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					Social Marketing in the Fight against Increasing Smoking Rates
Perspectives in Developing Countries

By Anahit Armenakyan, Judith Madill, and Louise A. Heslop

Oppressive Truth from WHO
Approximately 5.4 million people die annually from tobaccorelated illnesses • 90% of all lung cancer • 75% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema 250 million women are daily smokers (22% in developed and 9% in developing countries) Every day about 80,000-100,000 young people around the world become addicted to tobacco • 80% of smokers starts smoking as teenagers

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WHO’s Epidemic Model_1
Stage I
70

Stage II
% male smokers

Stage III

Stage IV % deaths caused by smoking

% smokers among adults

60 50 40 30 20 10

30

% female smokers
20

% male deaths

10

% female deaths

20

40

Year
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60

80

100

Source: Lopez et. al (1994) A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries.
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WHO’s Epidemic Model_2
Stage I • Sub-Saharan Africa Stage II • China, Japan, Southeast Asia, Latin America, North Africa Stage III • Eastern and Southern Europe, Latin America Stage IV • Western Europe, UK, USA, Canada, Australia

Source: Lopez et. al (1994) A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries.
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Smoking and Its Motivations
Main Approaches Motives •Psychological •Social Psychology •Personality Related •Learning Theory •Sensorimotor •Indulgent •Stimulation •Sedation •Dependent •Automatic
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Current Situation: Developing Countries
Rapidly increasing rates of smoking • Tobacco expenditure per family represents up to 10% of total household expenditures Increasing body of research on attitudes towards smoking and risk-perception • Some awareness of tobacco-related illnesses • Increasing rates of smoking among women • Awareness among heavy smokers – a range of attitude, risk-perception, and willingness to quit • Positive attitudes towards anti-smoking programs among light-smokers Weak or low governmental regulation

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Social Marketing
SM is an adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to programs designed to influence voluntary behavior of target audience to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a part. (Andreasen, 1994) Key Characteristics of SM program • Behavior change is the benchmark to design and evaluation • Audience research to asses the need of the target-group • Segmentation • Intervention strategies • An attempt to apply 4Ps • Competitor monitoring (Andreasen, 2002)
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Behavior Management
Education Attempts to inform/persuade without enforcing Marketing Attempts to manage by offering reinforcing incentives and/or environments for a voluntary exchange Law Uses the coercion to achieve behavior in a non-voluntary manner

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Behavior Management: Rothschild’s Framework
Motivation Opportunity Ability Yes Yes prone to behave Education unable to behave No Education, Marketing Yes No unable to behave Marketing unable to behave Education, Marketing Yes resistant to behave Law resistant to behave Education, Marketing, Law No No resistant to behave Marketing, Law resistant to behave Education, Marketing, Law

Source: Rothschild (1999): Carrots, Sticks, and Promises …
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Benchmarking: Developed Countries
1970 – Surgeon general Report on smoking • 1975 – 1st “Quit and Win” contest • Heavy public education programs • Economic tactics and sanctions • Technological innovations: filters • Strict regulations and bans

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Effects of Globalization
Quit and Win • 1994 – 60,000 participants in 13 countries • 2002 – 700,000 participants in 100 countries World No Tobacco Day (May 31) • 2008 :Tobacco-Free Youth Educational programs • School Tobacco Control • Nicotine Replacement Therapy Legislation • Advertising Bans, Smoke-free Areas • Health Warnings • Price
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Benchmarking: Developing Countries
Social Marketing Campaigns • Anti - Smoking
• “Bubble-wrap” – Tasmania

• Anti - HIV / AIDS / STD (Sub-Saharan) • Family Planning (by Population Information Program)
• 30 campaigns in 27 countries

• Hygiene (India)

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Conclusion
Social Marketing to help in: • Educating businesses and a general public about the danger of smoking behavior • Off-setting the advertising campaigns and programs of tobacco industry “Life-Skills Training” (PM, B&W) “Turn-off” advertising tactics • Developing intervention programs tailored to each country or region • Establishing collaborative relationships with business and governmental organizations

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Thank You! Any questions?

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MPower: WHO 2008
Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies Protect people from tobacco smoke Offer help to quit tobacco use Warn about the danger of tobacco Enforce bans on tobacco ads and sponsorship Raise taxes on tobacco

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“Smoking in movies is responsible for addicting 1,080 U.S. adolescents to tobacco every day, 340 of whom will die prematurely as a result.” -- Editorial, The Lancet British Medical Journal, June 10, 2003 Watching popular movies is the No. 1 factor leading non-smoking teens to light up, say researchers from New Hampshire’s Dartmouth Medical School in a landmark 2003 study published in The Lancet. They found film character smoking more persuasive than traditional advertising, peer pressure or parents.

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