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In-Text Citation Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing • There are three ways of incorporating other writers’ work into your own writing. • You will want to carefully blend source material you find through your research with your own writing. • Make sure that your own voice is heard. Quotations • Quotations must be identical to the original source. • Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly interesting or unusual and keep all quotations as brief as possible. • Changes must not be made in the spelling, capitalization, or punctuation of the quote. • You must attribute all quotes to the original author. • Avoid over quoting. Weaving quotes into your own writing will ensure that your voice is heard. Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage – phrase by phrase– from your source into your own words. • Your paraphrase should be of equal or shorter length than the original passage. • Remember: a paraphrase is a complete rewriting, not just a rearrangement of the words. • A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Summarizing • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of a passage into your own words. • Summaries are significantly shorter than the original because they are limited to only the main ideas. • You must be careful not to change or distort the meaning of the original work. • Again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Some Important Reminders: • Never leave a quote or paraphrase by itself – you must introduce it, explain it, and show how it relates to your thesis. Some Important Reminders: • You need not always reproduce complete sentences. • • Sometimes you may want to quote just a word or phrase as part of your sentence. Some Important Reminders: • A colon usually precedes quoted material if it is formally introduced. • Otherwise, a comma precedes a quotation if it is integrated into your sentence. Some Important Reminders: • If a quotation runs to more than four lines in your paper, set it off from your text by: –beginning a new line –indenting one inch from the left margin –typing it double-spaced, without adding quotation marks Some Important Reminders: • If you find the same information in three or more different sources you can conclude that this information is “common knowledge.” • Common knowledge information does not require documentation. If you are not sure whether particular information is common knowledge, give credit to your source with a citation! Some Important Reminders: • Direct quotations should be used selectively. • The majority of your paper should be written in your own words. What are parenthetical citations? • Parenthetical citations are short references included in the text of your paper or project to show your reader where you found each piece of information that you have paraphrased, summarized, or quoted. Why do I need to include parenthetical citations? • Parenthetical citations direct your reader to the source in your alphabetical list of works cited. • This allows your reader to locate the exact source for further study. You need to give credit to the original source of information; otherwise, you will be plagiarizing or stealing another person’s work. How do I create proper citations? • Usually the author’s last name and a page reference are enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you borrowed material. • However, if your source has no author, generally you will use the first word in the title from your works cited list. See specific examples below. Where do I place parenthetical citations? • Citations are placed in parentheses () at the end of the sentence following the borrowed material. • That is why it is called a “parenthetical citation.” Remember: • For each entry in your list of Works Cited, you must have at least one corresponding parenthetical citation within the body of your paper. • The purpose of a parenthetical citation is to point your reader to referenced work in the list of Works Cited. Author in Reference • When you do NOT mention the author’s name in your sentence, the author’s name and page number are placed in parentheses at the end of your sentence followed by a period. • The sinking of the Titanic has been called one of the greatest disasters of all time (Benton 28). Author in Text • When you mention the author’s name in your sentence, the page number is placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence followed by a period. • Benton asserts that the Titanic has been called one of the greatest disasters of all time (28). Two or More Works by the Same Author • When you cite more than one work by the SAME AUTHOR you need to include a word from the title to distinguish between/among resources. Place a comma between the author’s name and the title. • Baseball players and wrestlers have traditionally been heavy users of chewing smokeless tobacco (Nardo, Drugs 68). Two or Three Authors • When the work has two or three authors, give the last name of each person listed. • Others, like Lord and Padfield (310), stated that the Titanic really was not unsinkable as first believed. • • Others stated that the Titanic really was not unsinkable as first believed to be true (Lord and Padfield 310). Work Listed by Title • When the work has NO AUTHOR begin with the word by which the resource is alphabetized in your works-cited list. • International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s (“Decade” 26). • If the work is mentioned in your text, simply give the page reference. • As discussed in “Decade of the Spy,” international espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s (26). Direct Quote • To indicate short quotations enclose the direct quote within double quotation marks, and provide the author and specific page citation. • It may be true that “Poe’s ghost stories are among the most famous in the world” (Sheldon 9). Direct Quote • If you incorporate the author’s name in your text, simply provide the page reference. • It may be true, as Sheldon maintains, that “Poe’s ghost stories are among the most famous in the world” (9). Direct Quote • Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. • According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. Direct Quote • Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are part of your text. • Is it possible that dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184) ? Long Quote • When you cite a long quotation (four lines or more) that is set off from the text, omit the quotation marks. Generally, a colon introduces a long quotation. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. • Indent the entire quotation. Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Brontë 78) Shortened Quote • Whenever you omit a word, phrase, sentence or more from a passage, use ellipsis points to indicate the missing portion of the original quotation. Use three periods with a space before each and a space after the last. • The examples show a quotation with an ellipsis in the middle and a quotation with an ellipsis at the end. • Barbara W. Tuchman writes, “Medical thinking . . . stressed air as the communicator of disease, ignoring sanitation or visible carriers” (101-02). • In surveying various responses to plagues in the middle ages, Barbara W. Tuchman writes, “Medical thinking, trapped in the theory of astral influences, stressed air as the communicator of disease . . . ” (101- 02). Web Site • When you cite information from a web document, page numbers of a printout should not be cited. • The history of roller coasters can be traced back to the times of Catherine the Great of Russia (“Century”). Web Site with Counted Paragraphs/Screens • If an electronic source counts paragraphs or screens, put the author’s name plus the appropriate paragraph/screen. • Unearthing the mummies may take years (Phelps, par. 23). • • Beethoven has been called the “first politically motivated composer,” for he was “caught up in the whole ferment of ideas that came out of the French Revolution” (Gardiner, screens 2-3). Internet Sources In-Text Citation from Write Source http://www.thewritesource.com/mla/ • Because Internet sources typically have no page or paragraph numbers, and Web sites often list no author, people are often confused about how to refer to these sources within their papers. In-Text Citations • The answer is to cite the author's name whenever possible, and use the source’s title otherwise (or a shortened version of the title). If no page or paragraph number is provided, leave that portion of the citation blank. In-Text Citations • Keep in mind that the primary purpose of an in- text citation is simply to point readers to the correct entry on the “Works Cited’ page. Elements of On-Line Entry • Author or editor (Last name, First name, ed. for editor) NOTE: The editor’s name follows the title in an entry for a project or database. • Title of article, page, posting (followed by the description “On-line posting”) • Title of book and printed version information (if part of a book) • Title of the site, database, periodical, etc., or a description such as Home page • Version, volume, issue, or other identifying number • Date posted (or last update) • Name of subscription service, and name and location (city) of library where accessed • Listserv or forum name • Number of pages (pp.) or paragraphs (pars.), if numbered • Sponsoring organization • Date accessed • Electronic address (or URL or keyword of the subscription service) • NOTE: If a URL is quite long and complicated, simply give the site's search page or home page URL. • If certain items do not apply or are not available, do not include them. Format of On-Line Entry • Author or editor. “Title.” Book title. Printed version information. Site title. Volume or issue number. Date posted. Name of subscription service, library name and location. Listserv name. 00 pp. Sponsoring organization. Date accessed <Electronic address>. Web Site (Professional) ESPN.com. 10 Nov. 1999. ESPN Internet Ventures. 24 Nov. 1999 <http://espn.go.com>. Article Within a Web Site Devitt, Terry. “Flying High.” The Why Files. 9 Dec. 1999. University of Wisconsin, Board of Regents. 4 Jan. 2000<http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/kite.html>. Article Within a Web Site (Anonymous) “Becoming a Meteorologist.” Weather.com. 12 Nov. 1999. The Weather Channel. 24 Nov.1999<http://weather.com/ learn_more/resources/metro.html>. • Note: When line length forces you to break a Web address, always break it after a slash mark.