24 abstracts of papers
and cook loss. The breast muscles from transported turkeys had signif-
103 Eﬀect of marination and cooking on red discol-
icantly higher muscle pH at 0, 2 and 24 h, signiﬁcantly lower L* values
oration of broiler breast meat. D. P. Smith*, J. K. Northcutt,
at 2 and 24 h, signiﬁcantly higher marination retention (i.e., lower drip
and D. L. Fletcher, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602.
loss after marination), and signiﬁcantly lower cook loss in the marinated
An experiment was conducted to determine the eﬀect of marination and
ﬁllets compared to muscles in the non-transported turkeys. There were
cooking on red discoloration of broiler breast meat. Breast ﬁllets were
no signiﬁcant diﬀerences in drip loss and cook loss of the non-marinated
trimmed to remove fat and connective tissue, then chopped and divided
ﬁllets or the marination uptake percentage between the transported and
into duplicate 10 g samples. Treatments consisted of adding one g of
non-transported turkeys. These results suggest that transporting turkeys
the following to each meat sample: no addition (control), blood, bone
immediately before processing does not induce PSE meat.
marrow, marinade (90 ml water, 6 g salt and 4 g sodium tripolyphos-
phate), blood and marrow, blood and marinade, marrow and marinade,
Key Words: PSE, Transportation, Turkey, Marination, Rigor development
and blood and marrow and marinade. Samples were mixed, placed into
stoppered glass tubes, and cooked in 74 C water for 45 min to an internal
101 Marination performance of pale broiler breast temperature of 74 C. Samples were cooled, removed from tubes and cut
meat. R. L. Woelfel*1 and A. R. Sams1 , Poultry Science Department, into approximately 5 mm thick sections. Lightness (L∗), redness (a∗),
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. and yellowness (b∗) were measured on raw and cooked samples. Blood,
marrow, and combinations signiﬁcantly increased darkness and redness
Pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat is a growing problem in the poultry of raw samples. Marination had no signiﬁcant eﬀect on lightness or red-
industry and is characterized by rapid postmortem pH decline. The low ness. Cooking signiﬁcantly increased lightness and decreased redness,
pH condition while the body temperature has not yet chilled leads to but blood, marrow, and combination samples were signiﬁcantly darker
protein denaturation, which causes pale color and reduced water hold- and redder than control or marinade samples. Within blood and mar-
ing properties. The water loss and/or the protein damage from the PSE row samples, marrow produced darker and redder samples than blood.
condition may impact the ability of the muscle to uptake or retain mari- Marination had no signiﬁcant eﬀect on lightness or redness of discolored
nade solution. This study was conducted to determine if a marination samples, and cooking did not signiﬁcantly increase lightness or decrease
with salt and alkaline phosphates could rectify the protein functionality redness to control values.
losses imparted by the PSE condition. Pale (n=87) and normal (n=80)
ﬁllets were subjectively collected from the deboning lines at two commer- Key Words: Red discoloration, Marination, Breast meat, Cooking, Broil-
cial processing plants and characterized by L*value, pH, and expressible ers
moisture. They were then tumbled with a 0.6% NaCl and 0.4% sodium
tripolyphosphate solution at 4◦ C for 30 min. Marinade uptake, drip 104 The Use of Honey Marinades to Improve
loss, and cook loss were all measured. As expected, the pale ﬁllets had Chicken Quality. K. H. McWatters*, I. B. Hashim, and Y.-C. Hung,
higher L* values and lower pH values than the normal ﬁllets. The pale .
ﬁllets had similar marinade uptake and drip losses but greater cook losses
than the normal ﬁllets. These results indicate that the PSE condition Honey, a common ingredient in ham and other cured products, is of-
cannot be reversed by the marination treatment used in this study. ten used as a ﬂavor agent in meats. Recent research by the National
Honey Board demonstrated that honey imparts ﬂavor, color, moisture,
Key Words: PSE meat, Meat color, Marination, Cook loss oxidative stability and antimicrobial eﬀects to processed turkey meats.
It stands to reason, therefore, that honey has the potential to add ﬂa-
102 Wastewater analysis system for small food pro- vor, moistness and many other beneﬁts to marinated chicken.<p> Ap-
cessors. W. C. Merka* and B. H. Kiepper, . propriate conditions for marination and baking were developed in phase
one. The primary objectives of this phase were: 1. To develop a se-
A small Georgia company which hard cooks and peels eggs was receiving ries of chicken honey marinades with desirable texture, color and sensory
regulatory pressure from the municipality which received its wastewater. characteristics.<p> 2. To verify the safety of chicken containing honey
Although the company discharged a trivial organic load to the munici- marinades.<p> 3. To test the acceptability of a honey marinade com-
pality, the concentration of organics as measured by BOD(Biochemical pared to a control (no honey) and commercial marinated chicken.<p> Six
Oxygen Demand) was in violation of the municipal code. The wastewater experiments were conduced to develop an optimized, safe marinade and
treatment authority could not disregard the violation, however they were marination technique. Marinade retention, cooking loss and/or sensory
willing to allow a study to be conducted so that the plant could come evaluation were used to determine results.<p> Injection of chicken breast
into compliance over an extended period of time. To deﬁne the ﬂow and quarters with lemon pepper poultry pump was very eﬀective in increasing
organics patterns, a system was designed where the entire plant ﬂow was the amount of marinade retained and in producing a juicy, tender prod-
diverted through a 300 gallon tank with an attached H-ﬂume. Using this uct. Chicken injected with marinade had a more attractive appearance
system, ﬂow volume and organics concentration was monitiored for a two than immersed chicken since the lemon pepper seasoning powder applied
week period. Based on the sampling protocol, water received by the plant as a rub distributed the seasoning uniformly over the total surface area.
as measured by water meters avaraged 4,370 gallons per day. However, The wing of the bone-in breast quarter developed a much darker brown
the volume discharged as measured by the H-ﬂume averaged 3,245 gal- color than the breast. Better results would have been obtained if bone-in
lons per day, only 75 percent of the received volume. Analysis of the breast (split breast) were used instead of breast quarters.<p> Results
wastewater showed that daily BOD mass varied from 14 to 75 pounds. from the analysis of honey use in chicken marinades revealed that con-
The plant manager attributed this BOD variation to the variation in the sumers liked chicken injected with marinade containing 20 percent honey
quality of the eggs processed that day. The ﬂow and organics variation more than commercial marinated chicken. Consumers would be more
discharged by this plant suggest that a pretreatment system is needed willing to buy roasted chicken containing 20 and 30 percent honey than
and should include a ﬂow equalization basin. commercial marinated chicken.<p>
Key Words: Wastewater, Egg Processing, Regulatory Compliance Key Words: Honey, Marinade, Chicken
POSTERS: Monday, John Q. Hammons Hall IV, ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGMENT
105 Production and performance characteristics in tion periods. Day old chicks (n=1500/strain) were raised under con-
the female Dandarawi chicken under sub-tropical condi- trolled heat and photoperiod for 8 weeks, then transferred to rearing
tions. M. A. Abdelnabi*1 , M. A. Ottinger2 , H. H. Sharara1 , and A. batteries. At sexual maturity, females of both strains were divided into
E. Abdel-Rahman1 , 1 University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt, 2 University of two groups and housed in individual cages; group 1 was housed under
Maryland, College Park, Maryland USA. ambient environmental temperatures (up to 43C in summer) and group
2 was housed under controlled temperature (18-24C); both groups were
A long term experiment was conducted to investigate eﬀects of environ- maintained on an 18L:6D photoperiod with feed and water available ad
mental temperature under conditions of Upper Egypt on female perfor- lib. Eggs were collected daily with periodic samples for egg quality anal-
mance in two genetic strains of poultry: the Dandarawi (a highly selected ysis. Birds were weighed weekly. Results showed that Hy-line females
heat tolerant strain) and the Hy-line (commercial) chicken. Data were were more aﬀected by high temperature than Dandarawi hens. This was
collected in females of both genetic strains during growing and produc- reﬂected in a signiﬁcant (p≤0.05) decrease in egg production in Hy-line
abstracts of papers 25
females under ambient temperatures. Conversely, both strains showed an
108 Optimization of an impactor system for
age-related decline in egg production, with a more rapid decline found
bioaerosol detection of bacterial load and sampling time in a
for Dandarawi female. However, this decline was not aﬀected by tem-
poultry layer house. D. R. Jackson1 , C. L. Woodward1 , S. Park*1 ,
perature. Hy-line females had signiﬁcantly higher (p≤0.001) egg pro-
S. D. Pillai2 , S. G. Birkhold1 , and S. C. Ricke1 , 1 Department of Poultry
duction, egg weight, and clutch size. Eggs from Dandarawi females had
Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 2 Department of
higher breaking strength (p≤0.05). These data show distinct diﬀerences
Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX.
in performance of these genetic strains, especially in environments of high
Our overall goal is to develop a more representative and less labor inten-
sive bacterial sampling approach for detection of general microbial popu-
lation loads and speciﬁc bacterial species in commercial poultry housing.
Key Words: Genetic strain, Egg quality, Egg production, Dandarawi
In this study we examined the feasibility of an inexpensive impactor sys-
chicken, Heat stress
tem as an alternative sampling approach for bioaerosol populations in
poultry layer houses. The impactor system consists of ﬁlters (7.6 x 7.6
sq. cm) attached to a fan such that poultry house air passes through
106 Temperature/humidity combinations aﬀect depositing dust and debris on the ﬁlter squares. The ﬁlters were then
broilers diﬀerently at diﬀerent ages. R. N. Hunt*1 , M. M. Beck1 , sampled at selected time intervals from 0 to 36 hours. Two representa-
L. C. Carr2 , P. C. Harrison3 , L. G. Robeson1 , T. M. Brown-Brandl4 , tive ﬁlters were taken from the fan at each time period and sampled for
and A. M. Parkhurst1 , 1 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, heterotrophic counts. To each bioaerosol sample 20 ml of 2% peptone
USA, 2 University of Maryland, Princess Anne, MD, USA, 3 University were added, stomached for 30 seconds, plated on tryptic soy agar and
of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA, 4 USDA-MARC, Clay Center, NE, USA. incubated for 48 hours at 37◦ C to enumerate total heterotrophic bacte-
rial populations for each time frame. The experiment was repeated three
High environmental temperatures (T) are exacerbated by high humidities times. Peak time periods for bacterial load were approximately 24 hours
(H) for many species. The combined eﬀects are often described by T/H with ﬂuctuations of bacterial populations at all other time intervals and a
indices. To determine relative contributions of T and H on growing broil- general decrease occurring after 24 hours. Initial heterotrophic bacterial
ers, 5 and 6 wk-old birds (RossxCobb) were subjected to 5 environmen- populations (time zero) were 101 colony forming units (CFU) and in-
tal conditions (22.5C/70%RH; 25C/56%RH; 25C/84%RH; 31C/50%RH; creased to 106 by 24 hours. Based on these results the optimal sampling
31C/70%RH; 31C/90%RH; 37C/56%RH; 37C/84%RH; 40C/70%RH) in time for bioaerosol sampling for plate counts with an impactor system
indirect calorimeters. Each bird was ﬁtted with a respiration belt and would require that the sampler be in place for at least 24 hours.
cloacal thermistors. During each 2-h run, body temperature, chamber
temperature, respiration rate and chamber and bird gases (CO2, 02) and Key Words: Impactor, Bioaerosol, Heterotrophic bacteria, Poultry layer
moisture were measured using data loggers and a 486 pc. Assessed at 1.5 house, Filters
h of exposure to the respective T/H combinations, time to death was dif-
ferent between 5 and 6 wk-old birds, with 6 wk-old birds dying quicker at 109 Bacterial populations in used poultry litter as
the highest T/H combinations (22 min vs 55 min). The explanation for aﬀected by moisture content and aluminum sulfate appli-
this is suggested by the decreased ability of the older birds to expel CO2 cation. C. B. Wakeﬁeld*, S. F. Bilgili, and D. E. Conner, Auburn
and moisture and to utilize O2 compared to the 5 wk-old birds. At all of University, Auburn, AL.
the other combinations of T/H, 6 wk-old birds consistently expelled more
CO2 and moisture and consumed more O2 than the younger birds. Body To determine eﬀects of aluminum sulfate (alum) on litter bacteria, used
weight diﬀerences are suggested as the likely reason for the decreased litter was adjusted to one of three target moisture levels (10%, 20%, or
ability of the 6 wk-old birds to withstand the extreme conditions. 40%), inoculated, treated with alum (0, 0.24, 0.48, 0.96, or 1.92 kg/m2 ),
stored in sealed containers (30 total; 2 per moisture and alum treat-
Key Words: THI, Broilers, Environmental stress, Relative humidity, Indi- ments) and analyzed for bacterial populations. Escherichia coli and
rect calorimetry three Salmonella serotypes (109 cfu/g) were used for inoculation. Litter
was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 d of storage at 23 C to enumerate
bacterial populations as well as moisture and pH. Alum treatment re-
duced numbers of litter-inoculated Salmonella and E. coli in a dose and
107 Environmental gas levels in turkey facilities. D. time related manner, depending upon litter moisture conditions. Signif-
D. Frame*1 and G. L. Anderson2 , 1 Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sci- icant (P<0.001) alum x moisture x day interaction was detected for pH,
ences Department, Utah State University, 2 Utah State University Ex- Salmonella and E. coli counts. In litter with 10% moisture, pH dropped
tension Service, Manti, Utah. to <4.5 only with 0.96 and 1.92 kg/m2 alum and Salmonella and E.
coli were not detected (<102 cfu/g) at day 4, but remained undetectable
Commercial brooder and growout buildings were surveyed for selected only in the 1.92 kg/m2 alum treatment throughout the study. In litter
gas levels to determine variability in air quality under which turkeys are with 20% moisture, pH remained above 5.0 with all levels of alum and
raised. Turkey facilities belonging to growers in Sanpete County, Utah no (<102 cfu/g) Salmonella was recovered with 1.92 kg/m2 alum treat-
were monitored using gas detection equipment. Twelve ranches consist- ment. E. coli counts similarly decreased by 5 log10 cfu/g by day 4 and
ing of 14 brooder buildings and 25 growouts were monitored for oxygen not recovered after day 8 for the 0.96 and 1.92 kg/m2 alum treatments,
(O2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), ammonia (NH3 ), respectively. Litter with 40% moisture and >0.48 kg/m2 alum had a
and water (i.e., relative humidity). Various production units were mon- pH of 4 at day 4 and maintained this pH through day 24 at the two
itored between November 1997 and July 1998. In brooder buildings, highest levels of alum. Salmonella and E. coli populations decreased
O2 level ranged from 19.6 to 20.9%, with an average of 20.5%. Carbon rapidly with 1.92 kg/m2 alum at day 4, whereas same level of reduction
monoxide ranged from 0 to 97 ppm, averaging 9 to 15 ppm. Carbon diox- required 18 days with 0 and 0.96 kg/m2 alum treatments. Because con-
ide ranged from 300 to 3425 ppm and averaged 1700 ppm. During early centration of added alum and moisture interacted to aﬀect the response
brooding, NH3 levels were 0 to 3 ppm, but occasionally reached levels as of bacteria, litter conditions must be taken into account when evaluating
high as 15 to 20 ppm in under-ventilated buildings during late brooding antimicrobial eﬀects of alum application to litter.
period (4 to 5 weeks of age). Relative humidity varied from 0 to 55%, av-
eraging 35%. In growout facilities O2 levels were never less than 20.7%. Key Words: Litter, Aluminum sulfate, Bacteria
Carbon monoxide levels were below 3 ppm in most growouts. Ammonia
ranged from 0 to 63 ppm. Levels greater than 15 ppm were common 110 Evaluation of brooding temperature, and feed
in growouts without exhaust fans. Relative humidity varied from 50 to types on ﬂushing and growth of young turkey poults. S.
above 90%. During the brooding period, gas levels appeared to be most Fitz-Coy*1 , L. Frank1 , and D. Rives2 , 1 Alpharma Inc. Fort Lee, NJ,
inﬂuential during the ﬁrst two weeks. Early poult mortality was greater 2 Prestage Farms, Inc. Clinton, NC.
in brooders where any one or a combination of the following gas lev-
els were present: O2 less than 20.3%, CO2 greater than 2500 ppm, or An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of diﬀerent brood-
CO greater than 20 ppm. In the growout, the two most critical factors ing temperatures and feed types on the onset and duration of ﬂushing in
were relative humidity and NH3 . Buildings in which relative humidity young poults. Litter from poults that had shown signs of ﬂushing was
exceeded 70% also had greater levels of NH3 . collected, homogenized and divided into four equal parts. The ﬂoor of
the isolation cage was covered with cardboard and the litter was added,
Key Words: Turkey, Environment, Gas levels, Brooder, Growout assimilating a ﬂoor pen. Feed that had nitarsone (Histostat ) at 187.50
26 abstracts of papers
ppm (designated as Ration A) was provided to half of the pens and a control and RF females showed the highest total breast weight as per-
commercial turkey ration (designated as Ration B) was provided to the cent RTC, with the control males exhibiting the highest percentage of
remaining half of the pens. Brooding temperatures were set at 72-75 breast and thigh meat. No diﬀerences were observed among treatments
degrees F, or 87-90 degrees F, for the ﬁrst 14 days. Eighty day-old male with regard to percentage solid content or breaking strength of the tibiae.
commercial poults, were divided into four groups of 20 birds. Poults Male tibiae exhibited higher breaking strength than females but were less
were places in one of the four pens. Treatment 1 (TRT 1), Ration A and dense.
warm brooded; TRT 2, Ration B and warm brooded; TRT 3, Ration A
and cool brooded; TRT 4, Ration B and cool brooded. Temperatures Key Words: Yield, Tibia, Feed restriction, Light restriction
were monitored daily; bird activities and other observations were taken
daily. Poults were weighed at 19, 27, and 33 days of age. Throughout the
113 Eﬀects of varying levels of dietary copper sulfate
trial, birds from TRT 1 were the heaviest. At 33 days of age, treatments
on broiler male and female production performance param-
1, 2, 3 and 4 weighed 1355g, 641g, 920g, and 883g respectively. Birds
eters. A. H. Nilipour*1 , C. Diaz1 , C. Rosales1 , and T. F. Savage2 ,
from TRT2 were the smallest throughout the trial. Flushing was evident 1 Grupo Melo, S.A. R & D, P.O. Box 333, Panama1, Panama City, Rep.
as early as the ﬁrst week of life, and continued through the third week.
of Panama, 2 Dept. of Animal Sciences, Oregon State University, Cor-
Microscopic evaluation of wet mount smears from the small intestine of
vallis, OR 97331-6702.
the poults revealed coccidia; more parasites were seen in smears taken
from the poults fed Ration B. It appeared that feed types and brood
Copper sulfate is widely used in the breeder diets to maintain gut pH and
temperatures exacerbate the ﬂushing syndrome seen in poults.
integrity, however little information is available regarding recommended
levels in broiler diets. Copper Sulfate (CS) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 lb./ton was
Key Words: Poults, Histostat, Temperatures, Flushing
incorporated into standard broiler feeds at one of ﬁve levels and bird per-
formance measured to determine the optimum CS inclusion rate. A total
111 Eﬀect of restricted feeder space on growth and of 1650 male and female sexable Pet x Indian River broiler chicks were
uniformity of female broiler breeders. E. E. Franzoi-Siewerdt* placed into 10 replicate pens of 165 birds each. Each treatment consisted
and J. Brake, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC USA. of two pens, one/sex. All the birds were individually weighed at day one
and 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of age (DOA). Feed conversions, Eu-
The objective of this experiment was to compare two diﬀerent feeder
ropean Performance Eﬃciency Factor (EPEF) and the cost to produce a
space allocations on the growth and uniformity of female broiler breed-
lb. of meat were calculated. As the CS inclusion rate increased, the body
ers. Day-old birds were placed in eight ﬂoor pens, forty birds on the ﬁrst
weight gain decreased with the 5 CS treatment having the lowest gain.
day (early placement group) and twenty the following day (late place-
The 5CS broilers weighed 470 grams less and had a 10 g lower average
ment group). Pens were randomly assigned to having either three (6
daily weight gain when compared to the 1CS dietary treatment. Body
cm/bird) or ﬁve (10 cm/bird) feeders from 97 days of age. Birds were
weights, feed conversions, EPEF and cost to produce a lb. of meat were
fed a 15% CP, 2.92 kcal/g ME grower diet, on a 4/3 feeding regimen.
similar among the broilers fed diets ranging from 1 to 3 lbs. of CS/ton.
Feed amounts were calculated based on daily feed intake per bird. Dead
The broilers fed the 3CS diet had the lowest cost, due to improved feed
birds were not replaced, but feed amounts were recalculated accordingly.
conversion, while those fed the 4CS and 5CS diets had much lower body
Body weights were taken at 97, 111, 125, and 139 days of age. Weight
weights, poorer conversions, and a 2 to 6 cent higher production cost/lb.
gains were calculated between consecutive ages; a total weight gain, be-
There were no diﬀerences in the health and mortality of the broilers fed
tween 97 and 139 days was also obtained. Data were analyzed with a
the varying levels of CS although % mortality was slightly higher for the
model including the eﬀects of feeder space, placement group and interac-
5CS treatment group. It was concluded that CS dietary inclusion rates
tion. The uniformity status of the birds in each feeder space treatment
of 1 to 3 lb./ton improved economic performance parameters of broiler
was evaluated by comparing the CVs of the treatments and the propor-
males and females.
tions of birds falling within 10, 12, and 15% of the respective treatment
means. The interaction was only signiﬁcant for weight gain between 97
Key Words: Copper sulfate, Broilers, Feed conversion, European perfor-
and 111 days; birds in pens with ﬁve feeders had greater weight gain
mance eﬃciency factor
(26.5 g) than those in pens with three feeders in the late group, while no
statistical diﬀerence was found between three and ﬁve feeders in the early
group. Feeder space aﬀected weight gain from 125 to 139 days; birds in 114 Supplementation of layer rations with two com-
pens with three feeders gained 26.6 g more than those in pens with ﬁve mercial phytase enzymes. A. E. (Ted) Sefton*1 , M. N. Bryant2 ,
feeders. Total weight gain was not aﬀected by feeder space. Uniformity and D. A. Roland, Sr.2 , 1 Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY, 40356, 2 Dept.
was not aﬀected by feeder space, except for body weight at 139 days, of Poultry Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849.
when birds in pens with three feeders (48% within 10% of the mean,
CV=20.1%) were less uniform than those in pens with ﬁve feeders (58%, A 6 week study was conducted to compare two commercially avail-
CV=18.1%). Restricted feeder space did not aﬀect growth adversely but able phytase enzymes; Allzyme Phytase, 11500 PTU/g (Alltech, Inc.
resulted in less uniform birds (± 10% of mean; equal proportions at ± Nicholasville, KY) and Naturphos, 600 FTU/g (BASF, Corp., Mount
12% and ± 15%) at 139 days of age. Olive, NJ). Two control phosphorus levels were fed. The negative con-
trol, set at a marginal nutritional level, received 0.1% available phospho-
Key Words: Broiler breeders, Feeder space, Uniformity, Body weight, rus (NC), while the positive control received 0.4% available phosphorus
Growth (PC). All treatment groups received 0.1% available phosphorus, and ei-
ther a high (1 kg / tonne) or low (1/2 kg / tonne) level of phytase.
112 Component yields and tibia characteristics of Forty week old Hy-Line W36 hens were randomly assigned (16 bird /
broilers as aﬀected by feed and light restriction. A. L. rep) to each of 8 replications per treatment. Egg production and feed
McDonald1 , T. C. Chen*1 , B. D. Lott2 , and J. D. May2 , 1 Poultry consumption were recorded weekly; egg weight and egg speciﬁc gravity
Science Dept., Mississippi State Univ., 2 USDA South Central Poultry were measured biweekly. Neither egg production or feed consumption
Research Laboratory. diﬀered among treatments in the ﬁrst week. By the third week NC was
signiﬁcantly lower in egg production than all other treatments. This
Studies were conducted to determine the eﬀects of restricted light and diﬀerence was maintained for the duration of the trial. There were no
feed on compensatory gain in broiler, processing yields, component dis- diﬀerences between any of the phytase treatments and the PC. By the
tribution, and tibia characteristics. Broiler chicks were placed in 24 pens second week feed consumption was signiﬁcantly lower for the NC than
(60 birds/pen) with the sexes separated. Three treatments were utilized: all other treatments, and remained so for the duration of the trial. Phy-
1)ad libitum feed and 24 hr light (L)(control); 2)restricted feed (9hr/d) tase treatment groups did not diﬀer in feed consumption from the PC
and 24 hr L (RF); and 3)restricted feed (9hr/d) and 9L:15D (RLF). After except for Naturphos high level, which had lower feed consumption in
14 d, all broilers were changed to 24 hr L and ad libitum feed. At week weeks 2, 3, and 4 but was not diﬀerent from PC in weeks 5 and 6. NC
6, 11 birds per pen of equal weight were processed with results indicating tended to have lower speciﬁc gravity than all other treatments, this was
that male control birds were heaviest. The ready-to-cook (RTC) carcass signiﬁcant when all three biweekly meansurements were averaged. The
weights for the control birds were also higher (P≤.05). The percent head phytase treatments did not diﬀer from the PC in any measurement pe-
and neck weights for the RF and RLF birds were higher. Females exhib- riod or when the measurements were averaged across time. Egg weights
ited a higher percent weight for intestine, abdominal fat pad, liver, and were not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent at 2 weeks among treatments. NC eggs
lower percent New York dressed weight with no treatment diﬀerences. were signiﬁcantly lighter than the high phytase treatments by 6 weeks.
Control males exhibited the highest RTC as percent live weight. The There were no signiﬁcant diﬀerences in any weigh period between the PC
abstracts of papers 27
and the phytase treatments. These data indicate that both phytase were
117 Genetic selection for reduced fear and distress
equally eﬀective in improving phytic phosphorus utilization.
might beneﬁt poultry well-being and productivity. R. B.
Jones* 1 , D. G. Satterlee2 , J. M. Faure3 , A. D. Mills3 , and G. G. Cadd2 ,
1 Roslin Institute, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS Scotland, 2 Louisiana
Key Words: Layers, Phytase, Phosphorus
State University Ag Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, 3 I.N.R.A. Station
de Recherches Avicoles, Nouzilly, France.
115 Changes in the concentration of metabolic in-
termediates in the crop of poultry subjected to feed with- Poultry well-being and productivity can be seriously damaged by in-
drawal. A. Hinton, Jr.*1 , R. J. Buhr1 , M. E. Hume2 , and K. D. tense or prolonged fear and by chronic elevation of plasma corticos-
Ingram1 , 1 PPMQ, ARS, USDA, Athens, GA 30604, 2 FAPRL, ARS, terone. There is now growing recognition that selective breeding might
USDA, College Station, TX 77845. provide rapid, practicable and acceptable solutions. Manipulating nar-
row, stimulus-speciﬁc fear responses would have little practical value.
The eﬀect of feed withdrawal on the concentration of metabolic inter- However, we have found that divergent selection of Japanese quail for
mediates found in the crop of broilers and turkeys was examined. Five short (STI) rather than long (LTI) tonic immobility fear reactions and
week old male broilers (3 trials) and 10 week old female turkeys (1 trial) for low (LS) rather than high (HS) corticosterone response to mechan-
were obtained from local commercial growers, housed on litter in pens, ical restraint reduced their fear of novel places, things and people as
and provided feed and water ad libitum. Feed withdrawal was initiated well as dampening the adrenocortical response to a number of stressors.
after turkeys had been kept in pens for 8 weeks or after broilers had been The rapidity of divergence suggested a major gene eﬀect. The STI and
kept in the pens for 7 days. Turkeys and broilers were subjected to feed LS quail also showed lower stress-induced reductions in product quality
withdrawal times of 0, 12, or 24 h on litter or in crates. Immediately and body weight, respectively. Furthermore, fear and plasma corticos-
after the feed withdrawal period, broilers and turkeys were processed terone responses to a known stressor were substantially lower in quail
by stunning, bleeding, scalding, and picking. Crops were removed and selected for high rather than low body weight. Thus, selection for one
blended in distilled water. The blended suspensions were centrifuged at fear behavior, one physiological response, or one production characteris-
5000 X g for 15 min, and supernatants were passed through 0.2 µ ﬁl- tic aﬀected the quails reactions to a wide range of alarming and stress-
ters. The concentration of acetic, butyric, propionic, and valeric acids ful stimuli. The similarities across these independent selection programs
in the ﬁltered supernatants was determined by gas chromatography, and suggest ﬁrstly that they might have inﬂuenced the same underlying char-
the concentration of lactic acid was determined with the Gilford Impact acteristics, perhaps fearfulness, and secondly that the genetic reduction
400E analyzer. There were signiﬁcantly lower concentrations of acetic, of fear and distress is likely to beneﬁt both well-being and productivity.
butyric, lactic, and valeric acid in the crops of broilers and turkeys sub- Our ﬁndings may provide a platform for further studies not only in quail
jected to 12 or 24 h of feed withdrawal than in the crops of the animals but also in more commercially important species.
that were not subjected to feed withdrawal. Feed withdrawal produced a
20 to 100% reduction in the concentration of these acids in the crop. Ad- Key Words: Genetic selection, Fear and distress, Well-being
ditionally, there were signiﬁcantly lower concentrations of propionic acid
in the crops of broilers subjected to 12 or 24 h of feed withdrawal than 118 Chicks prefer one side of symmetrical home
in broilers not subjected to feed withdrawal. Feed withdrawal produced boxes: implications for studies of environmental preference.
an 81-100% reduction in the concentration of propionic acid in the crops R. B. Jones*, .
of broilers; however, there was no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in the concentra-
tion of propionic acid in the crops of turkeys that had been subjected Recommendations concerning cage design and bird requirements are of-
to feed withdrawal and turkeys that remained on feed. Reduction in the ten based upon tests of chickens’ preferences for speciﬁc environmental
concentration of these metabolic intermediates in the crop during feed features. Such tests are frequently carried out in the home cage and they
withdrawal is probably related to previously reported decreases in the compare the times spent in each half when these contain diﬀerent mate-
crop s population of lactic acid producing bacteria and increases in crop rials, e.g. wire ﬂoor, wood shavings, artiﬁcial turf. However, many stud-
pH that cause a decrease in the ability of the crop to reduce colonization ies discount the possibility that the birds might already have established
by salmonellae and other Enterobacteria during feed withdrawal. preferences for one side. Herein, I determined if female ISA Brown chicks
were seen more frequently in one or other of two symmetrical halves of
Key Words: Feed withdrawal, Crop, Metabolites, Broilers, Turkeys their home cage. Both halves contained identical ﬂoors, walls and food
and water dishes. Illumination was even and there were no external po-
116 Distribution of behavior patterns in market sitional cues. Two chicks were introduced into each of 16 cages at 1 day
turkeys in relation to age and time of day. H. A. Golin*, R. of age and one was marked. Its position was then noted at 10 min in-
J. Balander, A. P. Rahn, and A. J. Zanella, Michigan State University, tervals on 32 occasions on each of the next 5 days. The chicks showed
Department of Animal Science. strong preferences (Binomial test, z = 2.53, P<.006) for one or other
of the two halves. All 16 chicks showed such dichotomy and 9 of these
Fast growing birds may experience a decrease in activity patterns during intra-individual preferences were signiﬁcant (P always <.05). These ﬁnd-
development that can potentially impair their performance and welfare. ings sound important cautionary notes. The existence of pre-established
The objective of this experiment was to observe and record the daily preferences for a particular side of the home cage could confound the
behavior patterns of a speciﬁc group of turkeys to determine the rela- assessment of chickens attraction to and use of speciﬁc resources or en-
tionship between the age of the turkeys and the time of day in which vironmental enrichment devices when these are introduced into one side
speciﬁc behaviors occurred. Eight birds were randomly selected from a of the cage or other.
population of 25 in a pen and marked with various distinguishing sym-
bols. The marked birds remained in the 2.4 x 3.0 m pen with the other Key Words: Domestic chicks, Cage side preferences, Preference studies
birds throughout the entire experiment. The turkeys were video recorded
for 16 hours (when artiﬁcial lights where typically on) at 16, 17, and 18 119 Siblings in a shell: Examining fertility, hatcha-
weeks of age. Video analysis of the diﬀerent behaviors was done us- bility, embryo mortality, and chick weight in double versus
ing computer software. Behavior categories recorded included sitting, single yolked broiler breeder eggs. G. M. Fasenko*, F. E. Robin-
eating, drinking, standing, and walking. Focal sampling and continuous son, B. L. Danforth, and I. Zelter, University of Alberta.
recording was carried out for two minutes every hour for individual birds.
The 16 observation hours were divided into three time periods; morning Double yolked (DY) (n=141) and single yolked (SY) (n=64) eggs were
(6:30am-11:30am), afternoon (12:30pm-3:30pm) and evening (5:30pm- collected, from a commercial broiler breeder ﬂock and individually iden-
9:30pm). At 16 weeks of age, the birds spent (as a percentage of time) tiﬁed and weighed prior to incubation for 21 d. All eggs were candled
an average of approximately 61% sitting, 4% eating, 1% drinking, 24% and weighed at 7, 14, and 18 d and any eggs with non-viable embryos
standing and 10% walking or moving. At 17 weeks of age, the birds spent removed and broken open to assess fertility and/or stage of embryonic
approximately 63% sitting, 2% eating, ≤1% drinking, 27% standing and death. At 18 d of incubation, all eggs were transferred to pedigree hatch
5% walking or moving. At 18 weeks of age, the birds spent approximately baskets. Any unhatched eggs remaining after 21 d were broken open
55% sitting, 3% eating, 2% drinking, 32% standing and 8% walking or and fertility, hatchability, and embryo mortality calculated on a per yolk
moving. For all three ages and all time periods, the vast majority of time basis. Signiﬁcance was measured at P<.05.
was spent sitting. Fertility and hatchability of fertile yolks were signiﬁcantly reduced in DY
(fertility, 62.5%; hatch of fertile, 9.3%) versus SY eggs (fertility, 98.4%;
Key Words: Turkey, Behavior, Activity, Age, Time hatch of fertile, 88.8%). The incidence of early (≤7 d of incubation),
28 abstracts of papers
mid (8-14 d of incubation) and late (≥15 days of incubation) embryo would be applied to comparable numbers of birds with light and heavy
mortality was signiﬁcantly higher in DY (early, 46.2%; mid, 4.8%; late, mite infestations. Each hen was sprayed around the vent with either
39.8%) versus single yolked eggs (early, 1.6%; mid, 0%; late, 9.6%). Only water (control) or 10% garlic juice in water (garlic). Spraying continued
solitary chicks successfully hatched from DY eggs. Chick body weights each week for three weeks. On the fourth week the same two individuals
were signiﬁcantly greater in DY (53.5g) versus SY eggs (43.3g). These again scored each bird. A small snippet of feathers were removed from
results show that the extremely poor hatchability of DY eggs precludes below the vent of each hen and placed in a labeled Petri dish with a
any beneﬁt that may result from hatching a larger chick from a DY egg round, white ﬁlter paper insert. The insert helped to visualize the mites.
that has more available nutrients. The mite content of each dish was scored by another individual approx-
imately one hour after sampling. There was no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in
Key Words: Broiler breeders, Double yolked eggs, Embryo mortality, Fer- the mite score for hens based on breed or future treatment, 2.3 and 2.4
tility, Hatchability for control and garlic treatments, respectively. After treating the birds
for three weeks there was no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in external mite score
120 Microwave eﬀects on fecally contaminated based on breed. There were signiﬁcantly less mites on the birds treated
hatching eggs. D. R. Ingram, L. F. Hatten, III*, and J. E. Orgeron, with garlic juice when compared to controls based on external and Petri
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA/USA. dish scoring, P<0.002 and P<0.04, respectively. The reduction in ex-
ternal mite score was also signiﬁcant (P<0.004) with controls declining
An experiment, consisting of two trials, was conducted to study the use- approximately 0.2 units while garlic treated hens had a 1.8 unit decrease
fulness of utilizing 2450 MHz of microwave radiation as a means of sani- in external mite score. Topical application of garlic juice may be an ef-
tizing hatching chicken eggshells. In order to determine the eﬀectiveness fective way to decrease Northern fowl mites in laying hens. (Funded by
of microwaving the eggs, hatchability and chick development were con- SC 2x4 Initiative)
sidered. In both trials, 9 replications of 8 broiler breeder eggs were indi-
vidually weighed, covered with chicken fecal material, placed in an egg Key Words: Garlic, Northern fowl mites, Homeopathic treatment, Herbal
ﬂat on a turntable in a microwave oven, and exposed to microwaves for 0, treatment, Mites
20, 40, 60 or 80 sec. Once the eggs were treated, they were immediately
set. They were then candled at 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 days of incubation. r
All eggs appearing to be infertile, containing dead embryos, or having
123 Eﬀect of Astra-Ben 20 on broiler chicks ex-
posed to aﬂatoxin B1 or T-2 toxin. W. M. Hagler, Jr., J. L.
bacterial infection were removed. Of these, the eggs determined to have
Grimes, and A. S. Fairchild*, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
bacterial infection were disposed of, while the remaining were broken and
true fertility determined. At hatch, individual chicks were weighed. All
unhatched eggs were broken and time of embryo death determined. Ex-
The objective of this experiment was to examine eﬀects of dietary sodium
posure to microwaves did not signiﬁcantly improve fertile hatchability. r
bentonite, ASTRA-BEN 20 (AB) [Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy,
Percent pips was not signiﬁcantly aﬀected by treatment. Percent dead
Ill.], on broiler chicks fed diets with 6 ppm T2 toxin (T2) or 4 ppm aﬂa-
was aﬀected signiﬁcantly with 80 sec. of exposure having signiﬁcantly
toxin B1 (B1) to 21 d. Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly placed
more dead than the control group. Chick weight was analyzed with egg
in batteries and assigned to one of nine dietary treatments (7 replicates
weight as a covariant and was not signiﬁcantly aﬀected by treatment.
of 5 chicks): control (C); 1% AB (AB1); 2% AB (AB2); T2; T2+ AB1;
T2+AB2; B1; B1+AB1; and B1+AB2. Individual BW, feed consump-
Key Words: Hatching eggs, Fecal contamination, Microwaves, Hatchabil-
tion by pen, period and cumulative feed conversions (FC, CFR) and body
ity, Chick weight
weight gains (BWG) were determined weekly. Liver weight (LW), relative
LW (RLW), and liver fat (%, PLF) were determined at d21 for B1 chicks.
121 Inﬂuence of microwave exposure of hatching
Oral lesions were scored on d21 for T2 chicks. Performance parameters
eggs on subsequent sex ratio of broiler chicks. D. R. Ingram* r
were regressed on treatments using the GLM Procedure of SAS . Means
and L. F. Hatten, III, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center,
were separated using LSMEANS; signiﬁcance was set at P≤0.05. AB1
Baton Rouge, LA/USA.
reduced BW and BWG at d7, 14, and 21 and increased d21 FC. There
were no signiﬁcant diﬀerences between AB2 and C. B1 reduced BW and
It has been suggested that exposure to microwaves may inﬂuence the sex
BWG at d14 and 21 and FC at d14 and 21. AB1 and AB2 returned
ratio of chicks when they are applied to eggs prior to incubation. There-
BW and BWG to C levels. AB2 returned LW and RLW to C levels. B1
fore, several experiments were conducted to determine the inﬂuence of
increased PLF, but AB1 and AB2 reduced PLF to C levels. T2 reduced
subjecting eggs to microwaves of 2450 MHz for 0-80 sec. All the eggs
BW and BWG at d7, 14, and 21. T2 + AB1 and T2 + AB2 improved
receiving microwave exposure were placed 8 at a time on a turntable in a
BW and BWG at d7 and 14 when compared to T2. T2 + AB1 improved
microwave oven from 20-80 sec. After treatment the eggs were immedi-
BW at d21 relative to T2; improvements by AB2 approached signiﬁcance
ately set. All the eggs were candled at 7 days of incubation, and infertile
(P≤0.07). T2 + AB2 decreased oral lesion severity compared to T2. T2
and fertile deads were removed. These eggs were broken and true fertility
or T2 +AB1 or AB2 increased FC and CFR compared to C. FC was
determined. At hatch, all chicks were weighed and surgically sexed. Sex
increased by T2, but AB provided protection. T2 + AB1 or AB2 im-
data were analyzed by Chi-square analysis. Microwave exposure did not
proved 14-21 d FC. D21 CFR for chicks fed T2 + AB2 was intermediate
signiﬁcantly improve hatchability and exposure for 80 sec. signiﬁcantly
between those fed T2 and C. FC at d21 increased in birds receiving T2
decreased hatchability. Sex ratio was not signiﬁcantly aﬀected by any of
or T2 + AB1, while T2 + AB2 approached signiﬁcance (P= 0.06). AB
the microwave treatments.
protected chicks from dietary B1 and provided intermediate protection
against dietary T2.
Key Words: Microwaves, Hatching Eggs, Sex Ratio, Hatchability
122 Topical application of garlic reduces Northern Key Words: T-2 toxin, Aﬂatoxin B1, Sodium bentonite, Performance
Fowl Mite infestation in laying hens. G. P. Birrenkott*, G. E.
Brockenfelt, J. A. Greer, and M. Owens, Clemson University, Clemson, 124 Eﬀect of maternally administered antibiotics on
SC. competitive exclusion culture establishment in the gut of
neonatal chicks. J. L. McReynolds*1 , D. Y. Caldwell1 , B. M. Hargis1 ,
Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the oldest traditional medicinal plants. J. R. DeLoach2 , E. T. Barnhart2 , and D. J. Caldwell1 , 1 Texas A&M Uni-
Some of garlic’s pharmaceutical properties have been documented while versity, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, TX.,
others exist as folklore and anecdote. One of these therapeutic charac- 2 MS BioScience, Dundee, IL.
teristics is its eﬀect on internal and external parasites. Northern fowl
mites are external parasites that can lower egg production, cause ane- To avoid potential transfer of antibiotic resistance, safe and eﬀective com-
mia and even death in laying hens. An experiment was conducted with petitive exclusion cultures must, by necessity, be highly sensitive to an-
brown shell and SCWL laying hens. Hens were individually caged and timicrobial residues. The following studies evaluated the eﬀect of ma-
provided ad libitum a complete laying diet and water. All birds were ini- ternal administration of selected antibiotics on the establishment of one
tially handled and scored (0 to 4, in 0.5 increments) by two individuals licensed competitive exclusion culture, PreemptTM . Selected antibiotics
as to the prevalence of mites. Within each breed all birds that initially were administered to actively laying hens for a period of 7 days (exp.
scored between 0.5 and 2 were randomly assigned to either the control 1) or 9 days (exp. 2) in the drinking water (sulfadimethoxine (.05%),
or garlic treatment. The same process was used for birds that scored enroﬂoxacin (.005%), tylosin tartrate (.05%)) or in the feed (Rofenaid,
between 3 and 4. This assured that within each breed both treatments manufacturer recommended levels). In experiment 1, fertile eggs were
abstracts of papers 29
collected daily and subjected to bioassay for detectable antimicrobial chicken digestive tract system was observed in the simulated gizzard,
residues in yolk. Antimicrobial residues were not detected during the 7 followed by the small intestine, crop, large intestine and proventriculus.
days of treatment or the subsequent 3 days following cessation of treat-
ment in the control, sulfadimethoxine or tylosin treatment groups. How- Key Words: Campylobacter, Lactobacilli, Simulated chicken digestive
ever, detectable residues were observed in eggs derived from enroﬂoxacin- tract
treated hens on days 6,7,9 and 10 of the study. In experiment 2, an-
timicrobial residues were only detected in yolks from hens treated with 126 Eﬀect of prolonged heat stress in SCWL hens
enroﬂoxacin. A subset of eggs from each group were collected at days on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis organ invasion in
3-6 or 13-15 and were incubated and treated with PreemptTM at hatch. progeny. M. B. Farnell*, R. W. Moore, B. M. Hargis, and D. J.
When 48 hr cecal propionate concentrations were used as an index of cul- Caldwell, Texas A&M University, Texas Agricultural Experiment Sta-
ture establishment, reduced (P<.05) eﬃcacy was observed only in chicks tion, College Station, TX.
derived from enroﬂoxacin-treated hens at either collection period. While
several antibiotics do not appear to produce detectable egg residues or Our laboratory has often had diﬃculty infecting neonatal chickens with
interfere with CE establishment, these data suggest that chicks derived invasive salmonellae when ambient temperatures exceed 30C. We hypoth-
from enroﬂoxacin-treated hens may not be candidates for safe and eﬀec- esized that this increased resistance in chicks during warmer months may
tive CE culture treatment. be associated with heat-stress associated maternal factors. Presently,
SCWL hens were divided into a non-heat-stressed group, reared under
Key Words: Competitive exclusion, Chicks, Propionate, Antibiotics temperatures from approximately 10-24C, and a heat-stressed group, in
which environmental temperature was incrementally elevated to 37C and
maintained for the study. For experiment 1 (EXP 1), eggs from heat
125 Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni in simulated stressed or control hens, collected days 8-14 of the study, were pooled
chicken digestive tract by Lactobacilli culture. M. H. Chang*1 and incubated. At the time of egg collection, mean hen-day egg produc-
and T. C. Chen1 , 1 Poultry Science Dept., Mississippi State University, tion was 51.83% or 65% for heat-stressed or control hens, respectively.
MS 39762. On day-of-hatch, progeny from hens in each group were orally challenged
with 0.9 X 104 cfu SE. Rates of SE organ invasion of 97.3% or 94.4% were
Veronal buﬀer solutions corresponding to the pH of successive segments obtained in progeny from heat stressed or control hens, respectively. In
of chicken digestive tract were prepared. Lactobacilli mixture was pre- EXP 2, eggs from heat stressed or control hens from days 30-42 of the
pared by mixing four fresh Lactobacilli cultures including L.acidphilus, present study were collected and pooled for incubation. Mean hen-day
L.fermentum, L.crispatus, and L.brevis. Two milliliters each of the Lac- egg production was 46.5% or 72.85% for heat stressed or control hens,
tobacilli mixture and Campylobacter jejuni were added to tubes con- respectively. On day-of-hatch, progeny were orally challenged with either
taining 2g of sterile poultry feed. Fourteen milliliter of the previously 2.2 X 103 or 2.2 X 104 cfu SE. A 100% incidence in SE organ invasion
prepared veronal buﬀer solutions were then added separately. The mix- was observed in all groups. In EXP 3, eggs were collected from days
tures were incubated at 41.4 0 C for the following lengths of time: pH 4.5 43 through 56 of the present study. Mean hen-day egg production was
(crop), 30 min; pH 4.4 (proventriculus), 15 min; pH 2.6 (gizzard), 90 min; 19.8% or 76.8% for heat-stressed or control hens, respectively. On day-
pH 6.2 (small intestine), 90 min; and pH 6.3 (large intestine), 15 min. of-hatch, progeny were orally challenged with 2 X 103 cfu SE. Rates of
The Lactobacilli and Campylobacter were enumerated before and after SE organ invasion of 95.8% or 95.6% were obtained in progeny from heat
incubation. Results indicated that the growth of Campylobacter jejuni stressed or control hens, respectively. These data suggest that factor(s)
can be retarded by Lactobacilli culture as compared to that of control. other than elevated temperature may be responsible for seasonal resis-
When the 106 and 104 cfu/mL Lactobacilli mixture were added, the log tance to invasive salmonellae infection in neonatal chickens observed by
cfu/mL reduction of Campylobacter jejuni ranged from 0.65 to 2.86 and our laboratory during warmer months in Texas.
0.33 to 2.86 in the simulated chicken digestive tract. The largest reduc-
tion of Campylobacter jejuni by Lactobacilli culture in the simulated Key Words: Heat stress, Salmonellae, Progeny, Resistance
POSTERS: Monday, John Q. Hammons Hall IV, PATHOLOGY
127 Application of the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein as- result in death and represent a signiﬁcant economic loss to poultry breed-
say for serological detection of Salmonella enteritidis infec- ers. Limb deformities can result from abnormal development of any bone
tion in chickens. P Holt*1 , 1 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory. including femur, tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus or the phalanges. These
bones may be individually deformed, or the condition may aﬀect two or
Periods of inﬂammation due to infection, injury, or malignancy are
more bones. However the most commonly encountered leg deformities in
marked by increases in serum constituents known as acute phase proteins
ostriches are characterized by a progressive lateral rotation of the tibio-
(APP) and these proteins have been used as markers for early stages of
tarsus and the tarsometatarsus (tibiotarsal rotation has been identiﬁed
disease. The current study was conducted to examine whether levels in
as a major constraint to farmed ostrich production in Australia). The
chickens of one such APP, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), would be af-
pathogenesis of that condition is not entirely understood, but etiology
fected by an infection with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and if the stress
indicates that genetic, management, sex, nutrition and growth rate are
of induced molting would increase these eﬀects. Forty speciﬁc pathogen
regarded as causal factors. No microscopic lesions have been described
free white leghorn hens were divided into 4 equal groups: molted un-
for rotated t´ıbia in spite of the fact that in some reports it has been as-
infected, molted infected, unmolted infected, and unmolted uninfected.
sociated with early rickets. Other observations suggest that the growth
On day 4 of molt, the infected groups were challenged with 5 X 106 SE
plate may contribute to a greater range of bone torsion and angulation.
and serum levels of AGP were determined 3 days later. Infection with
It is considered that growth plates defects, such as dyschondroplasia, can
SE signiﬁcantly increased levels of AGP compared to levels in uninfected
increase the incidence of bone distortion, but are not necessarily a pre-
birds. While molting signiﬁcantly increased the SE numbers in the birds,
requisite to the initial deformity. The aim of this study was to character-
it had no apparent eﬀect on the AGP response. These results indicate
ize histologicaly the growth plates of the leg bones in ostrich (Struthio
that infections with SE will elevate serum levels of AGP which do not
camelus) with tibiotarsal rotation. The authors observed ten animals,
appear to be aﬀected by stressors such as induced molting.
raised in a standard way. The sagital section of the ephyﬁsies showed
foci of cartilage in the metaphysis resembling dyschondoplastic lesions.
Key Words: Inﬂammation, Acute phase proteins, Infection
Microscopically the prehypertophic chondrocytes were necrotic, shruken
cells with pyknotic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. On the other hand
abundant osteoclasts were observed as in cases of rickets resulting from
128 Histology of the Growth Plates of the Leg Bones calcium or vitamin D deﬁciency.
in Ostrich (Struthio Camelus) with Tibiotarsal Rotation.
F. Capela e Silva*1 , A. M. S. Cabrita2 , A. Pinelas1 , and M. B. P. V. Key Words: Ostrich, Tibiotarsal rotation, Growth plates
Fran¸a2 , 1 University of Evora, 2 University of Coimbra.
Limb deformities of mutltiple and speciﬁc types are commonly encoun-
tered in young or growing chicks of various species of birds, including
commercial broilers, turkeys and ratites. Deformities of the legs usually