5E's Food web 5-8_pg1.ai by gfi17626

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									       Biological
       Community

                       5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8

INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS
•   How do biotic and abiotic factors influence biological communities in the Chesapeake Bay region? (including energy flow)
•   How are human activities impacting the physical and biological systems in the Bay?
•   How does shoreline erosion affect habitat quality and biodiversity?
ENGAGE: STUDENT ASSIGNMENT                                                                                              READING STRATEGIES
                                                                                                                        READINGS:
Engage students in a discussion about what they need to survive. Create a list of their responses on the board.
                                                                                                                        • Biological Communities Fact
Review their list and ask them to think about the essentials for their survival. Ask students, “If you were stranded
                                                                                                                           Sheets:
on a deserted island, what are the basic things you would need to survive?” Explain the difference between
                                                                                                                          ◊ Tidal Wetlands
“needs” and “wants.” Their list should be narrowed down to include just the essentials that describe food, water,
                                                                                                                          ◊ Sandy Beaches
shelter. Explain that food, water, shelter and space are the four essential components of a habitat. With regard          ◊ Keystone Species: SAV
to “habitat,” space is defined as the amount of space (often referred to as territory) needed to acquire food, water      ◊ Keystone Species: Oysters
and shelter, but also an area sufficient to raise young. Just like with people, plants and animals have different         ◊ Water Quality Parameters
requirements for space. An oyster can meet all its habitat needs within a small oyster bed; a bald eagle often          • The Bay Life Guide
competes for territorial space with other eagles or osprey (another type of predatory bird). Some fish, such as            http://www.dnr.state.md.us/bay/
shad, migrate great distances, to spawn. Many species compete for space.                                                   cblife/index.html
EXPLORE: STUDENT ASSIGNMENT                                                                                             • Chesapeake Bay
                                                                                                                           Monitoring
1. Have students read the background, It Takes a Community.
                                                                                                                           www.dnr.state.md.us/bay/
2. Review several different Chesapeake and Coastal Bays habitats with your class. To shorten or simplify this              monitoring/index.html (“More
   lesson, pre-select one Chesapeake Bay or Coastal Bays habitat to review. You might select one that students             Info” sidebar has species
   are more likely to be familiar with due to their proximity to an area of the Bay region, or relate the habitat to       information)
   other topics your class might be studying. For example, if your class will be studying habitat loss, you might       • “Introduction to an
   select SAV beds, oyster reefs, or beach areas. You might narrow your selection even further by deciding to              Ecosystem” (free download
   conduct a service project where your class helps to raise SAVs, oysters, perch, shad or other species in the            available) http://
   classroom. You could then focus on the habitat one of these species occupies. Or, have the class vote on a              www.chesapeakebay.net/
   habitat to review. As you review a habitat, create a list of organisms that students think live there. During the       content/publications/
   review, ask, “What lives here?” (encourage students to think about both plants & animals) and develop a list.           cbp_13039.pdf
   Be sure your list includes an organism that represents each of the following functions in the web and review
   the functions with your students (see Glossary in Student Resources): producer, primary consumer, consumer, • “Awesome Chesapeake: A
   decomposer, scavenger, omnivore, herbivore, carnivore, autotroph, and heterotroph.                                Kids Guide to the Bay”, by
                                                                                                                           David Owen Bell. Check your
                                                                                                                           local library for this book.


                                                                                                                          STRATEGIES for Student Assignment
                                                                                                                          continued on next page...


                                                  MARY LAND
                                                  shorelinesonline
                                             Chesapea ke & Coastal Program
       Biological
       Community

                      5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8 (CONTINUED)

EXPLORE: STUDENT ASSIGNMENT (cont’d)                                                                                 WRITING STRATEGIES
To address the 5th grade learning standard, 3.0 Life Science: A. Diversity of Life:1 (adaptations &                  • During your discussion,
environmental conditions), you can expand on this discussion by asking students, “What adaptations would this          students can create a word-web
species have in order to best survive in this habitat?” See Awesome Chesapeake for information about what              (concept map) using “Habitat”
habitats different Bay species occupy (another opportunity to cover adaptations appears later).                        as the center word. Use food,
                                                                                                                       water, shelter, and space as the
                                                                                                                       radiating spokes, with student
3. The class will create a food web. Each student will select an organism (or you can assign one) that is              descriptions listed under each.
   representative of a food web for the habitat selected (sample organisms are provided in the Student                 This concept helps students
   Resources). Be sure to focus your discussion on the appropriate standard for your grade listed in the Teacher       see that non-essentials (like a
   Lesson page. If you want, you can choose to have more producers and prey species than consumers and top             refrigerator, CD player, TV, and
   predators to better reflect trophic levels, depending on the level of complexity appropriate for your students.     even a bed are nice to have,
                                                                                                                       but are not essential for
  •   Students can work individually or in pairs. Have students research their organism. Encourage students            “survival.”
      to take notes and organize their work before attempting to fit all their information on the index card.        • As students help create the
  •   Tell students to first draw a picture or cut one out (samples are included on the Student Resources) and         “who lives here?” list, they can
      paste this onto one side of a 5x7 index card, along with the species common and scientific names.                create a second concept map
                                                                                                                       that outlines web “roles”
  •   On the reverse side of the card, students should compile the following information about their organism:
                                                                                                                       (producer, consumer, etc.). A
      Function in the food web (consumer, producer, etc.); distribution in the habitat (lives on SAV leaves,           simple food web is offered on
      common in shallow water), what the organism eats and what eats it; reproductive method; growth cycle (if         page 10 of Awesome
      any); and ideally, something especially interesting about their organism (e.g., people value oysters to eat      Chesapeake, however, this
      and watermen used to make a good living harvesting oysters prior to 1885).                                       “web” is depicted in a circular
  •   For more advanced students (grades 6 and up), have students also identify water quality requirements for         manner. Clarification is needed
      their species (salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, temperature, and turbidity limitations (all may not be     to instill that connections are
      applicable). For grades 6 and up, you will explain the significance of these different water quality             not linear—food chains exist
      parameters (limiting factors) later in the activity.                                                             within the web.
                                                                                                                     TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
While your students are conducting research, the teacher can prepare a large mural with the general outline or       •    On-line resource for research
characteristics of the habitat the class selected. You can use heavy brown or white paper used to cover tables, or        on students individual species
your art department may have large paper. A local print shop will typically give away end bolts with plenty of            for the food web:
paper for dozens of murals. Please note the plants your students are researching and DO NOT include these on             ◊ Eyes on the Bay, “What
the mural. Students will provide these images. Include only portions of the habitat not assigned to students for            does it all mean?” http://
research (e.g., slope of the habitat – shoreline, bottom, rocks, piers or pilings, islands and water). Be sure to           mddnr.chesapeakebay.net/
include a sun and that the water depth you draw is appropriate).                                                            eyesonthebay/
                                                                                                                            whatsitmean.cfm




                                                MARY LAND
                                                shorelinesonline
                                           Chesapea ke & Coastal Program
       Biological
       Community

                      5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8 (CONTINUED)

EXPLAIN: STUDENT ASSIGNMENT
1. Have students (or pairs) report their findings to the entire class. Immediately after each student (or pair) has reported on their organism, have
   them tack their index card in the appropriate location on the habitat mural. There is no particular order that the species are tacked onto the mu-
   ral.
2. Create the food web (see sample below): Once all students have tacked their organism onto the mural, ask students to identify the relation-
   ships and interdependences between the different organisms and habitat components on the mural. Using a ball of yarn or string, connect the
   organisms/habitat components, illustrating the relationships and interdependencies by stringing the yarn from one organism to another (go
   around the tack). Begin with the Sun (which starts the “production” of vegetation and photosynthesis produces dissolved oxygen), and work your
   way around the mural in order from primary producers to top predators.

Alternatively, you can have students gather in a circle holding their index cards. Tell students that the inside of the circle represents their habitat.
The teacher can represent the Sun. Pass the yarn or string from student to student (organism to organism) having each student hold the string with
one hand, their card visible to all in the other, and create a web effect.




      Generalized food web for some
      of the major waterbirds that
      frequent the Chesapeake Bay.
      Source: USGS Circular 1316.

                                                MARY LAND
                                                shorelinesonline
                                           Chesapea ke & Coastal Program
       Biological
       Community

                       5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8 (CONTINUED)

EXPLORE— EXPLAINING THE FINDINGS - STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (grades 6 & up)                                                   READING STRATEGIES
1. Ask students to consider the problems encountered in space travel. Have them list the limiting factors present        READINGS:
   in space which must be overcome by engineers, scientists, and astronauts in order for people to survive in that       • Supplemental lesson from
                                                                                                                           Central Wisconsin
   environment (where there is a lack of oxygen, bitter cold temperatures, lack of air pressure and limited food
                                                                                                                           Environmental Station; http://
   supply). Produce a master list on the chalkboard. Label the abiotic factors with an “A” and the biotic factors          www.uwsp.edu/cnr/cwes/
   with a “B.” Discuss the following questions: What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors? How do          prepost.aspx
   humans overcome these problems (called “limiting factors”) in space? Could other animals or plants do the
                                                                                                                         WRITING STRATEGIES
   same? Why or why not? How is the earth similar to a spaceship?
                                                                                                                         • Have students write an essay
2. Relating the space ship scenario to your food web, review a few different limiting factors that can impact               on how their species fit in the
   aquatic populations and habitat. For younger students, talk about losing species that represent producers,               class food web. They should
   prey and predators and simple limiting factors, such as overfishing (loss of predators - striped bass; loss of           include at least one limiting
   scavenger/predators – blue crab; loss of filter feeders - oysters). For older or more advanced students,                 factor that can impact their
   incorporate ways that water quality parameters can be impacted (e.g., if water became very cloudy with silt              species on the food web. They
   due to a heavy storm that washed soil to the water). Go into a bit more detail with regard to limiting factors           can include drawings of the
                                                                                                                            food web to help clarify their
   related to the “water” component of habitat: aquatic species don’t just need water for their biological
                                                                                                                            essay, but their drawing should
   functioning, but they live in water, just as terrestrial species live in air. There are several factors that influence   be properly labeled with arrows
   water quality, many of which we typically refer to as “pollution.” Pollution in water can be in many forms: toxins       and a legend so that the reader
   or pollutants, from man-made and natural influences; “dirty” water – where soil erosion has entered the water            can effectively interpret their
   and is suspended causing water to be cloudy. This cloudiness is called, “turbidity.” Pollution can also be simply        drawing.
   too much of a good thing: such as nutrients, salinity, temperature (warm-water discharge from manufacturing
                                                                                                                          TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
   or power plants is called “thermal pollution” because it warms the water more than the species inhabiting the
   area can tolerate). Asking “what if” questions can be a good exercise: “What organisms would be impacted by • View water quality parameters
                                                                                                                            as limiting factors using LCD
   ‘turbidity’?” “What would the impact be if dissolved oxygen were reduced?”
                                                                                                                            projector. DNR website:
3. Conduct the Explaining Your Findings Worksheet                                                                           “What Does it Mean?” http://
                                                                                                                            mddnr.chesapeakebay.net/
4. Have students complete the Explaining Your Findings (adaptations & limiting factors) worksheet. Depending                eyesonthebay/whatsitmean.cfm
   on your class ability, you may conduct this together as a group. Encourage students to relate shoreline
   erosion to turbidity—and that sediment loads to the Bay are a major “limiting factor” for the survival of many
   organisms, namely SAV and oysters.
5. Extend upon the student circle food web: The students that think their organism is affected give a “tug” on the
   string, then drop their string in place. Then, the class looks around to see what other organisms were affected.
   If you are conducting the food web on the mural: simply pull the tack loosening the string at the affected
   organism(s) and let the string web collapse.



                                                 MARY LAND
                                                 shorelinesonline
                                            Chesapea ke & Coastal Program
       Biological
       Community

                       5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8 (CONTINUED)

ANSWERS: EXPLAINING THE FINDINGS - STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (grades 8 and up)
Adaptations & Limiting Factors
Organisms have adapted or changed over time in order to survive in a type of environment. Sometimes, the environment or habitat conditions limit
the survival, growth or reproduction of different organisms.
1. List at least four types of environmental conditions or “limiting factors” in a tidal aquatic environment.
   Salinity, temperature, light, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, nutrients, drought.
2. Describe how one organism from your class food web is specially adapted to one of the above environmental conditions (note: adaptations can
   be behavioral too):
    There are many ways species are adapted to their environment—here are a few examples of how local species are adapted: Maryland blue crab
    and other species migrate during winter months due to changes in salinity and temperature, they move to wetland or SAV areas for protection
    during their molt; SAV require certain levels of sunlight to survive and reproduce; some organisms, such as eels, catfish, macroinvertebrates
    (crawfish) don’t require as much dissolved oxygen to survive; some fish species migrate from salty to fresh or brackish water to spawn (e.g.,
    shad migrate to fresh water; yellow perch also require fresh water to spawn); some fish can not survive in warmer water, in part due to their
    oxygen demands (cold water holds more dissolved oxygen than warm water); sea turtles have strong claws for digging in sand to nest; osprey
    and eagles build nests near water to be in close proximity to prey; nutria, muskrat and beaver have thick fur to maintain an even body
    temperature while wet or in water.
3. List two ways people can change the aquatic environment of the Chesapeake Bay, its tributaries or Coastal Bays? Describe the affect these
   changes can have on aquatic populations.
    Shoreline stabilization—scour can reduce or eliminate natural shoreline structure such as the gentle slope or aquatic vegetation cover; land
    development can increase runoff of pollutants and quantity of rain water/snow melt; shoreline erosion can increase turbidity and smother SAV,
    oysters and other benthic organisms; see Eyes on the Bay—www.dnr.state.md.us/bay/ monitoring/index.html or Bay Stressors Animation
    (Chesapeake Bay Program)- www.chesapeakebay.net/info/baystress/begin.htm
4. Select one aquatic habitat area and describe how shoreline erosion can affect the quality of this habitat and the organisms that may live there.
    In general, shoreline erosion reduces or eliminates nearshore habitat by uprooting aquatic plants and causing turbidity; beach erosion can result
    in enough loss of sand to impact the nesting of piping plover, sea turtles and spawning horseshoe crab, as well as other beach-dependent
    species such as the tiger beetle. See Coastal Processes Fact Sheets for other examples.




                                                 MARY LAND
                                                 shorelinesonline
                                            Chesapea ke & Coastal Program
       Biological
       Community

                      5 E’S LESSON PLAN - FOOD W EBS GRADES 5-8 (CONTINUED)

EXTEND                                                                                                                READING STRATEGIES
1. This lesson can be enhanced or extended by playing the Project WILD activity, Oh Deer! You will need to            • Additional resource: Chewin’ in
   substitute the terrestrial deer species with an aquatic species (directions are included in the activity). This      the Chesapeake: Food Webs &
   activity is an excellent way for students of all ages to “experience” how different factors limit the growth and     the Chesapeake Bay; http://
   survival of a species. To make the most of this activity, we strongly suggest you include the graphing element       www.bcps.org/offices/lis/
   described in the directions. Simply take a flip-chart or small white dry-erase board with you to create the          models/foodwebs/index.html
   graph. You can assign a student to record the activity data if you like. Be sure to stop between rounds or         WRITING STRATEGIES
   “years” to record the data and quickly review what’s happening to the population as different factors impact its   • Redistribute the article
   survival. At the end, you can review the fluctuating graph (it typically fluctuates, showing years with high         “Biodiversity and the Bay” so
   populations others w/ low populations). If you have recorded what limiting factors were introduced during            that students can refer directly
   different years, you can facilitate a good discussion on the impacts of particular limiting factors on the           to the concepts the author is
   population.                                                                                                          making in order to develop their
2. Have students (grade 8 and up) answer the following essay question, drawing from their readings and lesson           essay.
                                                                                                                      • Students’ essay response
   activities: What does the author of the article, Biodiversity in the Bay mean by his statement: “Biodiversity is
                                                                                                                        should illustrate critical thinking
   not a matter of just keeping all the parts of every community...but a matter of keeping a balance in the             and a comprehension about the
   community.” Alternately, you can pose this question in a group discussion and together, outline what the             concepts in this lesson. They
   author’s statement means.                                                                                            should be able to put their ideas
EVALUATE                                                                                                                together to summarize the key
                                                                                                                        points of the lesson: different
1. Use students’ index cards (Explore #1) to evaluate student comprehension of life history information about a         habitat types support different
   species. Assess student understanding of the “niche” the species occupies in your food web mural by noting           communities of organisms and
   how and where the student placed their index card.                                                                   thus, different food webs;
2. Use the student essays (Explore #2 & Extend #8) to assess student comprehension of the food web, limiting            biodiversity in the Bay system
   factors, and “balance” in food webs.                                                                                 means having a broad range of
                                                                                                                        species so that when one
3. Use the student worksheets.                                                                                          system (or species in a food
4. Use discussion periods to assess comprehension of lesson objectives.                                                 web) fails—or is taken out due
5. Conduct a blind guessing game: using student index cards, pin one to each student’s back. Have students              to a limiting factor, there are
   work in pairs asking “yes/no” questions in an attempt to identify the species on their back. For example, “Am I      “backup species” to fill their
                                                                                                                        role. This is what the author
   a predator?” (yes) “Do I have fins?” (no) “Do I have wings? (yes) am an eagle? (yes). If students need more
                                                                                                                        means by “balance.”
   information, they can switch pairs & continue questioning. Students who accurately guess should sit down.
6. Interpret a population graph: (more advanced students): Provide students with a graph illustrating a               TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
   fluctuating population (sample graph available in Oh Deer! Activity—Technology). Have students interpret the       • Oh Deer! Graphing element:
   graph, making inferences about how limiting factors impact population size.                                          http://wildlife.state.co.us/
                                                                                                                        Education/TeacherResources/
                                                                                                                        ProjectWild/OhDeer.htm


                                                MARY LAND
                                                shorelinesonline
                                           Chesapea ke & Coastal Program

								
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