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The Story of the Hundred-Dollar Laptop by rrboy


									The Story of the Hundred-Dollar Laptop

     Presented by Tiffany Tong and Sibren Isaacman
                  Global Development Network Meeting
                                  Princeton University
                                        April 11, 2008

     One Laptop
      Per Child

• Non-profit Organization

• Founded by Nicholas Negroponte
  – Chairman Emeritus of MIT’s Media Lab

• Laptops commonly referred to as:
  XO | $100 Laptop | The ‘Green Monster’
        The OLPC Mission:

  Provide laptops as a means to empower the
  nearly 2 billion children in the developing
 world who receive little to no education and
help close the digital divide before it’s too late.

Five Principles of OLPC:
•   Ownership
•   Target: Youth
    The hardware and software are designed
    for elementary school children aged 6-
•   Saturation
•   Connection
•   Free and open source software
“This is not just a matter of giving a laptop to each child, as if
                      bestowing on them some magical charm.

         The magic lies within - within each child, within each
       scientist-, scholar-, or just-plain-citizen-in-the-making.

  This initiative is meant to bring it forth into the light of day”

                                         ~ Kofi Annan | WSIS, 2005.

An Idea is Born…
• April, 2002
  Negroponte goes to a remote village in Cambodia, bearing
  laptops to connect 20 children. He would return a year later,
  with another 20 laptops.

• January, 2005
  Negroponte comes up with an idea for an affordable laptop for
  children living in poverty. He emails his friend, Hector Ruiz,
  CEO of AMD.

  Six hours later, Ruiz replies: Count us in…

  Within weeks, News Corp. and Google also join as founding
  members of the newly formed program, One Laptop per Child.
Getting the Name Out…
• January, 2005 | Davos, Switzerland
  Negroponte presents his idea (and a very rudimentary
  prototype) for a $100 laptop at the World Economic
  Forum in Davos, Switzerland

• November, 2005 | Tunis, Tunisia
  The ‘green machine’ is next presented at the World
  Symposium on the Information Society, with the
  support of Kofi Annan. The event is covered by the
  international press.

  Two weeks later, Nigeria’s Obasanjo is the first to
  commit his country to 1 million units.
• January, 2006 | World Economic Forum (Again)
  A Memo of Understanding (MOU) is signed with UNDP:
  UNDP will serve as OLPC's ground force in many of the 166
  countries in which it has offices, assisting with everything
  from communications with ministries to logistics for school

  The planned 1st Generation launch proposes a target of 5–10
  million laptops in large countries or regions.

    Meanwhile, deals and commitments continue to be made by
          various governments and heads of state…

OLPC generates much initial
• Africa
   – Rwanda, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia
• Americas
   – Haiti, Mexico, Peru, US (Alabama), Uruguay, Brazil, Suriname,
     Argentina, Costa Rica, Dominican republic
• Asia
   – Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mongolia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Phillippines,
• Europe
   – Greece
• Middle East
   – Iraq

  BUT: A lot of these are simply ‘Memorandums of Understanding’…

                                                         … NOT contracts!
Evolution of Design

                                          Blue e-Book

  Yellow Pivoting Laptop

                           Green Hand-cranked Laptop    10
Some of the key features
• Durable: Rugged, no moving parts, waterproof

• Internet Connectivity: Each laptop creates its own
  mesh, acting as a router

• Can also be solar or ‘foot’ powered: Cranks, yo-yo,
  or rip-cord power supply available

• 433 MHz, 1GB flash memory, Linux open-source
  operating system
Environmental Friendliness and
• In addition to hand crank and solar power alternatives, the XO
  has a 12V power socket that functions with any power
  generation system that can charge a 12V car battery.

• The XO's lithium-iron-phosphorus battery contains no toxic
  heavy metals.

• The screen backlight uses LEDs rather than fluorescents, and
  so contains no mercury.

• The plastic parts can be completely dismantled with a #1
  Phillips screwdriver and separated by color for recycling rather
  than downcycling.
BUT… (the criticisms)…
• Is the price really so special?

• Some see it as a glorified ‘gadget’

• Some criticize the notion of governments giving these laptops
  away for free

• Others see it as a top-down, centralized, and ‘imperialistic’
  attempt to solve ‘third-world’ problems with a ‘first world’

• And still others point to more immediately pressing problems
  such as access to clean drinking water or even more agrarian-
  based solutions
Obstacles at the 11th hour
• OLPC suddenly found itself facing competition
   – Intel announced the Classmate PC, a low-cost and
     scaled-down version of a standard laptop
      • Intel managed to strike deals with many of the same countries
        that OLPC had already received commitments from
      • In July, 2007, OLPC managed to get Intel to join the team… but
        this ended up being short-lived and in Jan, 2008, the deal ended.
                                                  Source: BBCNews

• Price
   – $100 target no longer attainable
     Now: $188

Dilemma: How to boost sales?
• Countries were backing out of commitments.
    Competition was looming.
          OLPC needed a strong showing to
          regain credibility.

• Proposal:
  Give One Get One (G1G1) Campaign for the
  holiday season (Nov. 12 - Dec. 31, 2007):
  Can purchase two laptops for $400, receiving
  one and donating the other
          November, 2007 | China
      Mass production of XOs begins…

  December, 2007 | Let the Learning Begin!
Schoolchildren across the globe finally receive
                their laptops.

  So far, over 500,000 laptops have been
distributed to children in developing regions.
[OLPC debut in Abuja, Nigeria ]

Distribution to date:

       Confirmed number (approximate)                                Purchaser
                      100,000                                        Uruguay
                       15,000                             USA, City of Birmingham (Ala)
                      270,000                                          Peru
                       50,000                          Mexico, Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim
167,000 (half to be distributed to developing world)     "Give One, Get One" program
                   Total: 602000

It’s Your Turn To Decide!
• Get in the mind of a 10-year old…
  – How easy is it to use?
     • Does it capture your imagination?
        – Is it a nifty device or an oversized paperweight?
             » Why would you want to use this?

• Get in the mind of a future innovator…
  – What are the key issues to keep in mind when
    designing products targeting developing regions?
     • What are the key problems to solve?
        – How much would or should politics affect these projects?
            » What would you have done differently?

• Leave a comment on the OLPC wiki…

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