Food Web Modeling The Fate and Transport of PCBs by jxp20641

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									     Food Web Modeling:
The Fate and Transport of PCBs
        in Puget Sound



          Andrew Ryan
               &
      Sydney Townes-Witzel

               http://www.isope.org/conferences/conferences.htm
                  Who We Are
     Mentors: Jeff Stern, Kevin Schock, Bruce Nairn
               Planning and Compliance Department

• Andrew Ryan                    •Sydney Townes-Witzel

  – Senior Western                – Senior at University
    Washington                      of Redlands,
    University                      California

  – Majoring in                   – Double major Biology
    Environmental                   and English
    Science: Emphasis
    Environmental
    Toxicology                    – Pre-med integrated
                                    program
  – Minor in Chemistry
            Project Overview
 Our Assignment                Reasons For Project
• Develop a complex food       • Part of Puget Sound
  web diagram which              Partnership to protect and
  visualizes energy transfer     restore the Sound
  amongst organisms
                               • Target most sensitive PCB
• Develop a food web             transfer pathways
  based PCB fate and
  transport model for the      • Foundation for future
  central basin of Puget         research on Puget Sound
  Sound                          health

                                          http://www.pseconline.org/Ferry.jpg
                     What are PCBs?
• Polychlorinated Biphenyls

• Persistent organic
  pollutants that are no
  longer produced in the
  United States

• Mixture of chlorinated
  compounds (congeners)

• Used in coolants and
  lubricants in electrical
  industry

• Banned in 1977 due to
  environmental risks          http://jjloa.tripod.com/pcb/pcb1.gif
           What’s the big deal with PCBs
  • Planar form most toxic, similar structure to
    dioxin




   Deca-chlorinated PCB                                           2,3,7,8-TCDD dioxin



http://www.uic.edu/sph/glakes/pcb/images/pcb_structure.gif   http://www.aenews.wsu.edu/Dec98AENews/Dec98AENews.htm
      What is a food web model?
• Produced in Excel and
  examines energy transfer

• Based off Arnot and
  Gobas model 2004

• Calculates predicted
  concentration values for
  organisms

• Based off dietary,
  aqueous uptake and loss    Arnot and Gobas 2004
  due to fecal excretion,
  depuration of growth,
  metabolism and loss
  through gills                 http://manns.tmanndesign.com/
Example of Excel Model
     Food Web Model cont’d
• Specifics to our project
  – tracking the fate and transport of PCBs in
    Puget Sound biota
  – Focused on Central Basin

• Diagram most significant pathways

• Highest predatory mammal: harbor seal

• Why no orcas?
      What Was Accomplished
• Gathered research and
  understanding on food
  webs and PCBs

• Met with experts and
  researchers

• Sampling runs

• Conceptual food web
  diagram

• Final Report on Project

• Development of working    http://wsg.washington.edu/mas/pdfs/clamfarmlr.pdf
  Excel Model
             Future Directions
• Continue calibration and
  data collection specific to
  Central Basin

• Expand for greater use in
  both structure and
  complexity

• Higher trophic levels such
  as marine birds

• Dietary research

• Risk for humans in terms
  of seafood consumption        http://lib.law.washington.edu/docs/soundhealth.jpg
     Harbor             Orca             Common            Harlequin        Marbled            Cormor           Bald         River     Great Blue
     Seal                                Murre             Duck             murrelet           ant              Eagle        Otter     Heron


                               Soupfin Sharks                Spiny Dogfish
Pollock

                                                                                                                        Pacific Cod
                                   Pacific Whiting/ Hake               Sablefish                Ling Cod                               Rockfish
      Pacific Salmon


                                                                                                                               Crabs
                                                Octopus                                Squid

          geoducks                                English Sole                                             Rock Sole
                                                                Pacific
   Pacific                                Shiner                                   Spotted          Pacific Sand          Blackeye     Northern
                       Surf Smelt                               Staghorn
   Herring                                Surfperch                                Ratfish          Lance                 Goby         Anchovy
                                                                Sculpin



                                        copepods                        Amphipods
Crustaceans          flagellates                                                                                                            Mollusks
                                                                 Grey Whale            Red Sea Cucumber
                                         Pinto Abalone

Heterotrophic                  DOM
bacteria                                                                  Mysids                   Cnidarians             Tanaids       Isopods
                                                  eupausiids


      Nematodes                                                                                                               Polychaetes
                                                                                                                   Shrimp

                                                   Algae                      kelp                      Salps
          detritus
                                                     Predatory Marine Mammals
                                                             Harbor Seal




Returning adult                         Spiny dogfish
   Salmon

                                         Ground fishes
                                       Rockfish and Hake                               Non-salmonid pelagic fish
                                                                                            Pacific Herring




                                             Demersal Fishes/Flatfishes
        Ratfish
                                                    English sole

                                                                          Bivalve


                                        Spot Prawn
                                                                                                          Herbaceous
                     Benthic
                                                                                                          Zooplankton
                  Invertebrates


                                                                                     Predatory
                                                                                    Zooplankton



                                  Sediment                    Phytoplankton
So… How did we do?
                                               Arnot 2004         Observed tissue
Species Name / PCB Conc (ug/kg ww) (ppb, ww)      Predicted          Concentratio                   difference by
                                                   (ng/kg)             n (ng/kg)    % difference       multiplication

Phytoplankton                                       0.0000014



Herbaceous Zooplankton                              0.0000165




Predatory Zooplankton                                     218                5920             -96                 27

Benthic Invertebrates                                    7730                                                      0

Bivalves                                                  616                                                      0


Spot Prawn                                            395763                                                       0

BLANK                                                         0                                                    0




English Sole                                             6773               22000             -69                  3

Pacific Herring                                       222771               101700            119                   2

Ratfish                                               144519                                                       0

Rockfish                                              530821                27800           1809                  19

Hake                                                    50321               54030              -7                  1

Returning Adult Salmon                                  54400                                                      0

Spiny Dogfish                                        1372637                                                       0

Harbor Seal                                          2950544             18135000             -84                  6
    Acknowledgments
           •Jeff Stern
        •Kevin Schock
          •Bruce Nairn
       •Debra Williston
           •Kim Stark
       •Scott Mickelson
        •Tim Essington
         •Si Simenstad
           •Jon Reum
        •Greg Pelletier
      •Roland Anderson
      •Jeff Christiansen
         •Jenée Colton
•Wastewater Treatment Division

								
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