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									What is Six Sigma

Black Belt or Black Magic?




 Six Sigma – 10/30/2008      TechHelp
Black Belt or Black Magic?




Six Sigma - 10/30/2008       TechHelp   2
What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• A goal of products and processes that experience only 3.4
  defects per million or are 99.99966% good. - Nablusi




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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• Six Sigma is a business system for achieving and sustaining
  success through customer focus, process management and
  improvement and the use of wise facts and data. - Anon.

    - Lean                        - Baldridge
    - TPM                         - Empowerment
    - TQM                         - Re-engineering
    - Quality is Free             - ISO
    - ____



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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• Let us be very clear that 6 sigma is not a new finding. It was
  there since the inception of the use of statistical control methods
  in the industry…. Six sigma is a measure of the non-
  conformance of a process … be it a manufacturing process or a
  non-manufacturing process like making sales invoices. Every
  company works … to reduce cost by adopting various methods.
  Most powerful amongst [these methods] is a statistical method
  … for reducing variability … till such time the process becomes
  … defect free. Such a … process is called 6 sigma. When you
  reach [6 sigma] … cost of quality is the lowest, reflected in the
  profits of the company. - Jawadekar


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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• I’m sorry, I don’t understand what your message is saying - Anon.

• Six Sigma is a problem solving method for continuous
  improvement. This method focuses on the statistical analysis of
  data for making decisions for change. As a problem solving
  methodology it can be applied to almost any situation. - Duckworth

• Six Sigma uses statistical analysis to graphically present data so
  even managers can make intelligent decisions - Mach



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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• Six Sigma is nothing but simplification of product and processes
  which aims to take the defects to zero level. - Zeeshan




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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• Six Sigma is a management methodology that
  combines a number of the tools and techniques we
  have always used in "quality initiatives". …this …
  data-driven approach requires that we … define
  defects, measure processes, analyze their capability
  and improve our processes from the shop floor to the
  back office. … we place appropriate control tools in
  place to … ensure that savings we have realized
  continue or increase. The success … lies in the ability
  to tie project results directly to bottom line savings
  and/or improved consumer satisfaction. - Johnson


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What Do The Experts Say?

www.isixsigma.com
• Six Sigma is a customer centered, systematic, data driven method
  for doing things better
   - Customer centered means that projects start with, and are
     measured by, meeting customer wants and needs.
   - Systematic means that the Six Sigma tools are applied in concert,
     which makes them vastly more powerful than they are alone.
   - Data driven means that facts and data are used for making
     decisions.
• Doing things better means, in some measurable, meaningful way,
  improving the situation of customers, workers, or shareholders of the
  organization.     - Denton Bramwell, Sr. Master Black Belt, denton@bramwell.org


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Where Did Six Sigma Come
From?
The Motorola Experience
• Competition
   - Foreign – Japanese implementation of Deming
   - Domestic – Crosby “Quality is Free”
• Zero Defects
   - 1970’s quality was: 3 sigma 99.933000% 67,000 DpM
                             4 sigma   99.993800%   6,200 DpM
  - Cut the distribution in half !:
                             6 sigma   99.999998%      2 DpM
  - A process shift of: 1.5 sigma      99.999997%    3.4 DpM


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Where Did Six Sigma Come
From?
The Motorola Experience
• Included quality tools and lessons from previous experience
• A focus on:
   - Defect Prevention
   - Cycle Time Reduction
   - Cost Savings
• Baldridge Quality Award 1988
   - Quality can be defined as “the value added by a productive
     endeavor”
     Potential (maximum possible value) – Actual (current value)
     = Waste
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Where Did Six Sigma Come
From?

The Motorola Experience

“One of Motorola’s most significant contributions was to change
the discussion of quality from one where quality levels were
measured in percentages (parts per hundred) to a discussion of
parts per million or even parts per billion. Motorola correctly
pointed out that … old ideas about acceptable quality levels
were no longer acceptable.”

                    Motorola’s Six Sigma Program – Thomas Pyzdek




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Where Did Six Sigma Come
From?




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Where Did Six Sigma Come
From?
“Quality requires us to look … at our processes from the outside-in.
By understanding the transaction lifecycle from the customer’s needs
& processes, we can discover what they are seeing and feeling.
With this knowledge… we can add significant value or improvement
from their perspective.”
What is Six Sigma? The Roadmap to Customer Impact
 www.ge.com/sixsigma




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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?




Key Concepts
• Critical to Quality - Most important attributes to the customer
• Defect - Failure to deliver what the customer wants
• Variation - What the customer sees and feels
• Seek the elimination of defects




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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?




“Customers … define Quality. They expect performance,
reliability, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear &
correct transaction processing & more. … being good is not
enough. Delighting our customers is a necessity. Because if
we don’t do it, someone else will !” - GE Six Sigma




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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?




Key Concepts
• Process Capability – What your process can deliver
• Stable Operations – Ensuring consistent predictable
  processes to improve what the customer sees and feels
• Variance – A change in a process or business practice that
  may alter its expected outcome



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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?




“The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure
how many “defects” you have in a process, you can
systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as
close to “zero defects” as possible.” - GE Six Sigma




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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?



Key Concepts
• Executive Engagement – Visible, consistent support and an
  active role in communication and reward
• Stable Operations – Advocating and creating a “common
  language”. Including employees, customers and suppliers
• Education and Training – Acquire, apply and foster the use of
  new or existing Knowledge to improve capabilities
• Alignment – Engage the entire organization to improve every
  process and practice

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The Critical Elements of Six
Sigma?
                                                        Defining Six Sigma for
                                                        your Business or
                                                        Organization – Zack
                                                        Swinney


Key Concepts
• Customer Focus – Integrate the customer into the organization. Listen to
  them!
• Data Driven – Critical to Quality (CTQ), Defects, Pareto Charts, Root Cause
  Analysis, Process Mapping, Control Charts, Statistical Process Control,
  Gage R&R, Brainstorming, FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis), Design of
  Experiments
• Robust Methodology – (1) DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,
  Control) - Continued improvement on existing processes. (2) DMADV
  (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify) – New product or processes.

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Black Belt or Black Magic?

“Six Sigma’s magic isn’t in statistical or high-tech razzle-
dazzle. Six Sigma relies on tried and true methods that
have been around for decades. In fact, Six Sigma
discards a great deal of the complexity that characterized
Total Quality Management (TQM). By one expert’s count,
there were over 400 TQM tools and techniques. Six
Sigma takes a handful of proven methods … the tools are
applied within a simple performance improvement model
known as DMAIC.”
Six Sigma Revolution Thomas Pyzdek



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Black Belt or Black Magic?

Master Black Belt        Train-the-trainer       F/T 1/1000
                         An expert who trains
                         and mentors Six Sigma
                         project leaders

Black Belt               “Journeyman” expert     F/T 1/100
                         Responsible for
                         implementation of Six
                         Sigma projects

Green Belt               Project Team Leader     P/T 1/10



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Black Belt or Black Magic?

• Success requires 3 things only
    - Recognize the problem
    - Take ownership
    - Work out the details



“Experts who can “work out the details” are a dime-a-dozen.
Hire a full-time person or rent a consultant.” - Doug Welter




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Is That All There Is?

“Some people, including me, believe that garden variety six sigma
doesn't go far enough. In fact, even zero defects falls short.
… Progressive people in the six sigma camp … looks for critical-
to-quality (CTQ) characteristics in a product or service. CTQ
features are those that customers expect and consider explicitly …
A product or service that doesn't provide the CTQ features that
customers expect suffers lower customer satisfaction. But even
this definition isn't enough. ”
Six Sigma and Beyond Thomas Pyzdek




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Is That All There Is?

                         The Kano Model




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Where To From Here?

“Long-term success requires the customer to be excited by
unexpected innovations provided by a company's products and
services: Continued survival requires that your organization
continuously innovate. Innovation is the result of creative activity,
not of analysis. Creativity can't be achieved "by the numbers." In
fact, excessive attention to a rigorous process such as six sigma
actually detracts from creativity.”
Six Sigma and Beyond Thomas Pyzdek




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Where To From Here?

                         The Kano Model




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Six Sigma or Lean?
Kaizan or Kanban?
• Lean is about reducing or eliminating all activities that do not add
  value. It reduces or eliminates 8 principle sources of waste:
   - Waiting - set-up, changeover, no work, no operator, downtime
   - Inventory - stagnant Work-in-Process, spare parts, just-in-case
   - Overproduction - batch runs, minimum run rates
   - Extra Processing - rework, conditioning
   - Motion - non-adjacent processing, go-fer
   - Transportation - moving product
   - Defects - rejects
   - Underutilized People - THE GREATEST WASTE OF ALL!


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Six Sigma or Lean?
Kaizan or Kanban?




               LEAN                SIX SIGMA




                         Tools in the Toolbox



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Six Sigma: Black Belt or Black
Magic?
Six Sigma is:
Customer Centered • Systematic • Data Driven

Customer Centered
• Critical to Quality: Attributes defined by customer
• Defect: Failure to Deliver what the customer expects
• Variation – Customer Impression
• Continuous Improvement:
  3 sigma           6 sigma           Zero Defects



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Six Sigma: Black Belt or Black
Magic?
Six Sigma is:
Customer Centered • Systematic • Data Driven

Systematic
• DMAIC or DMADV - Stable Operations (consistent, predictable),
  Control Variance, Process Capability (reach & improve)
• Executive Engagement: Visible, consistent support and active
• Communication: Common language – customers, employees &
  suppliers
• Education and Training: Acquire, apply and foster knowledge
• Alignment: Engage the entire organization to improve every process

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Six Sigma: Black Belt or Black
Magic?
Six Sigma is:
Customer Centered • Systematic • Data Driven

Data Driven
• Use the tools in the toolbox (old favorites or new tools)
• Use the right tool in the right way
• Lean – Six Sigma




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Six Sigma: Black Belt or Black
Magic?
Six Sigma is:
Customer Centered • Systematic • Data Driven

AND
• Doing things Better
   - Innovate!


                   Delight Your Customer!
              If you don’t, someone else will!!!

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For additional information contact:
Michelle Brown
208.364.4999
mbrown@uidaho.edu




 Six Sigma – 10/30/2008               TechHelp

								
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