9 basic personality type

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					1/16/2010

Personality & Health Relationships

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Personality
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Who we are – our uniqueness Influences our behavior, thoughts, moods, attitudes, emotions, even our unconscious feelings Is reflected in our interactions with other people and the environment around us Can predict how we would act or react under different situations
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Definition of Personality
A definition of personality: “Personality is a stable set of internal characteristics and tendencies that determine the psychological behavior of people. The behavior determined by personality is relatively consistent over time.”
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Definition of Personality (cont.)
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Picking up the theme of behavior, this has two classes of determinants: personality and environment BEHAVIOR (B) = F [PERSONALITY (P), ENVIRONMENT (E)]

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Personality variables represent internal causes of behavior, while environmental variables are external causes
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Definition of Personality (cont.)
A more detailed formula:

BEHAVIOR = F [(a) HEREDITY or PHYSIOLOGY, (b) PAST LEARNING, (c) FLUCTUATING LEVELS OF AROUSAL, & (d) the ENVIRONMENT]. (a), (b), and (c) are internal, so personality includes physiological & learned aspects.
It is generally agreed that personality variables are both internal and consistent over time.
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Linking Personality to Disease
Possible routes:  Personality directly causes the disease; personality disorders
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Personality causes disease indirectly, mediated via health behaviors or exposures
Personality moderates the link between the cause and the illness – making the illness worse or better (effect modifier)
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Personality Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – IV) Personality Disorders in 3 main clusters or groups: Cluster A (the Odd Eccentric Group – Psychotics)  paranoid, schizoid & schizotypal personality disorders Cluster B (Dramatic, Erratic Group – Extraverts)  antisocial, borderline, histrionic & narcissistic personality disorders Cluster C (Anxious, Fearful Group – Neurotics)  avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders
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Timeline
1758 – Franz Joseph Gall was born. He was the founder of phrenology, which links personality to head shape. 1848 - Phineas P. Gage was injured in a dynamite explosion, which blasted a rod into his brain. Gage survived, but his personality was drastically altered. 1902 – Erik Erikson born. He created “Erikson‟s stages of psychosocial development” and described personality development from birth until death. 1916 - Hans Eysenck born. He created the „factor model of personality‟, which includes Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism. 1921 - Hermann Rorschach's published his book Psychodiagnostik, introduced inkblot personality tests. 1923 - Sigmund Freud published The Ego and the Id.
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Timeline (cont.)
1948 - Robert W. White's classic book The Abnormal Personality was published. It is an account of disordered behavior. 1954 – Abraham Maslow published his book Motivation and Personality, describing his theory of a hierarchy of needs. 1963 - Albert Bandura first described the concept of observational learning to explain personality development. 1980 - Carl Rogers published A Way Of Being, based in self-actualization theories.
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Maslow's Models of Human Needs
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Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) was a New York psychologist and a founder of humanistic psychology. This holds that people are basically good; being human gives us inherent worth and even though our actions may not be good, this does not deny our worth. To be psychologically healthy, one must take responsibility for one‟s actions (whether good or bad). Hence, one should focus on the here and now rather than dwell on the past or worry about the future And yet, the goal of life is to strive for personal growth and understanding: this is the foundation of happiness. Maslow's hierarchy is founded on the idea that we are driven to understand and accept ourselves; this drive was presented in the metaphor of a pyramid of levels of need. Life‟s daily challenges that can either stimulate us to grow, or cause us to give up and slip backward. Maslow early rejected behaviorism and found that Freud dwelled too much on negative feelings and unconscious emotions. Maslow held that we are aware of much of our motivation: humanism is based on free will. We are born with needs, and once one set of needs is met, we aspire to the next level.
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Behaviorist Theories
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Behaviorist theories propose that personality results from an interaction between the individual and the environment. Behaviorist theorists study observable and measurable behaviors. They reject theories that include internal thoughts and feelings. Behaviorist theorists include B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura.
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Psychodynamic Theories
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Psychodynamic theories of personality focus on the influence of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences on personality. Psychodynamic theorists include Freud and Erickson. Freud introduced three components of personality; the id, ego, and superego. The id is in charge of needs and urges. The superego is responsible for ideals and morals. The ego moderates between the id, the superego, and reality. Erikson proposed that personality progresses via a series of stages and conflicts arise at each stage. Success in each stage is dependent on overcoming the conflicts.
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Humanist Theories
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Humanist theories focus on the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Humanist theorists highlight the concept of selfactualization. This is an innate need for personal growth and serves to motivate behavior. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
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Attributional Style
Attribution – Aspect of personality that explains how individuals interpret the cause of their, or other people‟s, behavior. Can be relevant to interpersonal relations, and thereby indirectly affect health  Internalizing vs. externalizing attributional styles  Internalizing individuals: adopt health-enhancing behaviors, take interest in health promotion messages, and accept control over their health status  Health locus of control: internal vs. powerful others vs. chance
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Type A Personality
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Time Urgency and Impatience
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e.g. individuals who are frustrated by waiting, interrupt conversations, walk or talk very quickly, etc.

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Free-Floating Hostility or Aggressiveness
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e.g. impatience, rudeness, easily upset by minute issues, „have a short fuse‟, etc.

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Type A Personality (cont.)
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Strenuous worker Poor sleep pattern Compulsive tendencies Aggressive Depressive and neurotic tendencies Angry Impatience Low on introspection Anxious Hard driving Little time for relaxation Conscientious
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Type A Personality (cont.)
Physical Characteristics: Facial Tension (Tight lips, clenched jaw, etc.)  Tongue Clicking or Teeth Grinding  Dark Circles Under Eyes  Facial Sweating (on forehead or upper lip)
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Type A Personality (cont.)
Adverse Effects of Type A Personality: Hypertension  Heart Disease  Job Stress  Social Isolation
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Type A Personality (cont.)
Fixed Characteristic vs. Situational Reaction? Type A personality characteristics are considered to be a reaction to the environment. Hence, it may be relevant in understanding link between job stress and ill health For example,  Many jobs put heavy demands on time
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Some workplaces put heavy penalties on mistakes Some jobs create forms of stress that make employees less patient

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Some individuals have a natural tendency of being more intense, this can be exacerbated by environmental stress, or mitigated by conscious effort and lifestyle changes.
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Type B Personality
relaxed  not prone to outbursts of rage or anger  non-competitive & less driven  easy-going  Patient  Optimistic  have a sense of humor  at peace with their environment and themselves  able to express their emotions appropriately  pleasant demeanor  temporary fearlessness in face of trauma  hence able to cope with stress effectively  less susceptible to disease  though not driven over-achievers, they are often successful in their professions
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Type A/B Personality Research Article
„The Association between Type A Behaviour and Change in Coronary Risk Factors among Young Adults‟ (Garritty et al, 1990)
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Individuals with a Type A personality had significant increases in:
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systolic/diastolic blood pressure cigarette smoking

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Type B personality experienced no change.
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Type C Personality
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Suppression of emotion Depression Learned helplessness Low emotional expressiveness

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Type C Research Article
„Colon cancer: personality factors predictive of onset and stage of presentation‟ (Kavan et al, 1995):
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The Type C Personality factors were significantly correlated with an increased risk of colon cancer The matched control sample less likely to develop cancer

„Personality factors and breast cancer risk: a 13year follow-up‟ (Bleiker et al, 2008):
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Personality factors not statistically significantly correlated with increased risk of breast cancer, with or without adjusting for the risk factors Therefore, the cancer-prone personality was not related to breast cancer development.
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The Constitutional Predisposition Model

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The Personality Induced HyperReactivity Model

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Precipitator Of Dangerous Behavior Model

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Risk Taking Personality Models

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Risk Taking Summary
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The perception of risk produces a cascade of physiological changes that cause high arousal and anxiety. Psychoanalytic theorists conclude that individuals who chose to take risks are illogical or pathological It can be argued that we have evolved as a species to take risks in order to survive Contemporary psychologists understand that all types of risk takers rate higher in the Sensation Seeking personality trait
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Risk Taking Research Article
„The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving‟ (Patil et al, 2006):
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Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance predicted a competitive attitude toward driving, risktaking during driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink & driving Greater risk taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression and expectations for achievement predicted a higher numbers of offences, more serious offences, and more points lost

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Addictive Personality
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Impulsive behavior
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e.g. difficulty in delaying gratification, antisocial personality characteristics and sensation seeking.

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High value placed on nonconformity and a weak commitment to goal achievement Sense of social alienation and tolerance for deviance

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Sense of heightened stress
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Spiral of Addictions

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Enneagram Basics
The Enneagram is "a geometric figure that delineates the nine basic personality types of human nature and their complex interrelationships."

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Please take the next few minutes to fill out the personality test to determine your Enneagram type.

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Enneagram Types
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The Reformer The Helper

principled, purposeful, self-controlled, and perfectionist. demonstrative, generous, people-pleasing, and possessive. adaptive, excelling, driven, and image-conscious. expressive, dramatic, self-absorbed, and temperamental.

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The Achiever

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The Individualist The Investigator The Loyalist

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perceptive, innovative, secretive, and isolated.
engaging, responsible, anxious, and suspicious. spontaneous, versatile, distractible, and scattered. self-confident, decisive, wilful, and confrontational. receptive, reassuring, agreeable, and complacent.
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6.

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The Enthusiast

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The Challenger

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The Peacemaker
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Enneagrams Applied to Health
Type 1 The Reformer Excessive use of diets, vitamins, and cleansing techniques (fasts, diet pills, enemas). Under-eating for self-control: in extreme cases anorexia and bulimia. Alcohol to relieve tension. Type 2 The Helper Abusing food and over-the-counter medications. Bingeing, especially on sweets and carbohydrates. Over-eating from feeling "love-starved." Hypochondria to look for sympathy. Type 3 The Achiever Over-stressing the body for recognition. Working out to exhaustion. Starvation diets. Workaholics. Excessive intake of coffee, stimulants, amphetamines, cocaine, steroids or excessive surgery for cosmetic improvement.
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Enneagrams Applied to Health (cont.)
Type 4 The Individualist Over-indulgence in rich foods, sweets, alcohol to alter mood, to socialize, and for emotional consolation. Lack of physical activity. Bulimia. Depressants. Tobacco, prescription drugs, or heroin for social anxiety. Cosmetic surgery to erase rejected features. Type 5 The Investigator Poor eating and sleeping habits due to minimizing needs. Neglecting hygiene and nutrition. Lack of physical activity. Psychotropic drugs for mental stimulation and escape, narcotics for anxiety. Type 6 The Loyalist Rigidity in diet causes nutritional imbalances ("I don't like vegetables.") Working excessively. Caffeine and amphetamines for stamina, but also alcohol and depressants to deaden anxiety. Higher susceptibility to alcoholism than many types.
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Enneagrams Applied to Health (cont.)
Type 7 The Enthusiast The type most prone to addictions: stimulants (caffeine, cocaine, and amphetamines), Ecstasy, psychotropics, narcotics, and alcohol but tend to avoid other depressants. Wear body out with effort to stay "up." Excessive cosmetic surgery, pain killers. Type 8 The Challenger Ignore physical needs and problems: avoid medical visits and check-ups. Indulging in rich foods, alcohol, tobacco while pushing self too hard leads to high stress, strokes, and heart conditions. Control issues central, although alcoholism and narcotic addictions are possible. Type 9 The Peacemaker Over-eating or under-eating due to lack of selfawareness and repressed anger. Lack of physical activity. Depressants and psychotropics, alcohol, marijuana, narcotics to deaden loneliness and anxiety.
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Conclusion
Personality has varying influence on:
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Health and associated health behaviors in direct and indirect ways
The main areas of study have been in heart disease and cancer; chiefly Types A and C personalities

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NOTE: Personality effects do not mean that individuals bring illnesses upon themselves.
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the nine basic personality types

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Instrument
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A psychologist developed nine coloredshapes. They have been tested worldwide, over a period of several years. As he and the team received feedback from their research, they carefully adjusted the color and/or form of each shape, then tested again, until they were left with a highly successful set of shapes. These shapes represent the nine basic personality types.
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Select a shape below that appeals to you the most and then scroll down to read about your personality:
1 2 3 4 5

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7

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9

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1
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Introspective Sensitive Reflective

You come to grips more frequently and thoroughly with yourself and your environment than do most people. You detest superficiality; you'd rather be alone than have to suffer through small talk. But your relationships with your friends are highly intensive, which gives you the inner tranquility and harmony that you need in order to feel good. However it is no problem for you to be alone for extended periods of time, without becoming bored.

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2
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Independent Unconventional Unfettered

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You demand a free and unattached life for yourself that allows you to determine your own course. You have an artistic bent in your work or leisure activities. Your urge for freedom sometimes causes you to do exactly the opposite of what expected of you. Your lifestyle is highly individualistic. You would never blindly imitate what is "in"; on the contrary, you seek to live according to your own ideas and convictions, even if this means swimming against the tide.
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3
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Dynamic Active Extroverted

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You are quite willing to accept certain risks and to make a strong commitment in exchange for interesting and varied work. Routine, in contrast, tends to have a paralyzing effect on you. What you like most is to be able to play an active role in events. In doing so, your initiative is highly pronounced.
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4
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Down to Earth Well-Balanced Harmonious

You value a natural style and love that which is uncomplicated. People admire you because you have both feet planted firmly on the ground and they can depend on you. You give those who are close to you security and space. You are perceived as being warm and human. You reject everything that is garish and trite. You tend to be skeptical toward the whims of fashion trends. For you, clothing has to be practical and unobtrusively elegant.
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5
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Professional Pragmatic Self-assured

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You take charge of your life, and place less faith in your luck and more in your own deeds. You solve problems in a practical, uncomplicated manner. You take a realistic view of the things in your daily life and tackle them without wavering. You are given a great deal of responsibility at work, because people know that you can be depended upon. Your pronounced strength of will projects your self-assurance to others. You are never fully satisfied until you have accomplished your ideas.
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6
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Peaceful Discreet Non-Aggressive

You are easy-going yet discreet. You make friends effortlessly, yet enjoy your privacy and independence. You like to get away from it all and be alone from time to time to contemplate the meaning of life and enjoy yourself. You need space, so you escape to beautiful hideaways, but you are not a loner. You are at peace with yourself and the world, and you appreciate life and what this world has to offer.
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7
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Carefree Playful Cheerful

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You love a free and spontaneous life. And you attempt to enjoy it to the fullest, in accordance with the motto: "You only live once." You are very curious and open about everything new; you thrive on change. Nothing is worse than when you feel tied down. You experience your environment as being versatile and always good for a surprise.
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8
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Romantic Dreamy Emotional

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You are a very sensitive person. You refuse to view things only from a sober, rational standpoint. What your feelings tell you is just as important to you. In fact, you feel it is important to have dreams in life, too. You reject people who scorn romanticism and are guided only by rationality. You refuse to let anything confine the rich variety of your moods and emotions.
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9
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Analytical Trustworthy Self-assured

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Your momentary sensitivity represents that which is of high quality and durable. Consequently, you like to surround yourself with little "gems," which you discover wherever others overlook them. Thus, culture plays a special role in your life. You have found your own personal style, which is elegant and exclusive, free from the whims of fashion. Your ideal, upon which you base your life, is cultured pleasure. You value a certain level of culture on the part of the people with whom you associate.
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