Summary of some common food poisoning organisms Control measures for prevention of bacterial food poisoning The list below is by no means comprehensive. For further information contact your doctor or the Directorate of Environmental Health 37 Pembroke Road, W8 6PW. Telephone: 020 7341 5282 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org CAUSAL AGENT SOURCES EXAMPLES INCUBATION DURATION SYMPTOMS OF LIKELY (period of onset after eating FOODS contaminated food) Bacteria Salmonella Raw meat, Contaminated 6 to 72 hours. 1 to 7 days Diarrhoea, milk, egg, high risk More (may be vomiting, carriers, foods which commonly 12 longer) fever, pets, require no to 36 hours abdominal rodents, further pain. May lead terrapins, preparation or to secondary water, treatment infection such sewage as blood poisoning and ultimately death. Clostridium Animal and Large 8 to 22 hours, Approximately Abdominal perfringens human quantities of more often 12 12 to 48 pain, faeces, dust,high risk food to 18 hours hours diarrhoea. soil, raw such as meat and gravy, insects sauces, stews, lasagne, meat dishes,joints over 2.5kg Staphylococcus Human nose, High risk 1 to 6 hours 6 to 24 hours Abnominal aureus skin, boils, foods pain, vomiting, cuts, mouth. prostration, temperature. Vibrio Seafoods Shell fish 2 to 48 hours, 1 to 7 days Diarrhoea, parahaemolyticus most usually vomiting, 12 to 18 fever, hours. dehydration. and pain Clostridium Soil, fish, Canned 2 hours to 8 Long term. May lead to botulinum meat and foods, days. Most death following vegetables smoked fish, usually 12 to paralysis of the for example. 36 hours. nervous and respiratory system Bacillus cereus Cereals, rice, Cooked rice 1 to 5 hours 12 to 48 Vomiting and dust and soil or 8 to 16 hours or diarrhoea hours E.coli H0157 Sewage, Contaminated 10 to 72 May be as Abdominal water and cooked hours. Most long as 5 pain, raw meat products. commonly 12 days. diarrhoea, Unwashed to 24 hours. vomiting. May salad items lead to which have secondary been sprayed infection and with kidney failure. untreated sewage. Other Causes Viruses Humans Shellfish and 24 to 96 1 to 2 or more Diarrhoea, And other foods hours days. vomiting, gastroenteritis malaise, nausea and fatigue. Chemicals Galvanised Acud fruits, 10 minutes to 1 to 7 days Diarrhoea, (rare) containers, fruit drinks, 2 hours (variable vomiting, chipped stews, depending malaise, enamel, tin damaged upon metal) nausea and cans tinned food. fatigue. Red Kidney Undercooked Undercooked Very short 12 to 48 Vomiting, Beans beans kidney beans onset. hours diarrhoea, abdominal pain. Scrombotoxic Fish which Mackerel, 10 minutes to 8 hours Vomiting, fish poisoning have not tuna, sprats, 3 hours diarrhoea, been chilled sardines, abdominal properly after pilchards, pain. Flushing catching. tuna. around neck and face. Burning sensation in mouth. Shellfish Mussels and Mussels and Immediately 2 to 12 hours Paralysis or poisoning bivalves other bivalves or up to 12 diarrhoea which have hours eaten dead plankton Aflatoxicosis Aflatoxins Cereals, dried Variable Acute or Cirrhosis of the from fruits such as chronic liver, various common figs, and nuts gastrointestinal moulds disturbances Control measures for prevention of bacterial food poisoning The list below is by no means comprehensive. For further information contact your doctor or the Directorate of Environmental Health 37 Pembroke Road, W8 6PW. Telephone: 020 7341 5282 or email: email@example.com Salmonella Store chilled food below 5 degrees centigrade. Cook food thoroughly to 75 degrees centigrade, or hotter. Avoid cross-contamination especially from raw poultry. Defrost poultry correctly. Good personal hygiene. Clostriduim Perfringens Avoid cooking foods to far in advance of service. Cool pre-cooked foods within 2 hours. Properly refrigerate foods until required. Staphylococcus aureus Food handlers must avoid contaminating foods. Good personal hygiene is required. Cover wounds and cuts with waterproof dressings. Until required for service chill food. Bacillus cereus Cook rice and pasta dishes. Cool quickly. Store in a suitable refrigerator. Re-heat thoroughly (above 82 degrees C). E.coli H:0157 Avoid cross contamination from raw meat to cooked foods. Cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef.
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