The Military Decision Making Process MDMP in The LRS Planning Phase As of 23 July 2001 Agenda • References • Military Decision Making Process MDMP Model • Mission Analysis and Brief – Pra

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The Military Decision Making Process MDMP in The LRS Planning Phase As of 23 July 2001 Agenda • References • Military Decision Making Process MDMP Model • Mission Analysis and Brief – Pra Powered By Docstoc
					 The Military Decision
Making Process (MDMP)
           in
The LRS Planning Phase


      As of: 23 July 2001
                           Agenda
• References
• Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) Model
• Mission Analysis and Brief
    – Practical Exercise
•   Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB)
    – Practical Exercise
• COA Development
    – Practical Exercise
• COA War-gaming
    – Practical Exercise
• COA Comparison
    – Practical Exercise
                    References
• FM 7-10 The Infantry Rifle Company

• FM 7-93 Long Range Surveillance Unit Operations

• ARTEP 7-93 MTP Mission Training Plan for the Long-Range
                 Surveillance Company / Detachment / Team

• FM 34-130 Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

• FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations

• FM 101-5-1 Operational Terms and Graphics
             Planning Phase

• Covers the G2 conception of the mission to the final
  inspection of the LRS Team.
• The success of LRS operations depends on thorough
  planning, acquiring SOR and reporting in a timely
  manner.
• Detailed planning ensures mission success and team
  survival.
• Team Leader uses specific steps in planing LRS
  missions. These procedures are comprehensive, yet
  flexible.
                       FM 7-93
    OPORD vs. Brief-Back

• The success of the plan depends on the Team
  Leader using the OPORD as his primary planning
  tool.
• The brief-back is a form of rehearsal and should not
  be the focus of the planning effort.



                       FM 7-93
                                            MDMP Model
                                                                                                               MISSION ANALYSIS
                                                                  ESTIMATE                             • CDR INTENT 2 LEVELS UP
        TROOP LEADING                                       1. MSN ANALYSIS
         PROCEDURES
                                                                                                       • SPEC/IMPLIED TASKS
1.   RECEIVE MISSION                                        2. *ANALYZE SIT &
2.   ISSUE WARNING ORDER                                        DEVELOP COAs
                                                                                                       • MISSION ESSENTIAL TASK
3.   MAKE TENT PLAN
4.   INITIATE MOVEMENT                                      3. ANALYZE COAs
                                                                                                       • RESTATED MISSION STATEMENT
5.   CONDUCT RECON                                             (War-Game)
6.   COMPLETE THE PLAN                                                                                     METT-T
7.   ISSUE OPORD                                            4. COMPARE COAs
                                                                                                        MSN                      • Review OAKOC/MCOO
8.   SUPERVISE                                                                                          TERRAIN
                                                            5. DECISION                                 (OACOK)                  • Doctrinal Template,
                                                                                                        ENEMY                    • SITTEMP
                                                                                                        TROOPS                   • Enemy MPCOA, MDCOA
                                                                                                                                 • Event Template
                                                                                                        TIME
                                                                                                                                 • Detailed Planning and
                                                                                                                                 Operational Timelines
        Planning Steps:                                                   Steps Cont.:
        1. Receive the Mission                                            7. Compare the COAs using the COA Matrix and select the best COA
        2. Conduct Mission Analysis                                       8. Brief the Cdr; after approval, thoroughly war game the COA to
        3. Give Mission Analysis Brief to Cdr                             identify all contingencies and alternate plans.
        4. Conduct in depth IPB and analysis of METT-T                    9. Complete the plan and Issue the Team OPORD
        5. Develop COAs (Reasonable, Feasible, Distinguishable)           10. Rehearse, Include rehearsals for all contingencies identified.
        6. Analyze the COAs using the COA Criteria and a quick            11. Prepare for and conduct the Final Briefback
        War Game. Rate each COA without comparing them yet.               12. Conduct Final Inspections/PCIs
Mission Analysis
              Mission Analysis

• Mission and Intent of Two Levels Higher
• Conduct Initial Intelligence Preparation of the
  Battlefield (IPB) (MCOO and SITTEMP)
• Determine Specified and Implied Tasks
    – Review CCIR (PIR, IR, SIR, SOR; FFIR; and EEFI)
    – Review Guidance: COA, E&R, Abort Criteria, Critical
      Events, No-Commo, etc.
•   Identify Mission Essential Task(s)
•   Review Assets Available
•   Determine Constraints and Limitations
•   Identify Critical Facts & Assumptions
           Mission Analysis
                 (Continued)

• Conduct Risk Assessment (Determine Acceptable
  Risk)
• Determine Initial Reconnaissance Requirements and
  Required Coordination
• Plan Use of Available Time
      -Planning Timeline
      -Operational Timeline
• Write the Restated Mission
• Conduct the Mission Analysis Briefing
                   CDR’s Guidance
• Reference: ARTEP 7-93 MTP, Task 7-5-1603
  – The Commander produces a five paragraph company OPORD that
    must contain:
     •   Task Organization
     •   Enemy Information (Road to War, SITTEMP, EVENT TEMP)
     •   Mission
     •   Concept and intent for maneuver and supporting fires. (Possible LZs,
         Areas to Avoid, COA Development and Comparison Guidance, Axis for
         Infiltration, etc.)
     •   Fire Plan (Purpose, Priority, Allocation, Restrictions, SEAD)
     •   Tasks for subordinates (AVN, BRS, LNOs, etc.)
     •   Coordinating Instructions (Detailed planning and operational timelines,
         Abort Criteria, MOPP level, rehearsal directives, ROE, etc.)
     •   Contingencies (Downed A/C; Vehicle Break Down; E&R; No-Commo;
         Emergency MEDEVAC, Resupply, or Extraction; etc.)
                CDR’s Guidance
                          (Continued)
• Reference: ARTEP 7-93 MTP, Task 7-5-1603
  – Five paragraph company OPORD (Continued):
     • Control Measures to expedite synchronization (AO, LOA, Phase Lines,
       Check Points, ACPs, CCP, NFA / RFAs, Reporting Requirements (Times
       and Data), etc.)
     • Critical Intelligence reporting and collection requirements (PIR, IR, SOR;
       EEFI; FFIR = CCIR)
     • CSS Instructions (Soldier’s Load Guidance, Caches, Transportation,
       Maintenance, Replacement Parts, KIA / WIA, EPW, etc.)
     • Command and Signal Information (HF / SAT Annex; E&R Frequencies
       and Signals; Call Signs, Frequencies, and COMSEC for Supporting
       Units, etc.)
                SAMPLE
                  LRS
          Mission Analysis Brief
DIV MSN/INT:                           DET MSN/INT:


SPECIFIED TASK:                        IMPLIED TASK:


SOR:                                   CCIR:


LIMITATIONS / CONSTRAINTS:         FACTS/ASSUMPTIONS:


COMMANDER’S GUIDANCE:


RESTATED MISSION STATEMENT (TASK/PURPOSE):


* DENOTES MISSION ESSENTIAL TASK/SOR
Practical Exercise

  Mission Analysis
Intelligence Preparation
          of the
     Battlefield (IPB)
    Intelligence Preparation
     of the Battlefield (IPB)

A systematic approach to analyzing the enemy,
weather, and terrain in a specific geographic area. It
integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and
terrain as they relate to the mission and the specific
battlefield environment. This is done to determine
and evaluate enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and
probable courses of action.



                    FM 101-5-1
                                IPB
• Define The Battlefield Environment
    – Identify Significant Characteristics of the Environmental
    – Identify Limits Of The Area Of Operation (AO) and Establish the
      Area of Interest (AI)
    – Evaluate Existing Data and Identify Gaps
    – Request Additional Material
• Describe The Battlefield Effects
    – Analyze The Battlefield Environment: Terrain, Weather, etc. (Build
      MCOO)
    – Describe the Battlefield Effects on Threat and Friendly Capabilities
      and Broad COAs



                           FM 34-130 / 101-5
                               IPB
• Evaluate The Threat
   – Update Doctrinal Template
   – Describe Threat Tactics And Capabilities


• Determine Threat COAs
   –   Identify Likely Objectives and Desired End State(T,P)
   –   Identify Possible COAs (SITTEMP)
   –   Prioritize and Evaluate COAs
   –   Develop COAs in Detail, as Time Allows (Event Template)




                         FMs 34-130 / 101-5
                              IPB Process
                                                •Evaluate AO / Identify AI
          •Situation Template                   •Initial Intel Requirements
          •Event Template         Define the
                                                •Threat Database
                                  battlefield
          •R&S Plan              environment



                                                              •OAKOC
•Order of Battle                                              •MCOO
•ID Threat Capabilities
                                 Determine                    •AA Analysis
•Doctrinal Template               Threat                      •Weather Analysis
                                  COA’s
                                                Describe
                   Evaluate
                                                   the
                      the
                                                battlefield
                    threat
                                                 effects


                                FM 34-130
          Area Of Operation

A geographical area, including the airspace above,
usually defined by lateral, forward, and rear
boundaries assigned to a commander, by a higher
commander, in which he has responsibility and the
authority to conduct military operations.




                    FM 101-5-1
           Area Of Interest

A geographical area from which information
and intelligence are required to execute
successful tactical operations and to plan for
future operations. It includes any threat forces
or characteristics of the battlefield environment
that will significantly influence accomplishment
of the command’s mission.

                   FM 101-5-1
Area of Operation at Insertion
INFIL
            98
       45
                            DShK

                                   AO CUB


Area of Operation                     DShK
EXFIL




                    SA-18                         36
                                             10
                  Describe the
                Battlefield Effects
Analyze the Military Aspects of the Terrain (OAKOC), Including
the Weather’s Effects.
Product: Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay
1. Obstacles.
      A. Water Obstacles: Depicted in blue.
      B. Roads and Trails: Depicted in black.
      C. Restricted Terrain: An area that can slow or disrupt
      maneuver. Normally depicted with green or brown
      diagonal lines.
               Describe the
             Battlefield Effects
                    (Continued)
1. Obstacles (Continued).
    D. Severely Restricted Terrain: An area that severely
   hinders or slows movement unless some effort is made to
   enhance mobility. Normally depicted with green or brown
   cross-hatching.
    E. Built up Areas: Usually larger than one square
   kilometer. Outlined and cross-hatched in black.
2. Avenue(s) of Approach. Arrows oriented in the direction of
movement. Outlined in red.
    Mobility Corridor(s): Areas where a force will be canalized
   due to terrain constrictions. Outlined in red.
*** Mobility Corridors are grouped to form Avenue(s) of
Approach. ***
                 Describe the
               Battlefield Effects
                      (Continued)

3. Key Terrain. The retention or control of which affords a
marked advantage to either combatant. Depicted in purple by a
circle with a “K” inside.
4. Observation and Fields of Fire. The ability to see the threat
visually or through the use of surveillance devices. (LOS and
VAP studies).
5. Cover and Concealment. Protection from direct / indirect
fires and from observation. (Assists in identification of
defensible sites, possible routes, etc.)
     98
45




          Hydrology




                           36
                      10
Roads & Trails
Restricted Areas
Built Up Areas
Avenues of Approach
Mobility Corridor
              K

                                  K

                  K
              K               K
Key Terrain       K
                                      K
                      K




                          K

                                          K

                          K
      98
 45                      K

                                             K

                             K
                         K               K
  Key Terrain                K
                                                 K
Avenues of Approach              K
      Restricted Areas
           Hydrology


Roads & Trails                       K

                                                     K

                                     K
                                                              36
                                                         10
   Practical Exercise

Describe the Battlefield Effects
           MCOO
              IPB
     Determine Threat COAs

• Doctrinal Template
    – Identify threats objectives and desired end state
    – Apply effects of terrain and weather
•   Situation Template (SITTEMP)
•   Most Probable Course of Action (MPCOA)
•   Most Dangerous Course of Action (MDCOA)
•   Event Template
     Doctrinal Template

The Doctrinal Template is a model based on
enemy tactical doctrine. It portrays
frontages, depths, echelon spacing, and
force composition, as well as his disposition
of combat, combat support, and combat
service support units. It portrays how the
enemy would like to fight with no constraints.



                 FM 101-5-1
     2x mortars positioned to
     support main force and
     supporting force with
     overlaping cover fire.

     2x SA-18 positioned
     along the long axis side
     of DZ supported by a PLT
     HQs.

                                  into PLT HQ / support and
     2x DShK positioned
                                      dispersed squads
     along the short axis of DZ
     supported by a PLT HQs.




                                     into PLT columns


Doctrinal Template
       Company HQs


       Platoon                       1-3 K



       Squad


       SA-18
                                       1-3 K
                     2-3 K   3-5 K


       DShK


       Mortar


       Ammo Cache



Doctrinal Template
     Situation Template

The situation template is a series of
projections that portray, based on enemy
doctrine, the most probable disposition and
location of enemy forces within constraints
imposed by weather and terrain.




                FM 101-5-1
                                    ME:
                                    T: Retain
                                    P: Facilitate resupply by helicopter
   SE:                                 Prevent use of FLS or DZ
   T: Block
   P: Prevent synchronized
      effort against ME from West




                                                           SE:
                                                           T: Block
                                                           P: Prevent synchronized
                                                              effort against ME from East




                                                          SE:
                                                          T: Secure
                                                          P: Prevent use as LZ or DZ
                                                             against ME

Situation Template
Situation Template
        Event Template


Represents a sequential projection of events
that relate to space and time on the battlefield
and indicate the enemy’s ability to adopt a
particular course of action.




                 FM 101-5-1
                 09 0600



                           09 0400



                                     09 0100



                                               08 2300




Event Template
                                       Departure
                                        08 2100
Practical Exercise

Determine Threat COAs
COA Development
                                    The NAI
                                       (FM 34-8)

                                                               When Do We
                                                               Expect To See
          Why Is It
                                                               It?
          Important?
                                              301


     How Long                                 NAI
                                                                 What Do We
     Do We Look?                                                 Expect To See?

NAI: A point or area along a particular avenue of approach through which enemy
activity is expected to occur. Activity or lack of activity within an NAI will help confirm
or deny a particular enemy COA. FM 101-5-1
                  NAI Analysis

• Usually, the team can only observe a portion of the
  NAI
• The commander must direct the team to observe a
  portion of the NAI
• The team develops COAs to support the
  commander’s directives / guidance
• Use the reverse planning method
   – Focus on the mission essential task (SOR at NAI); Plan in
     reverse from the NAI.
            COA Development
• Determine decisive point and time to focus combat power
• Determine results to be achieved at the decisive point to
  accomplish the mission
• Determine the purpose to be achieved by main and supporting
  efforts
• Determine the essential tasks for subordinate units to achieve
  their purpose(s)
• Task organize to accomplish each mission
• Assign C2 headquarters
• Complete a generic task organization
• Establish control measures that clarify and support the
  accomplishment of the assigned mission
• Prepare a COA statement and sketch.

                          FM 7-10
                 COA Qualities

• Suitable - Must accomplish the mission and comply with the
  commander’s guidance.
• Feasible - Unit must have the capability to accomplish the
  mission in terms of available time, space, and resources
• Acceptable - Operational advantage gained by executing the
  COA must justify the cost in resources, especially casualties.
• Distinguishable - Each COA must differ significantly from any
  others. Significant differences result from task organization or
  scheme of maneuver.
• Complete - A good COA positions the force for future
  operations and provides the flexibility to meet unforeseen events
  during execution. It also provides the maximum latitude for
  initiative by subordinates.
                           FM 101-5
          Recommended
       LRS COA Development
• Step 1 - Determine different means to build into the
  COAs to make them distinguishable.
   –   Reconnaissance vs. Surveillance
   –   Number / Location of Surveillance Sites
   –   Locations in Relation to the NAI
   –   Insertion / Extraction Techniques / Platforms


• Step 2 - Divide the team and develop two or three
  COAs. Provide specific development guidance to
  each group.
  LRS COA Development
       (continued)
• Step 3 - Begin developing each COA at the NAI and
  work backwards to the insertion point.
   – Pick a surveillance site that provides maximum stand off, the
     best visibility of the NAI, avoids all expected enemy activity
     (neutral terrain, avoids lines of drift), and has at least two
     covered and concealed escape routes.
   – Consider the terrain (LOS) and weather effects (on STANO
     devices, site construction and occupation, communications)
   – Consider what you expect the enemy to do at the NAI
     (SITTEMP, MPCOA, MDCOA, Event Template)
• Step 4 - Find the most covered and concealed routes
  (Primary and Alternate) from the surveillance site
  away from the NAI.
    LRS COA Development
        (continued)
• Step 5 - Find a hide site along the route that offers
  good cover and concealment, is off natural lines of
  drift, is on (neutral) terrain of no value or interest to
  the enemy, is defensible for a short period of time,
  and supports good communications (with higher and
  the surveillance / R&S team).
• Step 6 - Find the most covered and concealed routes
  (Primary and Alternate) from the hide site to possible
  insertion points.
• Step 7 - Select tentative insertion points (Primary and
  Alternate).
    LRS COA Development
        (continued)
• Step 8 - Choose a means of insertion that minimizes
  the risk of compromise. Consider two insertion COAs
  (Primary and Alternate).
• Step 9 - Choose insertion route(s) from the insertion
  point back to the FLOT (or RP) (AVN normally
  determines cross-FLOT routes and the team
  determines path from RP to LZ / PZ).
• Step 10 - Plan for exfiltration and extraction from the
  NAI to the Hide to the PZ, Pick-up Point, Link-Up
  Point, or Passage of Lines. Then plan back to the
  DOB.
    LRS COA Development
        (continued)
• Step 11 - Consider Possible Contingencies for the
  COA.
• Step 12 - Complete a COA worksheet which details
  (primary and alternate) surveillance sites, hide sites,
  insertion points, and routes; possible contingencies;
  communications plans; and a detailed operational
  timeline.
                                         SAMPLE
                                      COA Worksheet
OPERATIONAL TIMELINE:
INFIL TOT        MVMT TIME ANGUS   ACTION ON OBJ TIMES (LDR RECON, OCCUPATION, CONSTRUCTION)   EYES ON TIME    EYES OFF TIME   EXFIL MVMT TIME   EXTRACT TIME
CONCEPT OF THE OPERATION:                                                       LOGISTICS:



                                                                                                                                 COMMO PLAN:
                                                                                                                                 (Internal / External)
                                                                                                      49

                                                                                                              57
                                                                                                                      N

                    42

            30



CONTINGENCY PLANS:                                                  RECON/SURV PLAN:                                       LEGEND:
Practical Exercise

  COA Development
Analyze / War-Game COA
      Analyze / War-Game
            COA
• War-game the COAs (one at a time) against the
  enemy’s MPCOA, not against each other.
• Pick one person to play the role of the enemy (Be
  free thinking; Preferable an Operations NCO).
• Conduct team action--enemy reaction--team
  counteraction.
• War-game actions on the object, infiltration, and
  exfiltration separately. Prioritize events.
• Fine tune COAs
• Make notes of advantages and disadvantages of
  each COA and any contingency plans required
                  SAMPLE
            War-Game Worksheet
EVENT                                DETECTION   COMPROMISE SURV                 A/C
           DETECTION   WRONG   HOT                                      EN AT
                                     DURING      DURING OCCUP COMP BY            SHOT
           INFLIGHT    LZ      LZ                                       EXT PZ
                                     MOVEMENT    OF SURV SITE EN PATROL          DOWN
TEAM
ACTION


ENEMY
REACTION


TEAM
COUNTER

REMARKS



NOTES:     1. RECORD POTENTIAL ALTERNATE/CONTINGENCY/EMERGENCY PLANS
           2. COMMO SHOULD PARTICIPATE, 1SG/LNO/OPS NCO CAN RED HAT
Practical Exercise

  COA War-Gaming
    After War-Gaming,
   Consider Conducting
A Mission Risk Assessment
Evaluate and Compare
        COAs
           Evaluate And Compare
                  COAs

• After war-gaming and risk assessment, the team compares the
  results of all COAs; the decision matrix is a useful tool to
  evaluate and compare COAs against evaluation criteria
  developed from the mission analysis and Commander’s
   Guidance
• Evaluation criteria are those factors that measure effectiveness,
  cause success, or result in failure.
• The criteria may change from mission to mission and may be
  dependent on the mission essential task(s).
• The commander must weigh the criteria by defining and
  quantifying the criteria to reflect the relative importance of each
  area in which the COA is evaluated.
                   SAMPLE
              COA Comparison and
                Decision Matrix
CRITERIA (WEIGHT)                   COA #1         WT’D COA #2 WT’D COA #3 WT’D

MANEUVER ( )

SURVIVABILITY ( )

OBSERVATION ( )

SIMPLICITY ( )

COMMUNICATIONS ( )

LOGISTICS ( )

TOTALS
NOTES: 1. BEST COA IS ASSIGNED THE HIGHEST NUMERICAL VALUE OF THE THREE COAs, THE BEST IS “3”
       2. UNWEIGHTED TOTALS HELP DETERMINE THE BEST COA WITHOUT REGARD TO WEIGHTS
       3. HIGHEST NUMBER IS MOST SUITABLE COA. HOWEVER, TEAM LEADER MAY CHOOSE ANOTHER COA BASED ON EXPERIECE
Practical Exercise

  COA Comparison
                 Decisions

• Team Leader delivers his COA Decision Brief to the
  Commander
• Commander and Team Leader decide which COA
  the team will develop into an OPORD(or combines
  one or more COA’s)
• Any further major changes to the COA must have the
  commander’s approval