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					Use the following information to answer the next five questions.

                                 Inclined Plane Experiment

In doing the following inclined plan experiment in “ideal conditions,” students assume
that friction from the air, incline or floor is negligible. A stationary box at the top of a
frictionless incline is released and is allowed to slide to the bottom. The figure below
illustrates the box in four positions labeled A through D as it is sliding from the incline onto
the level floor. As the box moves from the bottom of the incline to the flood, students
assume that the box experiences no change in speed, only a change in direction.




At what time does the box have the greatest kinetic energy?

   A.   0.00 s
   B.   0.85 s
   C.   1.17 s
   D.   1.25 s

The total energy of the box is
   A.   always the same.
   B.   negative at point D.
   C.   increasing with time.
   D.   zero before the box is released.

Where is the potential energy of the box the greatest?

   A.   The potential energy is constant through the motion.
   B.   The potential energy is greatest at the top of the incline.
   C.   The potential energy is greatest midway along the incline.
   D.   The potential energy is greatest at the bottom of the incline.

The weight of the box used in the experiment is 10 Newtons (N) as illustrated in the
figure.

The weight of the box is a measure of the

   A.   velocity of the box while sliding.
   B.   friction between the air and the box.
   C.   kinetic energy at the top of the incline.
   D.   force acting on the box due to gravity.

Assume that the experiment will be repeated in less “ideal” conditions where the effects
of friction on the motion of the box cannot be ignored. Predict the effect that
significant friction would have on the acceleration of the box as it slides down the
incline. Explain the cause of the predicted effect. Respond in the space provided in
your Answer Document. (2 points)

Use the table to answer the next question.

                                    Speed of Sound in Solids
                                             Density       Speed
                               Solids
                                             (g/cm  3)      (m/s)
                                cork           0.25           500
                               brick           1.80          3650
                               glass           2.24          4540
                             stainless
                                               7.90          5000
                               steel

For the solids listed in the data table, which seems to be true about the relationship
between the speed of sound and density?

   A.   The speed of sound decreases as density increases.
   B.   The speed of sound increases as density increases.
   C.   The speed of sound increases as density decreases.
   D.   There is no apparent relationship between density and the speed of sound.
When dropped from the same height, why does a flat sheet of paper fall more slowly
than the same sheet when it is tightly crumpled into a ball?

   A. The sheet of paper has less mass when it is flat that it does when it is crumpled.
   B. The sheet of paper weights less when it is flat than it does when it is crumpled.
   C. The force of gravity has a greater effect on the crumpled paper than it does on
      the flat paper.
   D. The flat sheet of paper has a greater surface area and encounters more air
      resistance than when it is crumpled.

In 1960, physicist Theodore Maiman constructed the first working laser. This design was
improved upon by Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1961. Since then, lasers have been
found to have a wide variety of applications. Identify on application of laser
technology and explain how this application has impacted society. Respond in the
space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

When a space shuttle is launched, it continues to accelerate for several minutes.

Which graph shows the kinetic energy of the space shuttle during the first few minutes
of flight? (Launch time = 0)




   A.




   B.
   C.




   D.


When methane (CH4) is burned in the presence of oxygen (O2), the two chemicals
react together in a process called combustion.

Which of these compounds could be a possible product of this combustion reaction?

   A.   NH3
   B.   SO2
   C.   H2O
   D.   CS2

Gertrude cut two bars of different types of soap into four pieces each. She put one
piece from each bar into each of four beakers, labeled Beaker W, Beaker X, Beaker Y,
and Beaker Z. Each beaker contained a different unknown liquid.
According to the results show above, which beaker contained the liquid that was the
densest?

   A.   Beaker W
   B.   Beaker X
   C.   Beaker Y
   D.   Beaker Z

Use the partial periodic table to answer the following question.
Suppose scientists discovered four new elements (W, X, Y, Z) while studying rock and soil
samples brought back from a Mars mission. Which Lewis dot structure represents an
element that should be placed in column VIIA (17) of the periodic table?



   A.


   B.


   C.


   D.

The water level in a graduated cylinder rises from 10 cm 3 to 35 cm3 when a solid lead
ball is added. What is the approximate volume of the lead ball?
   A.   3.5 cm3
   B.   25 cm3
   C.   35 cm3
   D.   45 cm3

Use the table to answer the following question.

                                       Data Table
                                                           Number of
                    Substance    Number of Protons
                                                            Electrons
                  lithium                   3                   2
                  fluorine                  9                  10
                  potassium                19                  19
                  sulfur                   16                  18

Which substance is electrically neutral?

   A.   lithium
   B.   fluorine
   C.   potassium
   D.   sulfur

Use the partial periodic table to answer the following question.
The noble gas neon is used for filling neon signs. Like other noble elements, it has a full
octet (complete outer energy level) of electrons, which makes the gas

   A.   freeze at room temperature.
   B.   react with other gases in the air.
   C.   unlikely to combine with other elements.
   D.   solidify at standard pressure and temperature.

Which of these elements would most likely be a shiny, gray-colored solid at room
temperature, conduct electricity, and dent when hit with a hammer?

   A.   aluminum
   B.   argon
   C.   chlorine
   D.   sulfur

When you are driving a car, why is braking less effective on a wet road than on a dry
road?
   A.   The water reduces friction.
   B.   Kinetic energy is increased by water.
   C.   Friction increases when the brakes are wet.
   D.   Reaction time is reduced during a rainstorm.

Use the passage, chart, and graph to answer the following three questions.

                                 Temperature Experiment

Students pour 250.0 g of water into an open insulated container. The initial temperature
of the water inside the container is recorded. The temperature of the contents of the
container is recorded every 3.0 minutes. When 73.0 g of ice (at melting point) is added
to the container, the students continue to collect temperature data and the mixture is
gently stirred. The data from Experiment 1 are listed in the chart below. The data are
also plotted on the following graph.

                                  Chart for Experiment 1
             Elapsed Time        Temperature of System
                                                              Observations
               (minutes)                  (°C)
                   0                      24.3               water added
                   3                      22.1
                   6                      21.0
                   9                      20.5
                  12                      20.3
                  15                      20.2                 ice added
                  18                      13.7
                  21                       8.2
                  24                       2.2
                  27                       0.0
                  30                       0.0               ice still present
If the experiment is repeated and the only difference is that twice as much ice (146.0 g)
is added to the container of water, the students will observe what difference from
Experiment 1?

   A.   Any remaining ice will sink to the bottom of the container.
   B.   The water in the container will be colder at the end of the experiment.
   C.   The temperature will fall faster during the last fifteen minutes of the experiment.
   D.   A significantly larger amount of ice will melt in the last 15 minutes of the
        experiment.

When the ice was added to the water in the container, several energy transfers
occurred. Considering only the contents of the container, what would be a likely
sequence (order) of energy transfers?

   A. Water transferred energy to the ice and the ice melted.
   B. Water transferred energy to the air as the ice increased in temperature.
   C. Ice transferred energy to the air which then lowered the temperature of the
      water.
   D. Ice transferred energy to the water which lowered the temperature of the water.

During the first 15 minutes of Experiment 1, the water molecules in the container

   A.   decreased in average speed.
   B.   changed the types of bonds present in the water.
   C.   changed shape because the temperature changed.
   D.   increased in oxygen content compared to the hydrogen content.

Use the sequence of pictures to answer the following question.
At what step in the fission process is a massive amount of energy released?

   A.   1
   B.   2
   C.   3
   D.   4

The primary reason an ice cube feels cold to the touch is that

   A.   conduction causes coldness to leave the ice
   B.   radiation from the hand enters the ice.
   C.   conduction causes heat to leave the hand.
   D.   convection currents leave the hand.

Use your understanding of the transmission of sound and the table to answer the
following question.

                               Speed of Sound in Substances
                                    (all substance at 25 °C)
                            Substances               Speed (m/s)
                                  air                      346
                               water                      1498
                             seawater                     1531
                                silver                    2680
                             aluminum                     5000

One could conclude that sound is transmitted fastest in

   A.   solids
   B.   liquids
   C.   gases
   D.   a vacuum
Use the diagram to answer the following question.




As the car rolls down the hill, its kinetic energy

   A.   increases while its gravitational potential energy decreases
   B.   remains the same while its gravitational potential energy increases
   C.   increases while its gravitational potential energy remains the same
   D.   decreases while its gravitational potential energy increases

Which statement correctly describes protons and neutrons? (PS 9-1)

   A.   They have the same mass and the same electrical charge.
   B.   They have the same mass but different electrical charges.
   C.   They have different masses but the same electrical charge.
   D.   They have different masses and different electrical charges.

Use the table to answer the following three questions.

                               Data Table
Substance                  Number of Protons          Number of Electrons
Sulphur                          16                          18
Chromium                         24                          24
Cobalt                           27                          24
Americium                        95                          92

Which of these substances is electrically neutral? (PS 9-2)

   A.   sulphur
   B.   chromium
   C.   cobalt
   D.   americium

Which statement is true about the electrical charges assigned to the electrons and
protons of the elements in the table? (PS 9-2)

   A. The electrons and protons are both positive.
   B. The electrons are positive and the protons are negative.
   C. The electrons are negative and the protons are positive.
   D. The electrons and protons are both negative.

Which of the substances on the table is a negatively charged ion? (PS 9-5)

   A.   sulphur
   B.   chromium
   C.   cobalt
   D.   americium

Which spontaneously emits radiation and particles from the nuclei of its atoms? (PS 9-6)

   A.   inert gases
   B.   radioactive isotopes
   C.   chemical reactions
   D.   covalent bonds

Which force holds atoms together? (PS 9-6)

   A.   attractive electrical forces between protons and electrons
   B.   magnetic forces of attraction
   C.   frictional forces between protons and electrons
   D.   gravitational force

The composition of the nucleus of carbon varies from one isotope to another. The
symbol for one isotope of carbon in 14 C . How many neutrons are contained in this
                                     6

isotope? (PS 9-1)

   A.   6
   B.   8
   C.   14
   D.   20

Use the table to answer the following question.

                                  The number of electrons at each energy level
        Element                  1st level         2nd level          3rd level
        Magnesium (Mg)                2                8                   2
        Oxygen (O)                    2                6

When Mg forms and ionic bond with O, how many electrons are transferred from the
Mg atom to the O atom? (PS 9-5)

   A. 2
   B. 6
   C. 12
   D. none

Which of the following statements describes electrons? (PS 9-2)

   A.   They are positive subatomic particles located in the nucleus.
   B.   They are positive subatomic particles that move around the nucleus.
   C.   They are negative subatomic particles located in the nucleus.
   D.   They are negative subatomic particles the move around the nucleus.

Which of the following represents a pair of isotopes? (PS 9-1)

   A.   1
            H and 3 H

   B.   40
             K 2 and   40
                             Ca 2
   C.   16
             O 2 and   19
                             F 1
   D.   16
             O 2 and   32
                             S 2

An atom contains 12 neutrons and 11 electrons. What is the number of protons in this
atom? (PS 9-1)

   A.   1
   B.   11
   C.   12
   D.   23

Different isotopes of the same element have different (PS 9-1)

   A.   atomic numbers.
   B.   numbers of neutrons.
   C.   numbers of protons.
   D.   numbers of electrons.

If the atom of an element has an atomic number of 15 and its atomic mass is 31, how
many neutrons does it have? (PS 9-1)

   A.   15
   B.   16
   C.   31
   D.   none

Covalent bonds are formed when electrons are (PS 9-7)

   A. transferred from one atom to another.
   B. mobile within a metal.
   C. captured by the nucleus.
   D. shared between two or more atoms.

A scientists combined hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to
produce table salt (NaCl) and water (H2O). Which equation best represnts what took
place? (PS 9-7)

   A.   2 NaOH  HCl  2 H2O + NaCl
   B.   NaOH + HCl  H2O + 2 NaCl
   C.   NaOH + HCl  H2O + NaCl
   D.   2 NaOH + 2 HCl  H2O + NaCl

The Periodic Table of the Elements can be used by scientists (PS 9-4)

   A.   to find out the main uses of each element.
   B.   to predict how atoms of different elements will combine.
   C.   to identify all of an element’s physical and chemical properties.
   D.   to determine the differences between ionic and covalent bonding.

What are two properties of most nonmetals? (PS 9-9)

   A.   They form negative ions and do not conduct electricity.
   B.   They form negative ions and conduct electricity well.
   C.   They form positive ions and do not conduct electricity.
   D.   They form positive ions and conduct electricity well.

Use the Periodic Table to answer the following five questions.
Based on the Table, which of these elements probably has physical and chemical
properties most similar to boron (B)? (PS 9-4)

   A.   magnesium (Mg)
   B.   aluminum (Al)
   C.   neon (Ne)
   D.   chlorine (Cl)

Which is a property of the noble gases in group 18? (PS 9-9)

   A.   malleability
   B.   brittleness
   C.   high electrical conductivity
   D.   unlikely to react with other elements

The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing (PS 9-4)

   A. atomic number
   B. hardness in solid form
   C. atomic radius
   D. neutron number

How many valence electrons does oxygen (O) have in its outer energy level? (PS 9-4)

   A.   4
   B.   6
   C.   8
   D.   16

Which of the following elements is a nonmetal? (PS 9-9)

   A.   fluorine (F)
   B.   calcium (Ca)
   C.   magnesium (Mg)
   D.   sodium (Na)

The major difference between an element and a compound is that in an element (PS
9-9)

   A.   all the atoms are the same.
   B.   there are atoms of different types.
   C.   molecules can be chemically combined.
   D.   two of more substances are mixed together.

The density of water is 1 g/cm3. Substances whose density is less than the density of
water will float on the surface of water. Which of the following objects will float on
water? (PS 9-9)

   A.   a cube with a mass of 45 g, and a volume of 10 cm3
   B.   a box with a mass of 55 g, and a volume of 100 cm3
   C.   a sphere with a mass of 45 g, and a volume of 15 cm3
   D.   a cylinder with a mass of 120 g, and a volume of 60 cm3

Which statement is true concerning a substance with a pH level of 13? (PS 9-8)

   A.   The substance is an acid.
   B.   The substance is a strong base.
   C.   The substance is a weak base.
   D.   The substance is neutral.

Two substances are physically blended together without chemically reacting. They
retain their original chemical and physical properties. What is this combination of
substances called? (PS 9-9)
   A.   an element
   B.   a molecule
   C.   a compound
   D.   a mixture

The metal silver allows conduction of an electric current because its electrons are (PS 9-
10)

   A.   not negatively charged.
   B.   covalently shared.
   C.   able to move between atoms.
   D.   drawn towards neutrons.

Different types of metals have been highly valued from earliest times. Today, several
metals are still prized for use in such fine items are jewelry. Name two physical
properties metals have that make it favored by jewelers. (2 points) (PS 9-9)

Use the graphs to answer the following question.




Which graph represents the motion of an object on a frictionless surface on which the
net force is zero? (PS 9-22)

   A.   graph A
   B.   graph B
   C.   graph C
   D.   graph D

If you push on the wall with a force of 22 Newtons, what is the force being exerted by
the wall on your hand? (PS 9-24)

   A.   0N
   B.   44N
   C.   22 N
   D.   11 N

A 4.0 kilogram rock and a 1.0 kilogram stone fall freely from rest at a height of 100
meters. After they fall for 2.0 seconds, the ratio of the rock’s speed to the stone’s speed
is (PS 9-23)
   A.   1:1
   B.   2:1
   C.   1:2
   D.   4:1

Which of the following does not indicate velocity? (PS 9-21)

   A.   14 feet per second per second
   B.   40 miles per hour towards town
   C.   80 miles per hour towards New York
   D.   28 miles per second towards Ohio

 A baseball rolling in the outfield comes to a stop. Two baseball players give an
 explanation:
     Shortstop: “A baseball’s natural state is at rest, so the ball slowed down to
       reach its natural state.”
     Catcher: “the ball slowed down and stopped because forces acted upon
       the baseball to make it come to a stop.”
According to Newton’s Laws of Motion, which of the ball players is correct? (PS 9-25)

   A.   the shortstop
   B.   the catcher
   C.   both are correct
   D.   neither is correct

Meagan applied a constant force on a small box, causing the box to accelerate. After
some period of time, the box stopped accelerating. What conclusion can Meagan
reach from this experience? (PS 9-25)

   A.   The mass of the box has increased greatly.
   B.   The force of gravity on the object has increased.
   C.   The box is experiencing some kind of frictional force.
   D.   The box has reached its maximum potential momentum

If the sum of all forces acting on a moving object is 0, the object will (9-22)

   A.   slow down and stop.
   B.   change the direction of its motion.
   C.   accelerate uniformly.
   D.   continue moving with constant velocity.

The diagram below illustrates a large net force being constantly applied to a
basketball. Students are measuring the motion of the ball as part of an experiment that
they are conducting. Identify two measurements that the students should take and
record to describe the motion of the basketball. (2 points) (PS 9-21)
A cement block is dropped from a helicopter. The block falls 100 feet. Which
statement accurately describes the falling cement block? (PS 9-13)

   A.   Its potential energy decreases as its kinetic energy increases.
   B.   Its potential energy increases as its kinetic energy decreases.
   C.   Its potential energy is unchanged as its kinetic energy decreases.
   D.   Its potential energy is unchanged as its kinetic energy increases.

The kinetic theory states that the higher the temperature, the faster the (PS 9-11)

   A.   lighter particles within a substance clump together.
   B.   bonds within atoms break down.
   C.   particles that make up a substance move.
   D.   molecules of gas rush together.

Use the diagram to answer the following question.




Two carts on a frictionless surface are connected by a compressed spring. When the
spring is released, the two carts move in opposite directions. Cart A has a mass of 2
kilogram, and cart B has a mass of 1 kilogram. What will occur when the spring is
released? (PS 9-12)

   A. The kinetic energy of cart A will equal that of cart B.
   B. The kinetic energy of cart A will equal the potential energy of cart B.
   C. The kinetic energy of cart A will increase as the potential energy of the spring
      decreases.
   D. The kinetic energy of cart A will be less than the potential energy of cart B.

Which types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum mainly transfers thermal
energy? (PS 9-18)

   A. X-rays
   B. infrared rays
   C. ultraviolet waves
   D. radio waves

Which graph represents the relationship between the gravitational potential energy of
an object and the object’s height above the surface of Earth? (PS 9-13)




   A.   graph A
   B.   graph B
   C.   graph C
   D.   graph D

A student prepared a large box in which several dozen ping pong balls were placed on
individually set mousetraps. The student then dropped on ping pong ball into the box.
This triggered one of the mousetraps, which in turn triggered other mousetraps,
triggering even more mousetraps. Which of the following has the student
demonstrated? (PS 9-14)

   A.   alpha decay
   B.   fusion
   C.   chain reaction
   D.   theory of relativity

Lemon juice, a weak acid, is added to baking soda. Heat from the surroundings is
absorbed by the reactants during the reaction. The reaction therefore (PS 9-16)

   A.   interrupted
   B.   ionized
   C.   exothermic
   D.   endothermic

A student shines a ray of light through a triangular glass prism. The white light separated
into different colors. Which process could best be used to explain their separation? (PS
9-20)

   A.   reflection
   B.   refraction
   C.   diffusion
   D.   diffraction
A team of research scientists bombarded the nuclei of Uranium-235 atoms with
neutrons. The nuclei of the uranium atoms divide, emitting free neutrons and energy.
This process is known as (PS 9-14)

   A.   fusion.
   B.   fission
   C.   covalent bonding.
   D.   convection.

Scientists define energy as the ability to perform work. There are many forms of energy.
List two types of energy and provide one example of each type. (4 points) (PS 9-15)

A student adds ice cubes to a beaker containing cold water. What happens to the
water molecules in the water? (PS 9-17)

   A.   Their bonds weaken and they separate into oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
   B.   They increase in speed because of convection currents.
   C.   Their heat melts the ice by radiation.
   D.   They decrease in speed as they transfer energy to the ice by conduction.

Scientists are preparing to launch a satellite into outer space. Which form of energy will
the scientists be able to use to communicate with that satellite? (PS 9-18)

   A.   sound waves
   B.   sonar
   C.   radio waves
   D.   electricity

Scientific theories and discoveries are often able to change how people view the
world. Select two of the following examples, and explain how science has brought
about a change in people’s views. (2 points) (PS 9-26)

       Newton’s laws of motion
       The methods used by people to cook food
       The use of a prism to separate visible light
       The conversion of matter into energy in nuclear reactions

Keesha mows her neighbor’s lawn with a gasoline-powered lawn mower. Which
describes some of the transformation of energy that occurs in the mower? (PS 9-15)

   A.   Chemical energy  kinetic energy  thermal energy
   B.   Gravitational potential energy  kinetic energy  chemical energy
   C.   Electrical energy  chemical energy  kinetic energy
   D.   Thermal energy  kinetic energy  nuclear energy
An architect is designing a concert hall. Which design can an architect adopt to
reduce echoes in the new concert hall? (PS 9-20)

   A.   Use of curtains, carpets, and textile prints on the wall
   B.   Use of smooth metal surface to cover the walls and ceiling
   C.   Use of a round tiled dome for the ceiling
   D.   Use of polished mirrors on the walls and hardwood floors

Use the chart to answer the following question.




One could conclude from this chart that the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves
(PS 9-18)

   A.   decrease as their frequency increases
   B.   increase as their frequency decreases
   C.   remain the same as their frequency increases
   D.   are unrelated to frequency

Different isotopes of the same element have different (PS 9-1)

   A.   atomic numbers.
   B.   numbers of protons.
   C.   numbers of neutrons.
   D.   numbers of electrons.

A space shuttle is traveling in frictionless outer space with a limited quantity of fuel.
What action could the astronauts aboard the shuttle take to increase their rate of
acceleration? (PS 9-23)

   A.   reduce their velocity
   B.   eject cargo to reduce their mass
   C.   change their direction
   D.   turn off their rocket engines in order to glide

Use the passage and graphs to answer the following four questions.
Students place 10g of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) into a beaker containing 100
mL of water, and stir until the baking soda is completely dissolved. Students place 10g
of lemon juice into a second beaker containing 100 mL of water, and stir until the juice
is thoroughly mixed. Using litmus paper, they record the pH value of each solution and
take the temperature of each solution. They combine the two solutions and the mixture
is gently stirred. The students record the temperature of the mixed solution five minutes
after the liquids are combined and sixty minutes later. They also use litmus paper to
determine pH value. The data from the experiment is recorded below and on the bar
graphs shown.

    Baking soda                 Lemon juice                   Combined solution:
      solution:                   solution:
                                                       Temperature after 5 minutes: 19 °C
 Temperature: 23 °C         Temperature: 23 °C        Temperature after 60 minutes: 23 °C
    pH Value: 10               pH Value: 4                       pH Value: 8




Based on pH values recorded by the students, the combined solution is (PS 9-8)

   A.   a basic salt.
   B.   a strong base.
   C.   neutral.
   D.   an acidic salt.

Based on the data, what happened when the two solutions were mixed together? (PS
9-16)

   A.   The reactants absorbed energy while combining.
   B.   Energy was released by a chemical reaction.
   C.   There was no change in the kinetic energy of the particles in the solution,
   D.   Combustion occurred when one of the reactants combined with oxygen.

Which best describes the solution of baking soda and water? (PS 9-9)

   A. an element
   B. a compound
   C. a homogeneous mixture
   D. a heterogeneous mixture

Identify two dependent variables in this experiment. Then describe one way that the
students might communicate their results and explain why communicating
experimental results is an important part of any experiment. (4 points) (SI 9-3, SK 9-2)

The diagram below shows a granite block being pushed at a constant speed across a
horizontal concrete floor by a force parallel to the floor.




Under these conditions, which force prevents the block from accelerating? (PS 9-25)

   A.   friction
   B.   gravity
   C.   kinetic energy
   D.   inertia

Which graph best represents the relationship between the gravitational potential
energy of an object and the object’s height above the surface of the Earth? (PS 9-13)




Use the partial periodic table to answer the following three questions.
Which of the following groups on the Periodic Table is likely to form positively charged
ions? (PS 9-5)

   A.   group 1
   B.   group 13
   C.   group 17
   D.   group 18

Why are the elements in group 18, known as the noble gases, unlikely to combine with
other substances? (PS 9-7)

   A.   They have low boiling points.
   B.   They have unstable nuclei.
   C.   They have rigid, crystalline structures.
   D.   They have a completed outer energy level of electrons.

Based on the Periodic Table of the Elements (above), how many protons and neutrons
does a typical nitrogen (N) atom have? (2 points) (PS 9-4)
Why does white light divide into different colors when it passes through a triangular glass
prism? (PS 9-20)

   A.   The light waves interfere with each other, creating patterns.
   B.   Each color has a different wavelength, which refracts at a different angle.
   C.   Parts of the white light are absorbed by the glass.
   D.   White light consists of invincible particles traveling at different speeds.


The picture below shows the four major forces acting on an airplane in flight.




What causes the force indicated by X ?

   A.   gravity
   B.   air friction
   C.   magnetic force
   D.   force exerted by the engine

Use the information to answer the following question.

                              Water Temperature Experiment
Students studies the effect of ice on the temperature of a sample of water. First, they
put 500 mL of cold water (at 10°C) into each of four beakers. Next, they measured and
recorded the initial temperature of the water in each beaker. Then, they added
various amounts of ice as shown in the table below. They continued to measure the
temperature over a period of 30 minutes. Their results are shown in the graph below.
The temperature of the room during the experiment was 22°C.

                                         Data Table
                                   Amount of Ice             Volume of Water
               Beaker
                                    (in scoops)                (in milliliters)
                  A                       0                         500
                  B                       1                         500
                  C                       2                         500
                  D                       3                         500




During the first five minutes of the experiment,

   A.   the total energy of the system decreased by half.
   B.   kinetic energy is transferred from the ice to the water.
   C.   thermal energy is transferred from the water to the ice.
   D.   thermal energy is transferred from the water to the surrounding air.

Use the information to answer the following question.

The following graph shows the change in temperature of a sample of H2O, which
begins as ice, as thermal energy is added.
Which region of the graph represents water (H2O) in the liquid form only?

   A.   1
   B.   2
   C.   3
   D.   4

At 25°C, water has a density of 1.0 g/mL and vegetable oil has a density of 0.90 g/mL.

How would a substance with a density of 0.95 g/mL behave when placed in both oil
and water?

   A.   sink in both oil and water
   B.   sink in oil and float on water
   C.   float on oil and sink in water
   D.   float on both oil and water

Use the partial periodic table to answer the following three questions.
A neutral atom of silicon has

   A.   12 electrons.
   B.   13 electrons
   C.   14 electrons
   D.   15 electrons

Which element would be most similar to chlorine (Cl)?

   A.   sulfur (S)
   B.   carbon (C)
   C.   fluorine (F)
   D.   sodium (Na)

Which element is classified as a metal?

   A. sulfur (S)
   B. carbon (C)
   C. fluorine (F)
   D. sodium (Na)

A student plans to collect data needed to calculate the kinetic energy of a thrown
baseball. She plans to measure the distance from pitcher to catcher, the time it takes
for a baseball to arrive in the catcher’s glove, the mass of the baseball, and the
circumference of the baseball.

Which of these measurements is not needed to calculate the kinetic energy?

   A.   measuring the mass of the baseball
   B.   measuring the flight time of the baseball
   C.   measuring the circumference of the baseball
   D.   measuring the distance from pitcher to catcher

Engineers are designing an auditorium that will be used for performances by orchestras.

What must they do to maximize the loudness of the sound heard by the audience?

   A.   hang curtains behind the orchestra
   B.   put carpet around the walls of the auditorium
   C.   hang reflecting panels from the ceiling behind the orchestra
   D.   install narrow glass windows and skylights around the top of the walls

A teacher dropped one light ball and one heavy ball simultaneously from the roof of a
school building. Both balls struck the ground at the same time.

The students correctly concluded from this experiment that falling objects

        A.   lose mass as they fall.
        B.   are influenced by the height of the building.
        C.   do not accelerate under the influence of gravitational force.
        D.   accelerate at the same rate, regardless of mass, due to the force of gravity.

In his investigation of air, Henry Cavendish discovered a small bubble of leftover gas
that would not combine with nitrogen. His observations went unnoticed until William
Ramsay performed experiments in which he obtained similar results. Ramsay recalled
and repeated Cavendish’s experiments exactly to verify the results. Then, using Gustav
Kirchoff’s spectroscopy technique, Ramsay was able to identify the leftover gas as the
element he called argon. Upon further investigation, he found the elements neon,
krypton and xenon.

Based on this information, it can be said that

   A. the combined work of Cavendish, Kirchoff and Ramsay led to the discovery of
      the noble gases.
   B. Kirchoff’s work was insignificant in the investigations leading to the discovery of
      argon.
   C. Ramsay violated ethical practice in science by repeating Cavendish’s
      experiments.
   D. Cavendish is directly responsible for the discovery of argon, but not neon, krypton
      or xenon.

Use the information and illustration to answer the following two questions.

                                 Snowboarding Science

A snowboarder begins his run from rest (point 1) on top of a hill. He moves straight
down the slope until he reaches the bottom of the hill (point 4) and the ground levels
off. The snowboarder continues to move horizontally across the level ground and
eventually comes to a stop (point 5).




Using the same board, the snowboarder decides to make another run down the hill to
see if he can increase his speed. Describe one thing the snowboarder could do to
increase his speed on the slope. Explain why this would cause his speed to increase.
Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Which graph best represents the speed of the snowboarder as he moves from point 2 to
point 3?
Use the information to answer the following five questions.

A student measures the masses and volumes of four pieces of metal. The results are
shown below.

                     Metal A          Metal B         Metal C       Metal D
       mass           10.0 g           10.0 g          30.0 g        40.0 g
       volume        2.0 cm3          5.0 cm3         5.0 cm3       8.0 cm3

Which metal is the most dense?
   A.   Metal A
   B.   Metal B
   C.   Metal C
   D.   Metal D

Which two pieces might be made of the same metal?

   A.   A and B
   B.   B and C
   C.   A and D
   D.   C and D

If we compared 10.0 gram samples of all four metals, which would have the largest
volume?

   A.   Metal A
   B.   Metal B
   C.   Metal C
   D.   Metal D

If we compared samples of the metals with the same volume, which would have the
largest mass?

   A.   Metal A
   B.   Metal B
   C.   Metal C
   D.   Metal D

The density of a 100.0-gram sample of metal A should be

   A.   5.0 g/cm3
   B.   10 g/cm3
   C.   50 g/cm3
   D.   100 g/cm3

A beaker of water has a number of ice cubes floating at the surface of the water.
Because the ice is floating on the water, the ice is

   A.   less dense than the water.
   B.   more dense than the water.
   C.   equal in density to the water.
   D.   Nothing can be told about the density of the ice compared to the water.

As water freezes to ice, its
   A.   volume decreases
   B.   mass decreases
   C.   volume increases
   D.   mass increases

During the summer a student noticed the color of the clothes she wore affected how
hot she felt. The student designed an experiment to test this.

The student obtained four identical samples of sand. Each sample was covered with a
different color of cotton fabric. Each sample was then placed directly under a 110-watt
lightbulb. The student recorded the initial temperatures of the sand, then turned on the
lamps. At one-minute intervals, for six minutes total, the student measured the
temperature of each sample. The data is shown in the graph below.




Which of the following best explains why the curves in the figure flattened out after a
period of time? (PS 27, 30)

   A. The samples were releasing energy at about the same rate as they were
      absorbing energy.
   B. The samples began to absorb all of the light energy emitted by the light bulb.
   C. The light bulbs ran out of electricity to supply to the samples.
   D. The samples began to reflect all of the light energy.

Sometimes waves interfere with one another. What type of interference occurs when
the crests of one wave and the troughs of another wave overlap? (PS 30)

   A.   resonant interference
   B.   destructive interference
   C.   constructive interference
   D.   overlapping interference
Sometimes two waves involved in destructive interference have the same amplitude.
What would happen to the two waves in this situation? (PS 30)

   A.   The two waves would decrease in frequency.
   B.   The two waves would completely cancel each other out.
   C.   The two eaves would increase in amplitude.
   D.   The two waves would bounce off of each other.

Waves can reflect off of surfaces in various ways. What type of reflection occurs when
waves reflect at many different angles? (PS 30)

   A.   refraction reflection
   B.   regular reflection
   C.   diffuse reflection
   D.   scattering reflection

Polarization is the process of transforming unpolarized waves to polarized waves. Which
of the following methods are valid ways to polarize waves? (PS 30)

   A.   transmission and scattering
   B.   absorption and resonance
   C.   Only reflection can polarize waves.
   D.   Only refraction can polarize waves.

You are working in a research division of a company that makes light filters and
protective eyewear. You use three ways to reduce light intensity depending on what is
needed: Absorbtion, reflection, and polarization (see Figures A, B, and C).




Absorbtion: Atoms in this filter absorb red, orange, and yellow and allow the other colors
to pass through.
Reflection: Some of the light is reflected by the thin metal film; the rest passes through.




Polarization: This filter only allows vertical vibrations (polarization) to pass through; the
rest are absorbed.

You design a filter that must remain cool for a high-power laser. Which of the following
would be the best design? (PS 30)

   A.   polarizing filter only
   B.   reflective film only
   C.   polarizing filter followed by reflective film
   D.   absorbing and polarizing filters together

What happens to the energy of light absorbed in an absorbing filter? (PS 30)

   A.   It changes to gravitational potential energy.
   B.   It changes to heat energy.
   C.   It changes to nuclear energy.
   D.   it passes completely through the filter without being changed.

A band is giving a concert in an auditorium. When a musician plays a note on the
keyboard, the speakers vibrate back and forth at a particular frequency. These
vibrations travel through the air as a sound wave toward the audience (see the figure
below).
As shown in the table below, different notes, or pitches, have different frequencies, and
wavelengths.

The speed of sound in dry air at 20° C is 343 m/sec and increases by 0.59 m/sec for
each degree Celsius above 20° C. Wave speed is equal to wavelength x frequency.

                  Pitch Frequencies and Wavelengths at 20 deg Celsius
                Note (pitch)      Frequency (1/sec)      Wavelength (m)
                   low A                 440                  0.780
                      B                  494                  0.694
                      C                  523                  0.656
                      D                  587                  0.584
                      E                  659                  0.520
                      F                  698                  0.491
                     G                   784                  0.438
                  high A                 880                  0.390

An usher stands in the lobby, out of sight of the band, and listens to the music. Which of
the following is the most reasonable explanation why the usher can hear the music yet
not be in front of the open door? (PS 30)

   A.   The sound waves have strong interference at these wavelengths.
   B.   The sound waves are diffracted through the door opening.
   C.   The sound waves are refracted by the cooler air in the lobby.
   D.   The sound waves are reflected by the many people in the auditorium.
Which letter corresponds to the amplitude of the wave? (PS 9)

   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Which letter corresponds to the crest of the wave? (PS 9)

   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Which letter corresponds to the trough of the wave? (PS 9)

   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Which letter corresponds to the wavelength of the wave? (PS 9)

   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Waves interact with different surfaces in different ways. Waves often bounce off objects
such as water. What is this form of wave movement called? (PS 30)

   A.   interference
   B.   resonance
   C.   refraction
   D.   reflection

These two figures show a flashlight beam being reflected off of a mirror and waves
being reflected off of the side of a pool, respectively. What scientific property is
illustrated by these two figures? (PS 30)




   A. The angles at which both the flashlight and the waves reflect are always perfectly
      straight.
   B. The exact angle at which the beam and wave strike the surface is the same
      angle at which they are reflected.
   C. There is no way of predicting the angle at which a wave is reflected.
   D. The reflected beam and wave possess more electrical energy as they've
      impacted an object.

Two waves can share the same space and pass through one another. When two or
more waves overlap, they interfere with one another. What type of interference occurs
when the crests of one wave overlap the crests of another wave? (PS 30)

   A.   standing interference
   B.   destructive interference
   C.   constructive interference
   D.   overlapping interference

Resonance occurs when an object vibrating at or near the resonant frequency of a
second object causes the second object to vibrate. What form of waves are involved in
resonance? (PS 30)

   A.   constructive waves
   B.   destructive waves
   C.   standing waves
   D.   light waves
Constructive interference occurs when the crests of one wave overlap the crests of
another wave. What is the result of constructive interference? (PS 30)

   A.   decreased amplitude
   B.   increased amplitude
   C.   decreased frequency
   D.   increased frequency

A prism is a device that separates white light waves into the colors of visible light. Which
of the following processes allows a prism to work? (PS 30)

   A.   refraction
   B.   scattering
   C.   reflection
   D.   polarization

Examine the diagram below. What is the diagram illustrating? (PS 30)




   A.   law of refraction
   B.   law of reflection
   C.   law of polarization
   D.   law of resonance

Examine the diagram below. What form of wave interaction is being illustrated? (PS 30)




   A.   refraction
   B.   polarization
   C.   absorption
   D.   reflection
Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to
another. Why would a wave, such as a light wave, bend when it passes from air into
water? (PS 30)

   A.   The speed of light slows in water.
   B.   The wave does not actually bend, but only appears to bend.
   C.   The light wave interferes with other energy waves in water.
   D.   Waves are usually reflected by water.




Which of these arrows would represent the path of a refracted ray of light? (PS 30)

   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

The use of sound waves helps scientists find out how deep parts of the ocean are. The
scientists do this by sending a sound wave to the floor of the ocean and recording the
time it takes to return to a machine. What did the inventor of this machine need to
know while developing the machine? (PS 29)

   A.   the speed of water waves
   B.   the speed of light waves in water
   C.   the speed of sound waves in water
   D.   the speed of sound waves in air

Potential energy is dependent on (PS 2, 23)

   A.   weight and height.
   B.   speed and height.
   C.   time and weight.
   D.   acceleration and kinetic energy.
Jill is getting ready to push little Frank in his swing. She pulls Frank back as high as she
can and then releases the swing. What is the initial transfer of energy that accelerates
the swing? (PS 2, 3, 22, 23)

   A.   Electrical energy is transformed into kinetic energy.
   B.   Kinetic energy is converted into potential energy.
   C.   Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.
   D.   Mechanical energy is converted into potential energy.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. How could you determine how much kinetic
energy an object has? (PS 10)

   A.   by finding its height and width
   B.   by finding its position and form
   C.   by finding its speed and direction
   D.   by finding its mass and speed

Energy flows through the environment in a variety of ways. All of the ways energy moves
and is stored can be explained by the law of conservation of energy, which states that
(PS 4, 25)

   A. energy can be created and transformed into other kinds of energy.
   B. energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transformed into other kinds
      of energy.
   C. energy can be transformed into other kinds of energy until it is transformed into
      heat and dissipates.
   D. energy can be created and destroyed through different reactions in which heat
      is released and energy is transferred.

Nathan is building a deck out of 2 × 4 pieces of wood using 16 penny nails. When
swinging the hammer, the end of the hammer gains speed and (PS 2, 10)

   A.   chemical energy,
   B.   mechanical energy.
   C.   kinetic energy.
   D.   potential energy.

If 100 units of electricity produce 20 units of light energy and 30 units of sound energy,
how many units of heat energy would the remainder of the energy produce if all of the
remaining energy were converted into heat energy? (PS 4, 25)

   A.   30 units
   B.   50 units
   C.   70 units
   D.   There is not enough information to answer this question.
If you drop a stone from a high cliff, the stone's potential energy changes to kinetic
energy as it falls. In reality, some energy is changed to heat by friction with the air.
Given this, the amount of time it would take the stone to fall in air, compared to in a
vacuum, would be which of the following? (PS 25)

   A.   longer because the stone has more mass
   B.   longer because the stone has less kinetic energy
   C.   shorter because the stone has less friction
   D.   shorter because the stone has more total energy

Which of the following is a true statement? (PS 4)

   A. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form to
      another.
   B. The total amount energy in the universe changes rapidly.
   C. Energy can be created, but not destroyed.
   D. Energy can be destroyed, but not created.

Mark and Ann took a two week hiking trip through Yosemite National Park. While hiking
through the park they witnessed two large blocks of rock break away from Glacier
Point. What is the initial transfer of energy that accelerates the rock down the side of
the mountain? (PS 2, 3, 4, 5)

   A.   Electrical energy is transformed into kinetic energy.
   B.   Potential energy is converted into mechanical energy.
   C.   Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.
   D.   Mechanical energy is converted into potential energy.

There is a skier at the top of a ski slope. The skier has potential energy. What gives the
skier his potential energy? (PS 2)

   A.   friction
   B.   his speed
   C.   gravity
   D.   his efficiency

A crate is at rest on the ground. What force or forces are acting on the crate? (PS 32,
34)

   A. The weight of the crate is acting downward on the crate.
   B. The ground is exerting a force equal to the weight of the crate upward on the
      crate.
   C. The weight of the crate is acting downward on the ground and the ground is
      exerting a force equal to the weight of the crate upward on the crate.
   D. There are no forces acting on the crate.
As Heather is driving down the road at 60 mph, a grasshopper smashes into the
windshield. Compared to the force the windshield exerts on the grasshopper, the force
the grasshopper exerts on the windshield is (PS 34)

   A.   smaller.
   B.   larger.
   C.   the same.
   D.   Not enough information is given.

Luke and Carrie are driving down a straight section of the interstate at 60 mph in Luke's
new convertible. Carrie is drinking a soda in the passenger seat. When she is done she
tosses the bottle straight up in the air. What will happen to the bottle if air resistance is
neglected? (PS 31, 32)

   A.   The bottle will land in Carrie's lap.
   B.   The bottle will land on the interstate in front of the car.
   C.   The bottle will land on the interstate behind the car.
   D.   Not enough information given.

An object with a mass of 8.6 kg experiences a force of 16.34 N. What is the acceleration
of the object? (PS 33)

   A.   1.5 m/s2
   B.   1.9 m/s2
   C.   2.4 m/s2
   D.   14.44 m/s2

A water skier is pulled by a net force of 133 N and has an acceleration of 1.9 m/s 2. What
is the mass of the skier? (PS 33)

   A.   57 kg
   B.   60 kg
   C.   70 kg
   D.   252.7 kg

A man drops a baseball off of the top of the Empire State Building. If the action force is
the pull of the Earth on the ball, then what is the reaction force? (PS 34)

   A.   gravity
   B.   the pull of the ball on the Earth
   C.   air resistance acting on the ball
   D.   There is no reaction force.

How much force is needed to accelerate a 9,760 kg F-16 fighter at a rate of 3.6 m/s2?
(PS 33)
   A.   2,711 N
   B.   9,760 N
   C.   35,136 N
   D.   126,490 N

If you had a small granite rock and you made a copy of the rock out of Styrofoam,
which physical property would you immediately notice upon moving them both to a
new location? (PS 19)

   A.   color
   B.   density
   C.   conductivity
   D.   ductility

Which of the following materials has the highest ductility? (PS 19)

   A.   a diamond
   B.   a piece of wood
   C.   a piece of copper
   D.   a marble

Which physical property is characterized as a substance’s ability to reflect light as
compared to another substance? (PS 19, 30)

   A.   color
   B.   ductility
   C.   conductivity
   D.   concentration

Gold can be shaped into thin, fancy necklaces because it has: (PS 19)

   A.   high ductility.
   B.   low ductility.
   C.   high density.
   D.   moderate conductivity.

Which of the following items best embodies the physical property of conductivity? (PS
19, 20)

   A.   A diamond that is not easily scratched.
   B.   A copper penny that easily transmits electricity.
   C.   A teak log that has a large amount of mass for its volume.
   D.   A white cotton shirt that reflects all wavelengths of light.
Density refers to a physical property that is measured using a ratio of _________ divided
by _______ so that two objects of the same size can still have very different density. (PS
19)

   A.   weight, height
   B.   mass, volume
   C.   concentration, mass
   D.   height, width

Density is a measure of how much _________ is ___________ in a substance. (PS 19)

   A.   electricity, conducted
   B.   matter, packed
   C.   light, reflected
   D.   oxygen, detected

Many stereo speaker cables are made of copper wire surrounded by rubber. The
electricity travels down the copper portion of the cable while the rubber protects you
from being “zapped” by the electricity. Which physical property explains the difference
in ability of copper and rubber to transmit electricity? (PS 19, 20)

   A.   color
   B.   ductility
   C.   density
   D.   conductivity

Which statement below best defines the physical property of color? (PS 19, 28)

   A.   a measure of how a substance absorbs and reflects light
   B.   a measure of how well electricity is conducted through a substance
   C.   a measure of how easily a substance is elongated without breaking
   D.   a measure of how much matter is packed into an object of its size

The Mohs scale, which distinguishes a mineral’s resistance to being scratched, measures
which physical property of substances? (PS 19)

   A.   hardness
   B.   conductivity
   C.   concentration
   D.   ductility

Which physical property explains why a diamond saw can be used to cut more
materials than a standard steel saw? (PS 19)

   A.   hardness
   B.   conductivity
   C.   concentration
   D.   ductility

The nucleus of an atom consists of   (PS 11)

   A.   protons and electrons.
   B.   neutrons and electrons.
   C.   protons and neutrons.
   D.   neutrons only.

Which subatomic particle has the greatest mass? (PS 11)

   A.   proton
   B.   ion
   C.   electron
   D.   neutron

A neutral atom could become a positively charged particle through the loss of (PS 12)

   A.   protons.
   B.   ions.
   C.   electrons.
   D.   neutrons.

If an atom has two electrons outside of its nucleus, what number of protons and
neutrons could be contained in the nucleus to result in a neutral atom? (PS 12)

   A.   4 protons, 4 neutrons
   B.   1 proton, 1 neutron
   C.   2 protons, 2 neutrons
   D.   1 proton, 3 neutrons

If an atom has 14 protons, 12 neutrons, and 17 electrons, what is the atom's electrical
charge? (PS 12)

   A.   +5
   B.   -2
   C.   -3
   D.   -5

The atomic mass of Silver (Ag) is 107 and the atomic number of silver is 47. How many
neutrons does a neutral atom of Silver contain? (PS 11)

   A.   24
   B.   47
   C.   60
   D.   107

How do some atoms of different substances combine chemically to form molecules?
(PS 17)

   A.   They merge nuclei.
   B.   They transfer protons.
   C.   They share electrons.
   D.   They lose neutrons.

Which of the following are features of the electron cloud model of an atom? (PS 36)

   A.   All atoms contain two electron shells.
   B.   Electrons travel in unpredictable patterns.
   C.   The first electron shell holds eight electrons.
   D.   Electrons travel in specific orbits around the atom.

The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is its (PS 11)

   A.   atomic weight.
   B.   atomic energy.
   C.   atomic number.
   D.   charge.

Energy is constantly converted into different forms. In which of the following scenarios is
chemical energy converted into mechanical energy? (PS 3, 5, 25)

   A.   using a solar cell to create electricity
   B.   lifting a box off the floor
   C.   lighting a match
   D.   turning on a light bulb

A boy eats an apple, then lifts weights and sweats. What forms does the energy in food
transform to? (PS 3, 5, 25)

   A.   from chemical to heat energy
   B.   from chemical to mechanical energy
   C.   from chemical to mechanical and kinetic energy
   D.   from chemical to mechanical and heat energy

Energy stored in the electrical bonds that hold together the atoms and molecules of all
substances is called (PS 3, 16)

   A.   chemical energy,
   B.   mechanical energy.
   C.   kinetic energy.
   D.   electrical energy,

Which of the following sequences correctly displays the energy transformation from the
inside of a battery to the igniter? (PS 3, 5, 25)

   A.   Chemical Energy---->Mechanical Energy---->Heat Energy
   B.   Electrical Energy---->Chemical Energy---->Heat Energy
   C.   Chemical Energy---->Electrical Energy---->Heat Energy
   D.   Heat Energy---->Electrical Energy---->Chemical Energy

Which of the following has the ability to turn light energy into chemical energy? (PS 3,
5)

   A.   a plant
   B.   an automobile
   C.   a generator
   D.   water




What type of energy transfer occurs when you turn on a light bulb? (PS 25)

   A.   Electrical energy is transformed into heat and mechanical energy.
   B.   Electrical energy is transformed into heat and light energy.
   C.   Mechanical energy is converted into kinetic energy.
   D.   Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.
In looking at the diagram above, which of the following would make the system more
efficient? (PS 4, 25)

   A.   decrease the amount of electricity produced
   B.   increase the amount of coal burned
   C.   increase the amount of energy lost in the form of noise
   D.   decrease the amount of heat leaving through the smoke stack

Which of the following is closest to the amount of energy lost due to friction in the
diagram above? (PS 4, 25)

   A.   2 kJ
   B.   8 kJ
   C.   15 kJ
   D.    20 kJ

Fossil fuels are fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. They are formed over millions of
years from the remains of ancient plants and animals. What is the relationship between
fossil fuels and energy? (PS 3)

   A.   Fossil fuels are a form of geothermal energy.
   B.   Fossil fuels are a form of mechanical energy.
   C.   Fossil fuels are a form of nuclear energy.
   D.   Fossil fuels are a form of chemical energy.

What type of phase change is happening as a liquid changes to a gas? (PS 21)

   A.   condensation
   B.   melting
   C.   sublimation
   D.   melting
Susie dropped some ice cubes into her soda after dinner. After a few minutes, she
noticed that the ice had melted into the soda. Which of the following statements
correctly explains what Susie witnessed? (PS 25)

   A.   The cold from the ice cube was transferred into the soda, which melted the ice.
   B.   The cold from the ice cube went into the air, which melted the ice.
   C.   Heat from the soda transferred into the ice cube, which melted the ice.
   D.   The basic ice cube reacted with the acidic soda, which caused the ice cube to
        melt.

If a liquid is heated, which of the following happens to both its energy content and the
speed of its particles? (PS 21)

   A.   The energy increases; the speed decreases.
   B.   The energy increases; the speed increases.
   C.   The energy remains the same; the speed increases.
   D.   The energy remains the same; speed remains the same.

What type of phase change is happening as a solid changes to gas without becoming
a liquid? (PS 21)

   A.   condensation
   B.   evaporation
   C.   melting
   D.   sublimation

A bowling ball is dropped off a tall bridge. Which graph below best represents the
height of the bowling ball versus time it takes to fall? (PS 33)




   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Suppose you were coasting on a level surface on a bicycle, and there was no friction.
What would happen to your speed? (PS 35)
   A.   Your speed would remain constant.
   B.   Your speed would decrease but you would never stop.
   C.   Your speed would decrease until you finally came to a stop.
   D.   Your speed would increase since there is no friction.

From a stopped position, a car starts to accelerate at 3 m/sec2. Which graph below
best represents the motion of the car? (PS 33)




   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z




Which of the above balls has the most inertia? (PS 32)

   A.   A
   B.   B
   C.   C
   D.   A and B

John and Daniel are playing tug-of-war together. John is exerting 10 N of force. Daniel is
exerting 12 N of force. What is their net force? (PS 32)

   A.   2 N in Daniel’s direction
   B.   2 N is John’s direction
   C.   22 N in Daniel’s direction
   D.   22 N in John’s direction




When you pull out a nail and it is warm from rubbing against the wood as shown in the
picture, where did the majority of the heat energy come from? (PS 3, 25)

   A.   inertia of the hammer
   B.   work done by you on the hammer
   C.   kinetic energy of the wood
   D.   chemical energy in the wood

Annette has a speedboat. After she rode her speedboat across the water for 30
minutes, she noticed that the bottom of her speedboat seemed warm. What caused
the warmth? (PS 25)

   A.   lift
   B.   thrust
   C.   gravity
   D.   friction

Which of the following produces or transfers heat? (PS 27)

   A.   friction
   B.   light
   C.   conduction
   D.   all of these

A car is traveling at a constant speed of 20m/sec. Which graph below best represents
the motion of the car? (PS 33)




    A. W
    B. X
    C. Y
    D. Z

Which of the following is a unit of acceleration? (PS 33)

   A.   m/s2
   B.   m/s
   C.   kg m/s2
   D.   kg m/s

In the fourth century B.C., Aristotle developed a model of natural motion (the motion of
an object when no forces are acting on it) and forces. In Aristotle's model, the center of
the universe is Earth, where the natural motion of objects is to remain at rest. Objects
move only while forces are applied to them; once the forces are removed, motion
stops. The moon, sun, and stars move through space, where the natural motion of
objects is circular movement around Earth. In addition, all objects in the universe have
a place where they belong, and objects move toward their place in the universe.

Many years after Aristotle, Newton developed a new model of natural motion and
forces. In Newton's model, the natural motion of any object is to be either at rest or
moving at a constant speed in a straight line. Forces act to speed up an object, slow it
down, and/or change its direction of motion.

On which of the following points would Aristotle and Newton agree? (PS 36)

   A.   The natural state of objects on Earth is to be at rest.
   B.   Objects in motion on Earth will stay in motion if no force acts on them.
   C.   Objects on Earth and objects in space follow different rules of motion.
   D.   Objects at rest on Earth will stay at rest if no force acts on them.

Using the text provided to answer the following question.

In an experiment, a box slides across a wooden surface and comes to a stop. The same
box then slides across a surface of ice; beginning with the same speed it had when it
started sliding across the wooden surface. The box slides much further across the ice
before stopping than it did across the wooden surface. How would Newton explain this
difference? (PS 32)

   A. The wooden surface applies a greater force to the box than does the ice, which
      slows the box to a stop in a shorter distance.
   B. The ice applies a smaller force to the box than does the wooden surface, which
      slows the box to a stop in a shorter distance on ice.
   C. The ice applies a greater force to the box than does the wooden surface, which
      keeps the box moving for a greater distance.
   D. The wooden surface applies a smaller force to the box than does the ice,
      increasing the speed of the box so that it travels a greater distance.
What is the definition of inertia? (PS 32)

   A.   The amount of force required to reach the speed of light.
   B.   The tendency of an object in motion to decelerate.
   C.   The rate at which an object accelerates.
   D.   The tendency of a body at rest to stay at rest or of a body in motion to remain in
        motion.

Neil Armstrong weighed more on Earth than he did on the moon because the Earth has
a greater (PS 23)

   A.   density.
   B.   atmosphere.
   C.   gravitational force.
   D.   electromagnetic field.

You drop two balls at the same time from the top of a ladder. The balls are of equal
size, but Ball A has more mass than Ball B. Which of the following best describes the time
it would take the two balls to hit the ground?
(Note: Ignore the effects of friction.) (PS 33)

   A.   Ball A would hit the ground before Ball B.
   B.   Ball B would hit the ground before Bell A.
   C.   The two balls would hit the ground at the same time.
   D.   There is not enough information to answer the question.

Bryan and Daniel are playing tug-of-war together. Bryan is exerting 10 N of force. Daniel
is exerting 12 N of force. What type of force has resulted? (PS 32)

   A.   A balanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Daniel's direction.
   B.   An unbalanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Bryan's direction.
   C.   An unbalanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Daniel's direction.
   D.   A balanced force that will lead to the pair staying in one place.

A truck pulls a trailer from a standstill with a constant force. After 2 minutes, the truck is
moving at 48 km/hr. If the same truck applies the same constant force to pull a second
trailer which is 3 times the mass of the first trailer, how fast will the truck be moving after 2
minutes? (PS 22, 33)

   A.   A balanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Daniel's direction.
   B.   An unbalanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Bryan's direction
   C.   An unbalanced force that will lead to the pair moving in Daniel's direction.
   D.   A balanced force that will lead to the pair staying in one place.
The box in the above picture is falling from the top of a building to the ground. Two
major forces are acting on the box as it falls. Which force is represented by Arrow Q?
(PS 33)

   A.   net force of the object
   B.   force of gravity
   C.   force of air resistance
   D.   force of magnetism

The box in the above picture is falling from the top of a building to the ground. Two
major forces are acting on the box as it falls. Which force is represented by Arrow P?
(PS 33)

   A.   net force of the object
   B.   force of gravity
   C.   force of air resistance
   D.   force of magnetism




You throw a ball upward with an initial speed of 20 m/sec. About 4 seconds later, the
ball returns and you catch it. How fast was the ball traveling downward when you
caught it?
(Note: Ignore the effects of friction.) (PS 22)

   A.   0 m/sec
   B.   20 m/sec
   C.   less than 20 m/sec
   D.   greater than 20 m/sec

Imagine that you are twirling a ball attached to a string in a clockwise direction. If you
let go of the string, which of the following describes the motion that the ball will take if
there are NO gravitational forces influencing the motion of the ball. (PS 32)

   A.   It will continue in a straight line.
   B.   It will fall straight to the ground.
   C.   It will curve down and then turn back up.
   D.   It will curve up and then fall to the ground.




Which of these elements has the greatest atomic mass? (PS 11, 14)

   A.   fluorine
   B.   hydrogen
   C.   helium
   D.   sodium
It is night and you turn on a flashlight. The energy in the battery is transformed into heat
and light in the bulb. If the battery produces energy at a rate of 0.80 Watt and 0.04
Watt leave as light, at what rate is heat being produced by the flashlight? (PS 25)

   A.   0.04 Watt
   B.   0.08 Watt
   C.   0.76 Watt
   D.   0.80 Watt

Both hydrogen gas and helium gas are lighter than air. Why is helium used to lift blimps
instead of hydrogen? (PS 17)

   A.   Hydrogen has a tendency to lose an electron, decreasing lift.
   B.   Helium is more chemically stable than hydrogen and will not burn.
   C.   Helium has more lifting force than hydrogen because it has more electrons.
   D.   Hydrogen has less lifting force than helium because it has less mass.

A block of maple wood with a volume of 375 cubic centimeters and a density of 0.60
g/cm3 is sawed in half. The density of the two smaller blocks is now — (PS 19)

   A.   the same as the original density
   B.   two times the original density
   C.   one-half the original density
   D.   one-fourth the original density

The pictures below show a simplified view of the rock temperatures in and around a
volcano. Which of the pictures correctly shows the direction of heat flow in the rock?
(PS 21)




   A.   W
   B.   X
   C.   Y
   D.   Z

Aristotle thought that a moving object would stop because its natural state was to be
at rest. Newton thought that friction is a force that opposes all motion and eventually
stops moving objects.
Suppose you were coasting on a bicycle on a level surface, and there was NO friction.
What would happen to your speed, according to Aristotle and Newton? (PS 36)

   A. Aristotle: slow and stop;
      Newton: maintain speed.
   B. Aristotle: maintain speed;
      Newton: slow and stop.
   C. Aristotle: maintain speed;
      Newton: maintain speed.
   D. Aristotle: slow and stop;
      Newton: slow and stop.




What is the potential energy of the 85 kg rock? (PS 23)

   A.   8,500 joules
   B.   28,900 joules
   C.   83,300 joules
   D.   85,00 joules
Iceland was settled by the Vikings more than one thousand years ago. At the time
Iceland was apparently covered with forests, but these have disappeared as people
invaded the small bits of land not covered by glaciers or solid rock. This is a land of ice
and heat, heat from active volcanoes.

The map shows Iceland with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge running through it. This ridge is
formed by two tectonic plates that are moving apart at an average rate of 2.5
centimeters per year. As the ocean crust spreads, magma rises up into the gap and
hardens to form new crust. Along the ridge are strings of volcanoes, some of which
formed islands such as Iceland.

The magma convection currents within the earth are due primarily to the fact that fluids
will rise if the surrounding fluid has a greater (PS 19, 21, 27)

   A.   density,
   B.   temperature.
   C.   atomic number.
   D.   volume.




The picture shows the position of a ball every 0.25 second on a photogram. If the ball
traveled 6 cm from the first photo to the third photo, then what is the velocity of the
ball? (PS 7)

   A.   1.5 cm/s
   B.   9 cm/s
   C.   12 cm/s
   D.   24 cm/s

Photosynthesis: Plants use energy from sunlight to produce sugar and oxygen from
carbon dioxide and water.

                      6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy        C6H12O6 + 6O2

Respiration: Plants and animals release stored energy in a reaction between sugar
molecules and oxygen. This reaction produces carbon dioxide and water.

                         C6H12O6 + 6O2      energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O

To produce 4 molecules of sugar, a plant needs — (PS 10)
A.   6 molecules of hydrogen
B.   12 molecules of ATP
C.   18 molecules of water
D.   24 molecules of carbon dioxide