Developments and Paradigms in International HRM by uig68777

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									       Developments and Paradigms in
             International HRM



                    Cathy Sheehan
                    Marilyn Fenwick

                            ACREW lunchtime seminar series
                            Monday 3rd September

www.monash.edu.au
Research aims


• to explore support for Brewster’s (1999)
  suggestion that Australian IHRM research
  favours a particular research paradigm.

• to test the applicability of the systematic review
  approach that is widely applied in the health
  and other sciences to research in IHRM.




                                             www.monash.edu.au
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   Relevant paradigms
The paradigms defined by Brewster (1999: 47-48)

Universalist
    “…a nomothetic social science approach: using evidence to test generalisations of an abstract
      and law-like character”

    – Theory directs the data collection which is in turn used to test the theory and lead to
      prediction
          > deductive, evidence-based testing of such generalisations
               – reflects an objectivist epistemology, a positivist theoretical perspective
               – dominated by sampling and measurement methodology


Contextualist
    “…is idiographic, searching for an overall understanding of what is contextually unique and
       why”

    –   Theory is built from the data
          > Inductive, data-based examination
               – reflects a subjective epistemology, an interpretive theoretical perspective
               – dominated by observation methodology


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   Definition of IHRM
• Schuler, Budhwar & Florkowski’s (2002: 41)
    – world-wide management of human resources with the purpose of enabling the
      multinational enterprise to perform successfully.

• Dowling and Welch’s (2004) leading text
    – highlight the interplay of human resource activities, types of employees, and
      countries of operation, (2004: 5).

• Clark et al (2000: 8)
    – adopted a broad typology of three areas; “work relations”, “employment
      relations” and “industrial relations”, and their activities, attributed to HRM by
      Gospel (1992).

• Scullion’s (1995: 352) succinct yet holistic definition:
    – the human resource management issues and problems arising from the
      internationalization of business, and the human resource management
      strategies, policies and practices which firms pursue in response to the
      internationalization process.
                                                                    www.monash.edu.au
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IHRM in Australia…..


   The value of a polycentric approach
                                Clark & Pugh (2000)



Dowling & Welch (1988)
  Used a case study approach to identify and
     analyse developments in IHRM in Australia




                                           www.monash.edu.au
                                                           5
In line with the proposed value of taking a polycentric approach
    and using Brewster’s distinctions…….


Research question
     Is there a dominant paradigm -universalist or contextualist-
         evident in published Australian IHRM research, and if so,
                    how is it reflected in that research?




                                                    www.monash.edu.au
                                                                    6
Conducting a rigorous review
• A high quality review is systematic, complete and focuses on
  concepts. It “covers relevant literature on the topic and is not
  confined to one research methodology, one set of journals, or
  one geographic region”
                                     (Webster & Watson, 2002:xvi).


• Specific criticism of the literature review approach taken in the
  social sciences
   – Unsystematic and possibly unrepresentative

    (Lilford et al, 2003; Salipante et al 1982; Webster and Watson,
                                                              2002)


                                                     www.monash.edu.au
                                                                     7
What is a systematic review?



 A review of a clearly formulated question that uses
    systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and
    critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and
    analyse data from the studies that are included in the
    review.

     – Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used
       to analyse and summarise the results of the included studies

                                      Boaz, Ashby, & Young, (2002)


                                                       www.monash.edu.au
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Method
Defining the parameters of the study:

What constitutes IHRM?

Scullion’s (1995: 352) - the human resource management issues and problems
   arising from the internationalization of business, and the human resource
   management strategies, policies and practices which firms pursue in response
   to the internationalization process.

    – Key HRM activities
         > human resource planning, staffing, performance management,
           training and development, compensation and benefits

         > associated with Morgan‟s dimensions of IHRM,
            – types of employees and
            – countries of operation
                                                                     Morgan (1986)
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Method
Defining the parameters of the study:

• Excluded research associated with industrial
  relations
   – IR and HRM, although related, are distinguished as
     separate discursive constructs
         – different language and underlying assumptions
                                        (Watson 1997, Legge 1995)


• A review of IR would be worthy of a separate study


                                                       www.monash.edu.au
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Method
Defining the parameters of the study:

Which studies were included?
   – research conducted by Australians (including Australians who
      are on sabbatical and affiliated with non-Australian institutions)

    – research content had to include Australian participants if the
      research was empirical or to deal with themes that were
      relevant to the Australian context if the analysis were
      conceptual.

    – exclusion of journalistic / practitioner publications as these
      publications are less likely to be focused on theory development


                                                         www.monash.edu.au
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Method

Defining the parameters of the study:
Start Date
   – 1989
      > Dowling (1989) Hot issues overseas, The Personnel
        Administrator

      > Name change of the leading HRM journal from HRM:
        Human Resource management Australia to Asia
        Pacific HRM
         – Eric McKay, the National President of the Institute of
           Personnel Management in Australia explained that the name
           change was prompted by the need for the publication to
           reflect the expansion of HRM beyond national boundaries.
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Method

Consistent with the systematic approach the following
  steps were taken to capture all the IHRM published
  research

   – Journal selection
      > Wong-Mingji & Mir, 1997; Caligiuri, 1999

   – Initial database search for key words using topic
     areas
       > Follow up search by author name

   – Search concluded in December 2006
                                             www.monash.edu.au
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   Method
Use of NVivo
    – classification of attributes and posting of sections of text to „nodes‟

    – Coding categories followed the basic extraction tool expected in a
      systematic review and noted by Boaz et al (1999)
       > For example:
             –   Details of publication- author(s), institutional affiliation(s), journal
             –   Research question – aim(s), hyp
             –   Study design – conceptual, empirical, quantitative, qualitative
             –   Participants – inclusion group, recruitment procedures,
                 characteristics
             –   Research tools – instruments,( survey, interviews, focus groups),
                 piloting of instrument
             –   Theory
             –   Ethics approval
             –   Analysis – reliability and validity, statistical techniques, computer
                 analysis tools used
                                                                   www.monash.edu.au
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  Method
Classification of theoretical approach as either
  universalist or contextualist

What is theory?
  – A theory must contain 4 elements

      > The domain of the theory
         – What – the factors that are to be part of the explanation
         – How – how are they related?

         – Why – the dynamics that justify the selection of factors and
           proposed causal relationship
         – Who, where, when – the limitations on the propositions
           generated
                                           (Whetton 1989;Sekaran, 2000
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Method
What theory is not……

   – Descriptions of, or commentaries on, the features or qualities of
     individual things, acts or events must be distinguished from
     theory

       > These accounts do not constitute a theory as no logical
         relationship between variables is specified in the discussion.


   – Categorization of data – whether qualitative or quantitative – is
     not theory

                                  Bacharach 1989; Sutton & Staw 1995

                                                            www.monash.edu.au
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  Method
Theory within universalist and contextualist paradigms

• Where an empirical or data collection approach is used:

    – both paradigm choices generate theory but there will be differences
      in the timing and structuring of the elements of theory development:

        > A universalist choice uses a deductive approach that draws
          from existing expectations to test generalisable relationships
           – As the relationship between variables is based on existing
             expectations these relationships will be stated before the data is
             gathered: apriori

        > A contextualist choice will use an inductive approach that
          allows relationships to emerge from the data
           – The relationship structuring therefore will occur after the data has
             been collected: post hoc
                                                                 www.monash.edu.au
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    Table 1: Criteria for theoretical classification for
                     empirical studies




   Apriori                                 Post Hoc
   Variables identified and   New theory   Relationship tested    New theory
   relationships proposed:    apparent*                           apparent*
   deductive approach

                                           variables identified   New theory
   No specific                             and relationships      apparent*
   relationships                           developed from data
   established:                            collected: inductive
   exploratory research                    approach




*Factors are distinguished, relationships are proposed and justified,
context explained in line with definitions of theory forwarded by Sekaran (2000), Sutton
& Staw (1995), Whetton 1989.
Method


• For conceptual research
  – concerned with the explication of ideas,

     > theory will be evident when specific variables
       are identified and relationships are proposed.

     > Again as these ideas are established prior to
       the collection of new data this is consistent
       with a deductive approach.


                                             www.monash.edu.au
                                                            19
Preliminary results


A total of 80 articles:

   – 54 Empirical articles
      > 20 quantitative
      > 26 qualitative
      > 8 mixed method

   – 26 Conceptual articles


                              www.monash.edu.au
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            Table 2: Emergent Classification of theoretical
                  approaches in empirical research
     Apriori                             Post Hoc
     Variables identified   11           Relationships tested - discussion
     and relationships      New theory   of results either confirmed
     proposed:              apparent*    expected relationship or explained
     deductive approach                  failed hypotheses with other
                                         suggested variables
     No specific
     relationships          43           Descriptions of phenomena            16
     established:
     exploratory research
                                         Comparative sector / stakeholder
                                         studies - descriptive comparison     5
                                         Comparative country studies -
                                         descriptive comparison               4

                                         Comparative country studies -        4
                                         Relationships developed:             New theory
                                         inductive approach                   apparent*
                                         New relationships proposed :         14
                                         inductive approach                   New theory
                                                                              apparent*



*Factors are distinguished, relationships are proposed and justified,
context explained in line with definitions of theory forwarded by Sekaran (2000), Sutton
& Staw (1995), Whetton 1989.
     Table 3: Emergent Classification of Theoretical
          Approaches in Conceptual Research



   Variables identified and relationships proposed : deductive approach     11
                                                                            New theory
                                                                            apparent*

   Discussion papers that identify research gaps                            6
   Discussion papers that propose strategies and courses of action          9



*Factors are distinguished, relationships are proposed and justified,
context explained in line with definitions of theory forwarded by Sekaran (2000), Sutton
& Staw (1995), Whetton 1989.
Discussion


Research question
       Is there a dominant paradigm -universalist or
        contextualist- evident in published Australian
     IHRM research, and if so, how is it reflected in that
                          research?




                                            www.monash.edu.au
                                                           23
Discussion

• Analysis revealed a preference for a deductive rather than
  an inductive approach to theory building:

   – 22 empirical and conceptual papers drew on a universalist
     deductive approach and

   – 18 empirical articles adopted an contextualist inductive approach.

• BUT
   – there is a slight overall preference for inductive research consistent
     with the contextualist paradigm; over half (43 of 80) of all of the
     articles reviewed fell into this category.


                                                        www.monash.edu.au
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Presence / absence of theory……

   – Deductive research approach (37 papers)
      > 11 empirical papers with theory apparent
      > 11 conceptual papers with theory apparent              59%
      > 15 conceptual papers with no apparent theory           41%

   – Inductive research approach (43 papers)
      > 18 empirical papers with theory apparent               42%

      > 25 empirical papers with no apparent theory            58%


Overall presence of theory 50%, no theory 50%

                                                      www.monash.edu.au
                                                                     25
  Implications of the research

Value of taking a systematic review approach
   – Opportunity to compare articles across a range of criteria
   – Draw conclusions about strengths and weakness in the literature
     base


With respect to IHRM in Australia
   – the research provides a slight preference for a contextual
     paradigm

   – also raises concerns about the realisation of theory development in
     the research


                                                          www.monash.edu.au
                                                                         26

								
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