wat-wch-d1033e3 petrochemical industry.pmd by ypq25841


									                                                     Water and wastewater
                                             in the petrochemical industry

The petrochemical industry is organized in four sectors: exploration and
production of crude oil and natural gas, transport, refining and marketing
and distribution.

Water consumption and wastewater           Wastewater composition
production                                 Refinery Wastewater includes run-off
Refineries use large quantities of         water, process water and domestic
water. Wastewater production strongly      water. The water is complex in
depends on the process configuration.      composition. BOD and COD values
For a refinery with cooling water          are in the range of 150-200 ppm and
recycle a production of approximate        300-600 ppm. Typical cyanide, oil,
3,5 – 5 m3 per ton of crude can be         fenols, benzene, sulfide, ammonia and
taken. Uncontrolled discharge of           heavy metals can be found in refinery
refinery effluent is no longer possible.   effluents.
Furthermore the industry is well aware
of her responsibility towards the          Water treatment
environ-ment. The industry has             A refinery consumes water for:
already taken several measures that        - Cooling water systems
reduce the waterconsumption,               - Production boiler feed water
wastewater discharge and other             - Water for domestic purposes
emmisions. Standards for effluent
discharges vary among different            In cooling water systems once-through
countries. The World bank proposed         systems and recirculating water
international standards in the             systems are used. Dependent of the
“Pollution Prevention and Abatement        source (surface water, ground water,
Handbook 1998”.                            re-used water) the make-up water will
A Haskoning Nederland B.V. reference
                                                                                                    A complete effluent treatment plant includes facilities for air and odor
                                                                                                                                           treatment and sludge disposal.

need a specific treatment such as                          Royal Haskoning                                            Some references
sandfiltration, iron removal, and                          RoyalHaskoning offers a wide                               - TotalFinaElf Harlingen: Trouble-
(partial) softening. In addition                           package of services for the                                  shooting and optimization existing
chemicals are dosed to control                             petrochemical industry ranging from                          treatment plant;
corrosion and biofouling.                                  several studies to design and                              - Esso, Rotterdam: Troubleshooting,
For boiler feed water the water is                         realization including:                                       review clarifier existing treatment
desalinated (reverse osmosis, ion                          - Feasibility studies;                                       plant;
exchange)                                                  - Safety (QRA, HAZOP, risc analyses,                       - Petroplus, Milford Haven UK: Design
                                                             Easi-Pro, security strategy system                         and engineering wastewater
Wastewater treatment                                         and emergency scenario);                                   treatment plant.;
Wastewater treatment include                               - Design and realization                                   - Petroplus, Vlissingen: Problem
collection allowing different streams to                     (dimensioning, basic and detail                            analysis discharge run-off water;
be collected separately, routing, and                        design, projectmanagement,                               - Shell Brazil: treatment groundwater;
treatment. Dependent of the degree of                        supervision, commissioning and                           - Shell Global Solutions, Amsterdam:
the (required) treatment the following                       start up, process and maintenance                          - Manual effluent treatment plant;
steps are distinguished:                                     manuals);                                                  - Sludge and slurry manual;
- Primary treatment (API/CPI/PPI-                          - Trouble-shooting existing plants;                          - Legislation effluent and biosludge
   separator, sour water strippers,                        - Assistance with contracting/                                  re-use in Iran and Qatar;
   buffertanks)                                              outsourcing;                                               - Design review effluent treatment
- Secondary treatment (coagulation-                        - Legionella risc inventories;                                  plant Nan Hai, China;
   flocculation-flotation, biological                      - Permits(IPPC).                                             - Design and feasibility studies
   treatment)                                                                                                              effluent treatment plants at SMD
- Tertiary treatment (sandfiltration,                                                                                      (gas to liquid) plants;
   membrane-filtration, chemical oxi-                                                                                   - Zero emission discharge study.
   dation)                                                                                                            - Shell Geelong Australia: Design
                                                                                                                        and accompanying contractor efflu-
                                                                                                                        ent treatment plant;
                                                                                                                      - Oiltanking, Amsterdam, Trouble-
                                                                                                                        shooting and upgrading of waste
Contact:           André Visser (senior advisor water and wastewater)                                                   water treatment plant.
                   Jan Appelman (projectmanager industry)
Barbarossastraat 35, P.O. Box 151, 6500 AD Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Phone +31 24 328 42 84. Fax +31 24 323 93 46
Internet: www.royalhaskoning.com. E-mail: info@nijmegen.royalhaskoning.com

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