APPENDIX ALISTENER SURVEYS Table A1Background information on

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APPENDIX ALISTENER SURVEYS Table A1Background information on Powered By Docstoc
					APPENDIX A: LISTENER SURVEYS

Table A1: Background information on LS1 and LS2
                                                 LS1                LS2
Dates of Survey                             2005/08/15 to       2006/01/20 to
                                            2005/09/01          2006/02/08
Number of respondents                            347                 570
Number of SA listeners among respondents         316                 521
Percent of respondents who are SA listeners     91%                 91%
Approximate size of SA listener ship            8000               12000
Percent of SA listeners responding               4%                  4%

Table A2: Response to question, “Which of the following weekly/daily podcasts have you
listened to for more than 3 weeks?” Listeners could select as many podcasts as they wanted.
Shows listed a choices were selected from the iTunes directory and represent all shows with an
average of 1 show per week, contained the word “astronomy” in their description, and did not
focus on creation science or astrology as sciences. Changes in possible responses reflect changes
in available podcasts.
Possible Response                       LS1           LS1
                                       N     %      N      %
Ask an Astronomer                    NA NA 26 4.6%
Astrobiology Magazine                 19 5% 28 4.9%
Astronomy Ireland                    NA NA          8 1.4%
Astronomy A Go Go                    NA NA 22 3.9%
ESA                                  NA NA          8 1.4%
Jack Horkheimer: Star Gazer          NA NA 17 3.0%
Lolife Podcast                       NA NA          5 0.9%
New Scientist                        NA NA 47 8.2%
Science Friday                        92 27% 199 34.9%
Science @ NASA Feature Stories 94 27% 149 26.1%
“Are we alone?” SETI Podcast         NA NA 74 13.0%
Singularity Podcast                   14 4% 21 3.7%
Skepticality                          29 8% 140 24.6%
Sky Watch                            NA NA 20 3.5%
Slacker Astronomy                    316 91% 521 91.4%
Space.com                            NA NA 43 7.5%
Spitzer Space Telescope              NA NA 54 9.5%
StarDate                              37 11% 70 12.3%
This Week in Science                 NA NA 67 11.8%
Universe Today                        80 23% 150 26.3%
Frontier Channel                       7 2% NA            NA
Table A2: Response to question, “What is your gender?”
 Possible Responses      LS1         LS2
                       N     %     N      %
 Male                 312 90% 494 87%
 Female                30 9% 73 13%
 Not Responding         5 1%        3 1%

Table A3: Response to question, “What is your age?” in years
 Possible Responses LS1 LS2
                        (years)
 Average              35.9 36.1
 Median               35.0 37.0
 Standard Deviation 11.0 11.0
 Minimum                12    14
 Maximum                66    67

Table A4: Response to question, “What is your location?”
 Responses                  LS1        LS2            Ave.
 United States           247 71% 399 70.0%           70.6%
              Alabama      3 1%      1 0.2%           0.5%
                Alaska     1 0%      0 0.0%           0.1%
               Arizona     7 2%      9 1.6%           1.8%
              Arkansas     0 0%      1 0.2%           0.1%
            California 37 11% 59 10.4%               10.5%
             Colorado 11 3% 16 2.8%                   3.0%
          Connecticut      0 0%      5 0.9%           0.4%
             Delaware      2 1%      1 0.2%           0.4%
 District of Columbia      2 1%      1 0.2%           0.4%
               Florida 11 3% 11 1.9%                  2.5%
               Georgia     5 1% 10 1.8%               1.6%
                Hawaii     2 1%      1 0.2%           0.4%
                  Idaho    4 1%      4 0.7%           0.9%
                Illinois   8 2% 19 3.3%               2.8%
               Indiana     6 2%      7 1.2%           1.5%
                   Iowa    5 1%      6 1.1%           1.2%
                Kansas     3 1%      6 1.1%           1.0%
              Kentucky     2 1%      1 0.2%           0.4%
             Louisiana     1 0%      3 0.5%           0.4%
                 Maine     0 0%      2 0.4%           0.2%
             Maryland      4 1% 10 1.8%               1.5%
       Massachusetts 11 3% 12 2.1%                    2.6%
             Michigan      9 3% 19 3.3%               3.0%
            Minnesota      5 1% 11 1.9%               1.7%
           Mississippi     0 0%      2 0.4%           0.2%
              Missouri     5 1%      1 0.2%           0.8%
              Montana      0 0%      1 0.2%           0.1%
             Nebraska      1 0%      5 0.9%           0.6%
             Nevada     0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
       North Dakota     0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
     New Hampshire      1   0%    3   0.5%   0.4%
          New Jersey    6   2%   12   2.1%   1.9%
         New Mexico     2   1%    7   1.2%   0.9%
           New York     9   3%   19   3.3%   3.0%
      North Carolina    4   1%    0   0.0%   0.6%
                Ohio    5   1%   17   3.0%   2.2%
           Oklahoma     1   0%    2   0.4%   0.3%
             Oregon     2   1%    9   1.6%   1.1%
        Pennsylvania   11   3%   14   2.5%   2.8%
         Puerto Rico    0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
        Rhode Island    0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
      South Carolina    0   0%    2   0.4%   0.2%
           Tennessee    4   1%    8   1.4%   1.3%
               Texas   24   7%   28   4.9%   5.9%
                Utah    7   2%    4   0.7%   1.4%
            Vermont     3   1%    3   0.5%   0.7%
            Virginia    7   2%   15   2.6%   2.3%
         Washington     8   2%   18   3.2%   2.7%
           Wisconsin    8   2%   10   1.8%   2.0%
Austria                 1   0%    1   0.2%   0.2%
Australia              19   5%   20   3.5%   4.5%
Belgium                 2   1%    3   0.5%   0.6%
Brazil                  0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Cambodia                0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Canada                 12   3%   26   4.6%   4.0%
China                   0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Columbia                0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Denmark                 1   0%    1   0.2%   0.2%
Dominican Republic      0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Estonia                 1   0%    1   0.2%   0.2%
Finland                 2   1%    2   0.4%   0.5%
France                  2   1%    0   0.0%   0.3%
Germany                 1   0%    2   0.4%   0.3%
Ireland                 2   1%    0   0.0%   0.3%
Israel                  1   0%    0   0.0%   0.1%
Japan                   4   1%    0   0.0%   0.6%
Lithuania               0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Mauritius               1   0%    0   0.0%   0.1%
Mexico                  2   1%    2   0.4%   0.5%
Netherlands             1   0%    3   0.5%   0.4%
New Zealand             5   1%    8   1.4%   1.4%
Norway                  2   1%    2   0.4%   0.5%
Philippines             0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Portugal                1   0%    3   0.5%   0.4%
Scotland                4   1%    0   0.0%   0.6%
Singapore               0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
Spain                   0   0%    1   0.2%   0.1%
 South Africa            0 0%        1    0.2%       0.1%
 Sweden                  1 0%        5    0.9%       0.6%
 Switzerland             1 0%        2    0.4%       0.3%
 Trinidad                0 0%        2    0.4%       0.2%
 United Kingdom         34 10%      43    7.5%       8.7%

Table A6: Response to question, “What is your income level?”
 Responses                        All Respondents
                       LS1         LS2
                     N     %     N       %        Ave. Change
 $0-$15,000         48 14% 82 14.4%              14.1%      0.6%
 $15,001 - $30,000 72 21% 77 13.5%               17.1%     -7.2%
 $30,001 - $45,000 58 17% 90 15.8%               16.3%     -0.9%
 $45,001 - $60,000 57 16% 88 15.4%               15.9%     -1.0%
 $60,001 - $90,000 63 18% 102 17.9%              18.0%     -0.3%
 $90,001 or more    49 14% 131 23.0%             18.6%      8.9%

 Responses                  Respondents 22 y.o. and older
                        LS1        LS2
                      N     %    N      %        Ave. Change
 $0-$15,000          24 8% 40 12.7%             10.2%      5.1%
 $15,001 - $30,000   69 22% 69 21.9%            21.9%      0.0%
 $30,001 - $45,000   55 17% 87 27.6%            22.5%     10.2%
 $45,001 - $60,000   57 18% 88 27.9%            23.0%      9.8%
 $60,001 - $90,000   62 20% 101 32.1%           25.9%     12.4%
 $90,001 or more     48 15% 129 41.0%           28.1%     25.7%

Table A7: Response to the question, “What is your education level?” Note: in LS2 we added the
option “No Degree / Not Student” in response to comments on LS1.
 Response                            LS1         LS2
                                  N     %      N    %
 K-12 Student                     19 5% 27 5%
 Undergraduate Student            44 13% 75 13%
 Graduate Student                 21 6% 27 5%
 No Degree / Not Student         NA NA 22 4%
 High School Degree               34 10% 69 12%
 Bachelors Degree                123 35% 196 34%
 Graduate / Professional Degree 106 31% 154 27%
Table A8: Response to question, “Your job/major is in which field?” Note: in LS2 we added the
option “Science” in response to comments on LS1.
 Response                         LS1        LS2
                                 N    %    N        %
 Academia                       16 5% 12 2.1%
 Advertising                     3 1% 12 2.1%
 Agriculture                     2 1%       1 0.2%
 Communications                 14 4% 23 4.0%
 Computers                    139 40% 186 32.6%
 Education (K-12)               18 5% 35 6.1%
 Education (College)            16 5% 21 3.7%
 Entertainment                   4 1%       8 1.4%
 Government                      9 3% 17 3.0%
 Health/Medical                 14 4% 27 4.7%
 Law / Law Enforcement           3 1% 12 2.1%
 Manufacturing                  10 3% 26 4.6%
 Military                        4 1%       5 0.9%
 Research and Development 17 5% 22 3.9%
 Retail                          6 2%       5 0.9%
 Science                      NA NA 36 6.3%
 Service Industry                8 2%       9 1.6%
 Other                          64 18% 113 19.8%

Table A9: Response to question, “How do you typically download Podcasts?”
 Responses                      LS1         LS2           Ave. change
                              N    %     N      %
 Manually Download            32 9% 36 6.3%               7.8% -2.9%
 iTunes                      219 63% 435 76.3%           69.7% 13.2%
 Other Aggregator Software 96 28% 93 16.3%               22.0% -11.3%
 not responding                 0 0%      6 1.1%          0.5%    1.1%

Table A10: Response to question, “How do you typically listen to Podcasts?”
 Responses                   LS1         LS2           Ave. change
                          N      %    N     %
 Work/School Computer 41 12% 63 11.1%                 11.4% -0.8%
 Home Computer            98 28% 147 25.8%            27.0% -2.5%
 MP3 Player              205 59% 355 62.3%            60.7%       3.2%
 Not Responding             3 1%       5 0.9%           0.9%      0.0%

Table A11: Response to question, “How many podcasts do you subscribe to?”
 Responses LS1 LS2 Ave.
              (# of podcasts)
 Mean        11.9 13.4 12.7
 Mode           1    10    5.5
 Stdev       11.9 13.1 12.5
 Min            1     1       1
 Max           99    90 94.5
Table A12: Response to question, “What is your favorite podcast?”
 Show                                     Genre                   LS1 LS2 Max
 Slacker Astronomy                        Science                 130 152 152
 This Week in Tech                        Technology               26  25  26
 This Week In Science                     Science                   2  25  25
 Ricky Gervais Show                       Comedy                    0  14  14
 Skepticality                             Science                  14  12 14
 Quirks & Quarks                          Science                   0   8  8
 Coverville                               Music                     7   5   7
 In Our Time                              Public Radio              1   7   7
 Science Friday                           Science                   7   6   7
 Dawn and Drew Show                       Comedy                    4   6  6
 Escape Pod                               Science Fiction           2   6   6
 Often                                    Podcasts                  0   6  6
 Onion Radio News                         Comedy                    0   6   6
 Security Now                             Technology                0   6  6
 Slacker Astronomy Bonus Features Feed Science                      1   6  6
 Adam Curry: Daily Source Code            Podcasts                  3   5   5
 Diggnation                               Technology                5   3   5
 Dragon Page Wing’in it                   Arts & Entertainment      1   5   5
 Science Show                             Science                   2   5   5
 Story of the Day                         Public Radio              0   5   5
 2600: The Hacker Quarterly               podcasts                  4   0   4
 Al Franken                               Talk Radio                4   2  4
 Always                                   Movies & Television      0   4   4
 Daily Breakfast                          Christianity              0   4   4
 Dragon Page Slice of Scifi               Arts & Entertainment      4   3   4
 IT Conversations                         Technology                4   4   4
 Planetary Radio                          Science                   4   3   4
 Some                                     Podcasts                 0    4  4
 Tiki Bar TV                              Comedy                    0   4   4
 Word Nerds                               Books                     4   2   4
 Are We Alone? - Seti Institute           Science                   3   3   3
 Battlestar Galactica                     Movies & Television       1   3   3
 Berkeley Groks                           Science                   0   3   3
 Distorted View                           Comedy                    2   3   3
 Dr. Karl                                 Science                   3   1  3
 Evil Genius Chronicles                   Podcasts                 1   3   3
 History According to Bob                 podcasts                 1    3  3
 Keith and Girl                           Comedy                   2   3   3
 KFI Tech Guy                             Technology                0   3   3
 Lost: The Transmission                   Movies & Television       0   3   3
 Mark Kermode's Film Review - BBC         Public Radio              3   2  3
 Naked Scientists                         Science                   0   3   3
 On the Media                             Public Radio              0   3   3
 President's Weekly Radio Address         Comedy                    0   3   3
 Rachel Maddow Show                       Comedy                    0   3   3
 Slate Podcasts                           News                      0   3   3
 StarDate                                 Science                   3   3  3
The Watt Weekly                           Science                  3      0     3
Wait, Wait, Don't Tell Me                 Public Radio             0      3     3

Table A13: Breakdown of favorite podcasts by genre. Because of the dominance of Slacker
Astronomy listeners among respondents we present the number of favorite science listeners both
as a whole, and without the Slacker Astronomy listeners.
 Genre                     LS1 LS2
 Science (w/SA)             176 248
 Science (w/o SA)            46     96
 Technology                  48     63
 Comedy                      14     54
 Podcasts                    17     47
 Public Radio                10     27
 Music                       13     23
 Arts & Entertainment        13     13
 Movies & Television          5     15
 News                         0     16
 Science Fiction              3     12
 Talk Radio                   6      8
 Books                        5      5
 Politics                     2      8
 Christianity                 1      7
 Food                         2      5
 Audio Blogs                  0      5
 International                3      2
 Business                     1      3
 Family                       0      3
 Sports                       0      3
 Carreers                     0      2
 Japanese                     0      2
 Travel                       0      2
 Education                    0      1
 Entertainment                1      0
 Health                       1      0
 Sexuality                    0      1
Table A14: Response to question, “What is your favorite science podcast?” Note: this question
was only asked in LS2.
Responses                         LS2
                                N %
Slacker Astronomy               382 67%
Science Friday                   45 8%
Quirks and Quarks                21 4%
Skepticality                     14 2%
Naked Scientists                 12 2%
Science Show                     12 2%
This Week in Science             12 2%
Planetary Radio                  11 2%
none                             10 2%
StarDate                          6 1%
Nature podcast                    5 1%
New Scientist                     5 1%
Are we alone? - SETI              3 1%
Berkeley Groks Science            3 1%
Ockham's Razor                    3 1%
PBS | NOVA                        3 1%
Universe Today                    3 1%
all                               2 0%
Jack Horkheimer: Star Gazer       2 0%
Slacker Astronomy Extras Feed     2 0%
All in Mind                       1 0%
Astronomy a go-go                 1 0%
Icons of Irish Science            1 0%
NASA TV                           1 0%
NASAcast Video                    1 0%
Science Today                     1 0%
Science@NASA                      1 0%
Singularity Podcast               1 0%
Space Show                        1 0%
Space.com                         1 0%
Spitzer Space Telescope           1 0%
SYSTM                             1 0%
Univ. of Wisc. Biochemistry 501 1 0%
various                           1 0%
Table A15: Response to the question, “If you could only take one of the following magazines
(and nothing else) on a long airplane flight, which would you take?”
 Responses                   LS1            LS2
                           N     %       N      %
 Entertainment Weekly       6 2% 17 3.0%
 Maxim or Redbook           7 2% 17 3.0%
 Scientific American      246 71% 391 68.6%
 SciFi Magazine            46 13% 69 12.1%
 Time                      35 10% 71 12.5%
 Not responding             7 2%          5 0.9%

Table A16: Response to the question, “Where do you typically get your news (radio
station?/website?/TV program? )? Note: In LS1 this was an open ended question with responses
ranging from specific local TV-station call letters to entries as vague as “newspaper” or
“internet.” With answers so vague or varied, we were unable to get usable results. In LS2 we
revised the question into a multi-choice question with options based on the most frequent results
in LS1.
 Responses                                                     LS2
                                                            N      %
 Online, Mainstream Media                                  203 36%
 Online, Indie Websites                                     22 4%
 Online, Aggregate Site (e.g. Slash Dot, Fark)             91 16%
 Online, Blogs                                              22 4%
 TV, Mainstream News                                        60 11%
 TV, Comedy Show (Daily Show, Late Night with…)                    2%
 Radio, News Station                                        79 14%
 Radio, Talk Station                                        32 6%
 Newspaper                                                  44 8%
 Not responding                                               3 1%
Table A17: Response to the question, “How would you describe your interest in Astronomy prior
to listening to astronomy related podcasts?”
Responses                                      LS1       LS2
                                             N    %   N      %

I knew how to spell astronomy                 6   2%      9    1.6%

I thought it was neat when I was a kid      16    5%     22    3.9%
I will pay attention if it crops up in
something I already read/watch/listen to    96 28% 176 30.9%
I actively seek and read/watch/listen to
stories about astronomy                    121 35% 239 41.9%
I am an amateur astronomer and/or go to
local astronomy club meetings               75 22% 100 17.5%
I am a professional astronomer or
astronomy major in college                  16    5%     20    3.5%



I know how to spell astronomy                 5   1%      4    0.7%

I thought it was neat when I was a kid        0   0%      0    0.0%
I will pay attention if it crops up in
something I already read/watch/listen to    41 12%       71 12.5%
I actively seek and read/watch/listen to
stories about astronomy                    191 55% 353 61.9%
I am an amateur astronomer and/or go to
local astronomy club meetings               80 23% 120 21.1%
I am a professional astronomer or
astronomy major in college                  16    5%     22    3.9%

Table A18: Response to the question, “Did you take an astronomy class as an elective in college
or High School?”
 Responses           LS1          LS2
                  N      %      N     %
 Yes             115 33% 229 40%
 No              216 62% 341 60%
 Not Responding 16 5%            0 0%

Table A19: Response to the question, “Would you/Do you attend local astronomy lectures for
the public?”
 Responses           LS1          LS2
                  N      %      N     %
 Yes             227 65% 409 72%
 No              104 30% 158 28%
 Not Responding 16 5%            3 1%
APPENDIX B: PODCASTER SURVEYS

Table B1: Participating Podcasts. During August 2005 and January/February 2006 we invited
astronomy including podcasts to fill out surveys regarding several aspects of their shows. Every
podcast listed under “science” with the word “astronomy” in their description was emailed at
least three times and was also telephoned when they were US based and had published phone
numbers. While several shows, such as StarDate, are notably missing from our results, we did try
to obtain a complete survey of the field. To respect the privacy of the individual surveys, we list
who has responded and present aggregate results to each question.

Show                                     Produced by                                PS1   PS2
Are We Alone? (SETI)                     SETI Radio Network / B. Vance               X    NA*
Ask an Astronomer Videos                 NASA / IPAC / SSC EPO / D. Daou & J.       NA     X
                                         Keller
Astronomy a Go Go!                       A. Few                                     NA    X
Geek Counterpoint                        L. Ipsum                                   NA    X
Jack Horkheimer Star Gazer               Miami Museum of Science & Space            NA    X
                                         Transit Planetarium
JPL Podcast                              JPL / J. Platt                             NA     X
NASA Astrobiology Magazine               NASA / H. Matsos                           X      X
Radio Frontier Channel                   R. Leis                                    X     NA
Run                                      Bill Jank                                  NA     X
Science @ NASA Feature Stories           NASA / B. Walls                             X     X
Science Friday                           Samanna Productions                        X
Singularity Podcast                      Cymek Industries / Mr. CaN                  X    X
Skepticality                             D. Colanduno & R. McCarthy                  X
SkyWatch                                 HST / C. Christian & J. O'Leary                  X
Slacker Astronomy                        A. Price, P. Gay & T. Searle                X    X
Slacker Astronomy Extras Feed            A. Price, P. Gay & T. Searle                X    X
Southern Night Skies                     Maidenwell Astronomical Observatory / J.   NA    X
                                         Barclay
StarWatching Express                     AstroArts                                  NA    X
The Astronomy Ireland Radio Show         Astronomy Ireland                          NA    X
This Week in Science                     K. Sanford, J. Jackson & M. Clark          NA    X
Universe Today                           F. Cain                                     X    X
*Shows marked NA were not being podcast during the time of the survey, or were not listed with
the keyword “Astronomy.”

Table B2: Response to the question, “How many people are involved in your shows
production?”
          PS1       PS2
          (number of people)
Average        2.2       3.7
Median           2       2.5
Max              4       20
Stdev.        1.03       4.6
Table B3: Response to the question, “How many regular guests does your show have?”
             PS1       PS2
           (number of people)
Average       1.25        1.1
Median           1          1
Max              5          2
Stdev.        1.03       0.34

Table B4: Response to the question, “What is your show produced for?”
Response                                      PS1               PS2
                                         N       %       N         %
First-run as Podcast                      8     80%      11       69%
First-run on Radio or TV                  2     20%       4       25%
Inclusion in Education Materials         NA     NA        1        6%

Table B5: Response to the question, “How often do you try and produce shows?” Note: This was
only asked in PS2.
Response                                      PS2
                                         N      %
Biweekly                                 1      6%
Weekly                                   7     44%
Every other week                         2     13%
As content is available or needed        6     38%

Table B6: Response to the question, “What is the format of your show?” Note: On PS1 we asked
for the percentage of material scripted and unscripted. In PS2 we asked simply for the dominant
format, and we adapted the answers from PS1 to fit the format of PS2.
Response                                     PS1           PS2
                                           N   %         N   %
Entirely/Primarily Scripted                4  40%        8  50%
Entirely/Primarily Unscripted              5  50%        5  31%
Some Shows Scripted, Others Adlibed        0   0%        0   0%
Mixture within shows                       1  10%        3  19%

Table B7: Response to the question, “How long is your show?” Note, due to human error, the
break down of times for selection was not the same in PS1 and PS2.
Response                    PS1       Response                    PS2
                           N %                                   N %
< 5 minutes                0 0%       < 5 minutes                2 13%
5-10 minutes               2 20%      5-15 minutes               6 38%
10-20 minutes              3 30%      15-30 minutes              4 25%
20-30 minutes              0 0%
30-45 minutes              1 10%      30-45 minutes              1    6%
45 or more minutes long    2 20%      45 or more minutes long    1   6%
random                     2 20%      random                     2   13%
Table B8a: Response to the question, “How often does your show discuss the following topics?”
Note: On PS1 we asked for the percentage of material dedicated to each topic.
                           Topic    Ave. % (PS1)                          Responses (% of Time)
Interviews                              44%         100%   20%     80%   50% 20%      0% 40%         30%    0%   100%
Recent Discoveries/Announcements        36%           0%   60%      0%   30% 80% 10% 15%             70%   90%     0%
What's Observable                        4%           0%    5%      0%    0%    0% 25%       5%       0%    2%     0%
General Astronomy Information            3%           0%   15%      0%    0%    0%    5%     5%       0%    2%     0%
Other                                   12%           0%    0%      0%   20%    0% 60% 35%            0%    6%     0%

Table B8b: Response to the question, “How often does your show discuss the following topics?”
Note: On PS1 we asked for the percentage of material dedicated to each topic.
 Topic                                            Always   Often Some      Never
                                                            (N in PS2)
 General Astronomy                                   5       7       4        0
 Astronomy News / Discoveries                        4       6       4        1
 Interviews with Astronomers                         0       2       5        7
 Astronomy / Science / NASA Politics and Policy      0       6       5        4
 Skeptical thought                                   0       3       9        3

Table B9: Response to the question, “Does anyone related to your show receive a salary for the
hours spent working on the podcasts?”
 Responses     PS1        PS2
             N % N %
 Yes          5 50% 7 44%
 No           5 50% 9 56%

Table B10a: Response to the question, “How do you pay for your show? (Bandwidth, equipment,
software, etc)” in PS1.
 Option                         Ave. %                           Percentage of Funds in PS1
                                (PS1)
 Personal Monies                   30%   100%       0%    0%     0%    100%   100%      0%      0%      0%     0%
 Donations from listeners          30%     0%       0%    0%     0%      0%     0%    100%      0%    100%   100%
 Private Grants / Foundations       0%     0%       0%    0%     0%      0%     0%      0%      0%      0%     0%
 Corporate Sponsorship              0%     0%       0%    0%     0%      0%     0%      0%      0%      0%     0%
 Government Grants                  5%     0%       0%   50%     0%      0%     0%      0%      0%      0%     0%
 Institutional support from        35%     0%     100%   50%   100%      0%     0%      0%    100%      0%     0%
 your primary employer(s)
      Table B10b: Response to the question, “How do you pay for your show? (Bandwidth,
      equipment, software, etc)” in PS2.
Option                       Ave. %                                    Percentage of Funds in PS2
                              (PS2)
Personal Monies               51%      0%     0%    95%   95%    0%    100%    95%     0%    100%   25%    0%     0%    0%    95%
Donations from listeners      12%     100%    0%    5%    5%     0%     0%     5%      0%      0%   0%     0%     0%    0%    5%
Private Grants /
Foundations                   10%      0%    100%   0%    0%     0%     0%     0%      0%      0%   0%     0%    100%   0%    0%
Corporate Sponsorship         0%       0%     0%    0%    0%     0%     0%     0%      0%      0%   0%     0%     0%    50%   0%
Government Grants             8%       0%     0%    0%    0%     0%     0%     0%      0%      0%   75%    0%     0%    0%    0%
Institutional support from
your primary employer(s)      20%      0%     0%    0%    0%    100%    0%     0%    100%      0%   0%    100%    0%    50%   0%


      Table B11: Where/How do you actively promote your show?
         Topic                                                    PS1            PS2
                                                                 N %          N    %
         Advertising during your radio show                      4 40%         4 25%
         Through promos/interviews played in other podcasts      1 10%         4 25%
         Web advertising on other websites                       3 30%        11 69%
         in your organization's Newsletters / Magazines          4 40%         6 38%
         In other organization's Newsletters / Magazines         2 20%         1    6%
         Podcast Listing Directories                             4 40%        13 81%
         Targeted Forums and Press Releases                      3 30%         0    0%
APPENDIX C: EXAMPLE PODCAST XML FILE
The following shows the xml used to create the Slacker Astronomy podcasts XML feed. While
much of the content is specific to iTunes, all the major podcast aggregation software can read
this feed. You can view the basic output from this file at
feed://www.slackerastronomy.org/slack-live.xml. Note: for the sake of saving space, both the
show subtitle and summary content have been shortened in this example.
Basic Header          <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
                      <rss xmlns:itunes="http://www.itunes.com/DTDs/Podcast-1.0.dtd" version="2.0">
Open a channel        <channel>
Set category          <itunes:category text="Science"></itunes:category>
Set subtitle          <itunes:subtitle>Astronomy with bad humor instead of math.</itunes:subtitle>
Show summary          <itunes:summary>A weekly news event in the world of astronomy as told by professional
                      astronomer slackers.</itunes:summary>
Set authors           <itunes:author>Aaron Price, Pamela Gay, Travis Searle</itunes:author>
Keywords              <itunes:keywords>Astronomy science interviews comedy stars humor </itunes:keywords>
Set                   <itunes:owner><itunes:email>info@slackerastronomy.org</itunes:email></itunes:owner>
owner/producer
Set art used in       <itunes:image>
iTunes                      <url>http://www.slackerastronomy.org/ituneslogo.jpg</url>
                      <title>Slacker Astronomy</title>
                      <link>http://www.slackerastronomy.org</link>
                      <height>300</height>
                      <width>300</width>
                      </itunes:image>

Set link to show      <itunes:link rel="image" type="video/jpeg"
page from art (all    href="http://www.slackerastronomy.org/ituneslogo .jpg">Slacker Astronomy</itunes:link>
one line)
Set title and show    <title>Slacker Astronomy</title>
info. Note: pubdate         <link>http://www.slackerastronomy.org/</link>
refers to the date          <language>en</language>
your show started.          <description>Weekly astronomy news and slack</description>
                            <pubDate>Tue, 19 Oct 2005 01:00:00 +0500</pubDate>
For each episode          <item>
create a new 'item'          <title>Dirty Rotten Snow Balls [FF]</title>
                             <pubDate>Wed, 15 Feb 2006 23:00:00 +0500</pubDate>
                             <description>Got a snow problem? Toss it in a Lagrange Point!</description>
                             <enclosure
                              url="http://www.slackerastronomy.org/shows/060215-slackastro.mp3"
                              length="4264560"
                              type="audio/mpeg"/>
                          </item>
                          <item>
                             <title>A Star, By Any Other Name... [OF]</title>
                             <pubDate>Tue, 7 Feb 2006 23:00:00 +0500</pubDate>
                             <description>This Valentines Day pity the poor, lonely stars</description>
                             <enclosure
                              url="http://www.slackerastronomy.org/shows/060206-slackastro.mp3"
                              length="2957587"
                              type="audio/mpeg"/>
                          </item>
Close the channel     </channel>
Close the header      </rss>