupakan ungkapan sederhana tentang suatu kenyataan atau berita. Kalimat ini bisa berupa kalimat positif atau negative. Contoh :
• •

I like coffee. I do not like coffee.

Interrogative Mood (kalimat Tanya) merupakan kalimat pertanyaan. Contoh :
•

Why do you like coffee?

Imperative Mood (kalimat Perintah) merupakan kalimat perintah atau larangan. Contoh :
•

Sit down!

Subjunctive Mood (kalimat keinginan), merupakan kalimat yang berisi lamunan, keinginan, dan kemungkinan. Contoh :
•

The President ordered that he attend the meeting.

Voice
Voice menunjukan hubungan antara subjek dengan pekerjaannya. Active Voice (kalimat aktif), mengungkapkan bahwa subjek adalah pelaku pekerjaan. Contoh: Cats eat mice. Passive Voice (kalimat pasif), mengungkapkan bahwa subjek adalah penerima pekerjaan. Misalnya : Mice are eaten by cats.

Aspect
Aspect mengungkapkan hubungan antara pekerjaan dan waktu, baik berupa durasi maupun selesainya pekerjaan. Simple present dan simple past tidak mempunyai aspect. Kita dapat melihat aspect dalam perfect dan past tenses :
•

Pekerjaan yang sudah selesai atau masih berlanfgsung. Contoh : I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report) (Kalimat ini dinamakan perfective aspect, menggunakan perfect tenses.)

•

Pekerjaan yang sedang berlangsung atau terus menerus. Contoh We are eating. (Kalimat ini dinamakan progressive aspect, menggunakan progressive [continuous] tenses.)

Tenses dan Waktu
Contoh di bawah menunjukan bagaimana perbedaan tenses digunakan dalam waktu yang berbeda.

WAKTU TENSE Past (lampau) Present (sekarang) Future (akan datang) I leave tomorrow.

I want a coffee. Present Simple She likes coffee.

Present Continuous

I am having dinner.

I am taking my exam next month.

They are living in London. Present Perfect Simple

I have seen ET.

I have finished.

I have been playing Present Perfect Continuous We have been working for four hours. If she loved you now, she would marry you. If you came tomorrow, you would see her. tennis.

Past Simple

I finished one hour ago.

Past Continuous

I was working at 2am this morning. I had not eaten for 24 hours. We had been If I had been If I had been

Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect

Continuous

working for 3 hours.

working now, I would have missed you. Hold on. I'll do it now.

working tomorrow, I could not have agreed. I'll see you tomorrow. I will be working at 9pm tonight. I will have

Future Simple

Future Continuous

Future Perfect Simple

finished by 9pm tonight. We will have been married for ten years next month. They may be tired when you arrive

Future Perfect Continuous

because they will have been working. In 30 minutes, we will have been working for four hours.

Selain itu, ada juga kata kerja yang tidak menunjukan waktu seperti umumnya. Misalnya, kata kerja present tense yang tidak selalu menunjukan waktu sekarang. I hope it rains tomorrow. "rains" disini merupakan present simple, tetapi menunjuk pada future time (tomorrow = besok) Atau past tense tidak selalu menunjuk pada waktu lampau : If I had some money now, I could buy it. "had" merupakan kata kerja past simple tetapi menunjuk pada present time (now)

Tenses Dasar
Untuk past dan present, ada 2 tenses sederhana dan 6 tenses kompleks (menggunakan auxiliary verbs/kata bantu). Ditambah 4 tenses yang menggunakan “Modal Tenses” untuk bentuk future. Maka kita akan mendapatkan 12 tenses.

12 Tenses simple tenses past

Past

present Present Present perfect

future* future future perfect future continuous future perfect continuous

Tenses kompleks yang menggunakan kata Bantu (auxiliary verbs)

past perfect

past continuous

present continuous

past perfect continuous

present perfect continuous

Penggunaan tenses dalam bahasa Inggris memang terlihat sulit, tetapi secara struktur, sangatlah sederhana. Struktur dasar untuk kalimat aktif adalah : Subjek + Auxiliary Verb + Main Verb Auxiliary verb (kata bantu) digunakan dalam semua tenses. Dalam simple present dan simple past tenses, auxiliary verb digunakan sebagai penekanan makna kalimat, dan biasanya dihilangkan. Tabel di bawah menunjukan 12 bentuk tenses untuk kata kerja “to work” dalam bentuk kalimat aktif.

Struktur auxiliary normal simple intensif do base past participle present continuous be participle -ing present participle -ing main verb

past

present

future*

I worked I did work I had worked

I work I do work I have worked

I will work

perfect

have

I will have worked

I was working

I am working

I will be working

continuous perfect

have been

I had been working

I have been working

I will have been working

Kata will disebut juga modal auxiliary verb dan future tenses disebut juga "modal tenses".

Regular Verb (Kata Kerja Beraturan)
Tabel di bawah menunjukan tenses dasar untuk regular verb kata kerja work. Kalimat di bawah terdiri dari kalimat positif (+), negatif (-) dan interogatif atau kalimat pertanyaan (?). Struktur dasarnya adalah : positive: negative: question: + ? subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

Di bawah ini adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja yang akan digunakan :

Kata Dasar work

past worked

past participle worked

present participle -ing Working

past SIMPLE do + base verb (Kecuali future: will + base verb) ? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle I did not work Did I work? I did work I worked

present I do work I work I do not work Do I work?

future

+

I will work

I will not work Will I work? I will have worked I will not have worked Will I have worked? I will be working

+ I had worked

I have worked

-

I had not worked

I have not worked

?

Had I worked?

Have I worked?

CONTINUOUS

+ I was working

I am working

be + ing

-

I was not working

I am not working

I will not be working Will I be working? I will have been working I will not have been working Will I have been working?

?

Was I working?

Am I working?

CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing

+

I had been working I had not been working Had I been working?

I have been working I have not been working Have I been working?

-

?

Irregular Verb (Kata Kerja Tak Beraturan)
Di bawah ini adalah tenses dasar yang menggunakan kata kerja sing. Kalimat di bawah terdiri dari kalimat positif (+), negatif (-) dan interogatif atau kalimat pertanyaan (?). Struktur dasarnya adalah : positive: negative: question: + ? subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

Di bawah ini adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja yang akan digunakan :

base verb sing

past sang

past participle sung

present participle -ing Singing

past SIMPLE do + base verb (Kecuali future: will + base verb) ? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle I had not sung I did not sing Did I sing? + I did sing I sang

present I do sing I sing I do not sing Do I sing? I have sung

future I will sing

I will not sing Will I sing? I will have sung I will not have sung Will I have sung? I will be singing

+ I had sung

I have not sung

? CONTINUOUS

Had I sung?

Have I sung? I am singing

+ I was singing

be + -ing I was not singing I am not singing

I will not be singing Will I be singing? I will have been singing I will not have been singing Will I have been singing?

? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + -ing -

Was I singing?

Am I singing? I have been singing I have not been singing Have I been singing?

+ I had been singing I had not been singing Had I been singing?

?

Kata Kerja ‘Be’
Di bawah ini adalah tenses dasar yang menggunakan kata kerja be. Kalimat di bawah terdiri dari kalimat positif (+), negatif (-) dan interogatif atau kalimat pertanyaan (?). Struktur dasarnya adalah : positive: negative: question: + ? subject + auxiliary verb + main verb subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

Tetapi untuk simple past dan simple present tenses, strukturnya berbeda. positive: negative: question: + ? subject + main verb subject + main verb + not main verb + subject

Di bawah ini adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja yang akan digunakan :

base be

past simple was, were

past participle been

present participle being

present simple am, are, is

past SIMPLE present simple or past simple (except future: will + be) SIMPLE PERFECT have + been I had not been ? Was I ? I was not + I was I am

present

future I will be I will not be

I am not

Am I ?

Will I be?

+ I had been

I have been I have not been

I will have been I will not have been

?

Had I been?

Have I been? I am being I am not being Am I being? I have been being

Will I have been? I will be being I will not be being Will I be being? I will have been being

+ I was being CONTINUOUS be + being ? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + being I had not been being Had I been being? I was not being Was I being?

+ I had been being

I have not been being Have I been being?

I will not have been being Will I have been being?

?

Dari table di atas, kita dapat melihat 12 macam perubahan kata kerja be. SIMPLE I singular you he/she/it we plural you they PERFECT I singular you he/she/it past was were was were were were past had been had been had been present am are is are are are present have been have been has been future will be will be will be will be will be will be future will have been will have been will have been

we plural you they CONTINUOUS I singular you he/she/it we plural you they CONTINUOUS PERFECT

had been had been had been past was being were being was being were being were being were being past

have been have been have been present am being are being is being are being are being are being present

will have been will have been will have been future will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being will be being future will being will being will being will being will being will being have been have been have been have been have been have been

I

had been being

have been being

singular

you

had been being

have been being

he/she/it

had been being

has been being

we

had been being

have been being

plural

you

had been being

have been being

they

had been being

have been being

Penutup
Belajar tenses memang merupakan hal yang cukup sulit. Hal ini terjadi karena penggunaan kalimat pada waktu tertentu mempunyai nama istilah berbeda. Akan tetapi secara mendasar, Bahasa Inggris mempunyai struktur kalimat yang sama, sehingga jika struktur ini dikuasai dengan benar, maka kita akan sangat mudah memahami dan mempraktikan tenses dalam setiap kalimat.

Tulisan ini hanya bersifat pengenalan dan mendasar bagi yang akan mempelajari bahasa Inggris, sehingga dalam penyampaiannya terkesan dangkal dan bermanfaat. sederhana. Semoga

Referensi :
Hallan, Jack, A Scond-Step Course and Composition, 1995, Penerbit Jesstar, Bandung. http://www.englishclub.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_grammar

Biografi Singkat Penulis :
Hevi Riyanto, Lahir di Bandung - Jawa Barat, Lulusan S1 Bahasa dan Sastra Arab Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung Tahun 2003. Penulis aktif sebagai penulis sekaligus owner di www.bahasa.web.id, www.persib.net dan www.go-persib.com. Saat ini Penulis bekerja di Warnet sebagai Manajer Operasional..

Dapat dihubungi melalui : Email : hevi@bahasa.web.id YM Blog : hevi_fauzan@yahoo.com. : faezan.blogspot.com


				
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