VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops by fla18296

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									    VI International
Symposium on Irrigation of
   Horticultural Crops

       November 2-6, 2009
       Viña del Mar, Chile




     Book of Abstracts
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                               November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




 Organizing Committe
  Velia Arriagada Ríos           Comisión Nacional de Riego, Chile

  Samuel Ortega Farías           Departamento de Producción Agrícola, Universidad de Talca, Chile

  Alfonso Osorio Ulloa           Coordinador red de riego PROCISUR, Chile

  Nelson Pereira Muñoz           Secretario Ejecutivo, Comisión Nacional de Riego, Chile

  Gabriel Sellés van Schouwen    CRI La Platina, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile




 Scientific Committe
  Maria Isabel Ferreira           Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Portugal

  Raúl Ferreyra Espada            CRI La Cruz, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile

  Sigfredo Fuentes                University of Adelaide, Australia

  Christian Gary                  l'institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France

  Joan Girona                     Instituto de Investigación y Tecnologías Agroalimentarias (IRTA), España

  Ian Goodwin                     Department of Primary Industry, Victoria, Australia
                                  Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose "G. Scaramuzzi", Universita
  Riccardo Gucci                  di Pisa, Italia

  Luis Gurovich                   Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

  Dorota Haman                    University of Florida, USA

  Eduardo A. Holzapfel Hoces      Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Universidad de Concepción, Chile

  Diego Intrigliolo               Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (IVIA), España

  Suat Irmak                      University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA

  Amos Naor                       Golan Research Institute, University of Haifa, Israel

  Alfonso Osorio Ulloa            CRI Intihuasi, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile

  Victor Sadras                   South Australian Research and Development Institute, Australia

  Eduardo Salgado                 Escuela de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile

  Hans Reiner Schultz             Geisenheim Research Institute, Germany

  Rick Snyder                     University of California at Davis, USA

  Henoque Riveiros Silva          Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Hortaliças, Brasil

  Rosana Vallone                  Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Mendoza, Argentina




Committe
                                                                                                                           1
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                                                  PROGRAM


SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 1, 2009
15:00-18:00                                               REGISTRATION
18:00-19:30                                        WELCOMING RECEPTION



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 2009

9:00-10:00
                              Opening Ceremony: Welcoming words by the Agricultural Minister
                                                Mrs. Marigen Hornkhol
                                           Plenary Lecture Mr. Nelson Pereira M.
10:00-11:00                      Executive Secretary of National Committee of Irrigation, CNR
                                       "Advances and technology of irrigation in Chile"
11:00-11:20                                               TEA and COFFEE
              SESSION 1A. VINES                                       SESSION 1B. CROPS
              Martin Mendez-Costabel, U.S.A.                          René Chipana Rivera, Bolivia
              Crop load and irrigation management during the           Critical level of water in the soil for development
11:20-11:40   latter stages of ripening, effects on vine water status, potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the
              fruit dehydration and fruit composition of Merlot        highlands of Bolivia
              grapevines

              Juan Ramón Castel, Spain                                Olga Grant, UK
              Is Pre-veraison Irrigation Cut-off more convenient      Application of regulated deficit irrigation to
11:40-12:00   than Post-veraison Water Stress as a Strategy to        controlling growth of hardy nursery stock
              Improve Grape Composition in Vitis vinifera cv.
              Tempranillo in Spain?

              Javier Núñez, Chile                                     Wolfram Spreer, Germany
12:00-12:20
              Effect of water status on leaf gas exchange,            Biomass Formation and Nutrient Partitioning in
              senescence and fruit production potential of            Potted Longan Trees under Partial Rootzone
              'Carménère' grapevine                                   Drying

              Diego Intrigliolo, Spain                                Claudio García, Uruguay
12:20-12:40
              Effects of light interception amount and canopy         Morpho-physiological and yield modifications in
              orientation to the sun on grapevine water status and    two potato cultivars under different irrigation
              the whole canopy gas exchange                           managements

              Eugenia Galat Giorgi, Argentina                         Felicita González Robaina, Cuba
12:40-13:00   Effects of canopy exposure changes on grapevine         Water response factor of some horticultural crops
              physiology (cv. Syrah)                                  in ferrasoles of the south of Havana

              Jorge Perez Peña, Argentina                             Marcello Mastrorilli, Italy
              Vertical Shoot Positioning vs. Box Pruning: can we      Influence of mycorrhizae in geranium irrigated
13:00-13:20
              improve grape quality and yield, and still reduce       with saline water: agronomical and environmental
              water use and production costs?                         response.

13:20-13:40                                              POSTER SESSION
13:40-14:30                                                     LUNCH




Program
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                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                             November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              SESSION 2A. CROP COEFFICIENTS                         SESSION 2B. WATER STATUS
              Luis Santos Pereira, Portugal                         Fiorella Stagno, Italy
14:30-14:50
              The dual crop coefficient approach: testing the       An empirical model to predict the water status of
              SIMDualKc model with peach orchard                    orange trees
              evapotranspiration eddy covariance measurements

              Carmen E. Duarte Díaz, Cuba                           Sergio Villagrán, Chile
14:50-15:10   Adjustment of Tomato Crop Coefficients on             A prototype of automatic pressure pump (type
              Organic Substrate                                     Scholander pump)

              Luis S. Pereira, Portugal                             César Acevedo-Opazo, Chile
15:10-15:30
              Determination of Crop Coefficients for Horticultural Towards the spatial prediction model of vine water
              Crops in Cuba through Field Experiments and Water status using ancillary information
              Balance Simulation

              Olga Grant, UK                                        Jordi Marsal, Spain
15:30-15:50   A generic system for establishing crop coefficients   Predicting plant water potential in a pear orchard
              across a wide range of hardy nursery stock            under different irrigation conditions

              Lexie McClymont, Australia                            Luis Gurovich, Chile
15:50-16:10
              Variation in within-block crop water requirements of Early water stress assessment and automatic
              orchards and vineyards - implications for irrigation irrigation system operation based on electrical
              management units                                     signaling in fruit trees

16:10-17:00                                            TEA AND COFFEE
              SESSION 3A. WATER REQUIREMENTS                        SESSION 3B. THERMAL IMAGERY
              AND WATER BALANCE                                     AND INSTRUMENTS
              A. Domenico Palumbo, Italy                            Ashley Wheaton, Australia
17:00-17:20
              Asparagus water requirements in Southern Italy        Use of thermal imagery to detect water stress
                                                                    during berry ripening in vitis vinifera (l. cv.
                                                                    Cabernet Sauvignon)

              Gabriel Selles, Chile                                 Roberta De Bei, Australia
              Estimation of water requirements of Thompson          Estimating leaf and stem water potentials of
17:20-17:40   Seedless trained as overhead trellised system         grapevine using near infrared spectroscopy: an
              ('parronal') by means of eddy covariance method in    application for precision irrigation scheduling
              the Aconcagua valley, Chile

              Christian Gary , France                               Wolfram Spreer, Germany
17:40-18:00
              Evaluation of a water balance model for cover         Wind speed affects drought stress monitoring in
              cropped vineyards in Mediterranean and Atlantic       mango and longan by thermal photography
              climate conditions

              Mark O'Connell, Australia                             Pilar M. Gil, Chile
18:00-18:20
              Satellite remote sensing of water use, vegetation      Electrical Signal Measurements in Avocado Trees:
              cover and crop coefficients for perennial horticulture a Potential Tool for Monitoring Physiological
              in northern Victoria, Australia                        Responses to Soil Water Content?

              Facundo Vita Serman, Argentina                        Lauren Bissey, U.S.A.
18:20-18:40
              Water requirement of Vitis vinifera L. CV. Syrah      Quantifying the Art: Instruments in Deficit
              grown in a warm region. Crop coefficients (Kc)        Irrigation
              estimations

              REUNION PROCISUR LANZAMIENTO PROYECTO "Evaluación de los cambios en la productividad
18:40-20:00
              del agua frente a diferentes escenarios climáticos en distintas regiones del Cono Sur" (Ver programa)
                                                                                                   H                  H




Program
                                                                                                                          3
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                                 November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 2009

9:00-10:00
                                              Plenary Lecture Dr. Richard Allen
                                          "Advances of crop evapotranspiration studies"

10:00-11:00
                                                Plenary Lecture Dr. Elías Fereres
                                           "Sustainability of regulated deficit irrigation"
11:00-11:20                                               TEA and COFFEE
                                                                       SESSION 4B. MONITORING AND
              SESSION 4A. APPLES
                                                                       SENSORS
              Cristian Paltineanu, Romania                             Luis Gurovich, Chile
11:20-11:40
              Correlation between the crop water stress index and      Combined use of plant sensors to operate high
              irrigation water requirements for apple in a loamy       precision / high frequency irrigation scheduling in
              soil: a case study in southern Romania                   fruit orchards

              Mario García Petillo, Uruguay                            Amelia Montoro, Spain
11:40-12:00
              Young Apple Trees Response to Water Stress. Early        Dendrometric measurements in wine grape (Vitis
              Results.                                                 vinifera, L.; cvs. Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon
                                                                       and Macabeo) under regulated deficit irrigation

              Pieter Janssens, Belgium                                 Gabriel Selles, Chile
12:00-12:20   Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Pear Trees    Is the use of dendrometer a useful tools for table
              cv. Conference under Temperate Zone Climate              grape irrigation scheduling?

              Joan Girona, Spain                                       Luis Morales-Salinas, Chile
12:20-12:40
              Evaluation of Different Irrigation Strategies on         Simple model to estimate net radiation in central
              Apple (Malus domestica). Physiological and               zone of Chile from NOAA images and digital
              Productive Results.                                      elevation model

              Claudio García, Uruguay                                  Rossini Daniel, Brazil
12:40-13:00
              Effects of irrigation management and nitrogen            Fluorescence of the chlorophyll a in cashew tree,
              fertilization on the yield and quality in 'Gala' Apple   measure with and without use of adapting clip of
              cultivar                                                 the originator of light

13:00-13:20                                               POSTER SESSION
13:20-14:30                                                      LUNCH
              SESSION 5A. PLUM AND PEACH                               SESSION 5B. AVOCADO
              Ian Goodwin, Australia                                   Raúl Ferreyra Espada, Chile
14:30-14:50   Post Harvest Deficit Irrigation Decreases                Sensitivity and variability of water state indicators
              Subsequent Fruit Number in T204 Peach                    in hass avocado trees

              Diego Intrigliolo, Spain                                 Claudia Fassio, Chile
14:50-15:10
              Long Term Effects of Deficit Irrigation and              Influence of Rootstock on the Response of Hass
              Subsequent Recovery of Young Japanese Plum               Avocado to Flooding Stress
              Trees

              Josep M. Villar, Spain                                   Eduardo Holzapfel, Chile
15:10-15:30
              Water productivity of peach for processing in a soil     Different levels of water and fertilizer application
              with low available water holding capacity                in avocado trees cv hass during four seasons at
                                                                       Peumo Valley, Chile

              Miguel Pascual, Spain                                    Claudia Fassio, Chile
15:30-15:50   Evaluation of peach tree growth characteristics by       Effect of root anatomy and morphology on sap
              LIDAR system. Relation with water irrigation             flow in Hass avocado trees on clonal rootstocks




Program
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                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                               November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              strategies in peach

              Bartolomeo Dichio, Italy
15:50-16:10   Regulated deficit irrigation strategy integrated in a
              sustainable orchard management

16:10-17:00                                               TEA and COFFEE
              SESSION 6A. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION                          SESSION 6B. OXIGATION
              Carlos Poblete-Echeverría, Chile                        Surya P. Bhattarai, Australia
17:00-17:20
              Estimation of daily actual evapotranspiration over a    Oxygation: an irrigation approach for balancing
              Merlot vineyard using meteorological data in            crop supply of soil water and oxygen for improving
              combination with reflectance measurements               yields, nutrients and water use efficiency

              Jorge Arenas, Chile                                     Surya Bhattarai, Australia
              Reference evapotranspiration determination under        Oxygation promising for horticultural irrigation:
17:20-17:40   climatic stress conditions in 'Pampa del Tamarugal'     New approach for balancing crop supply of soil
              Atacama Desert                                          water and oxygen for effective root functioning
                                                                      mediated through root aquaporin gene activities

              Luis Octavio Lagos, Chile                               Jay Dhungel, Australia
17:40-18:00
              Development of a Surface Energy Balance for             Oxygation enhanced pineapple yield and quality
              Modeling Evapotranspiration of Partially Vegetated
              Surfaces.

              Luis Morales-Salinas, Chile                             Pilar M. Gil, Chile
              Wind fields modeling in del Maule Region, for           Improving Soil Oxygenation With Hydrogen
18:00-18:20   reference evapotranspiration estimation                 Peroxide Injection into Heavy Clay Loam Soil:
                                                                      Effect on Plant Water Status, CO2 Assimilation
                                                                      and Biomass of Avocado Trees

              Enrique Palacios V., Mexico
18:20-18:40   Earth observation as a support to improve water use
              in irrigated agriculture

18:40-20:00   REUNION RED IBERO AMERICANA DE RIEGO Y DRENAJE



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 2009
9:00-18:30    Technical tours



THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 2009

9:00-10:00
                                          Plenary Lecture Dr. Bernard Itier
                  "Improvement of water use for agriculture at catchment level under drougth conditions"

10:00-11:00
                                             Plenary Lecture Dr. Claudio Stockle
                                    "Climatic change and its impact on irrigated agriculture"
11:00-11:20                                               TEA and COFFEE




Program
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                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                                 November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              SESSION 7A. CITRUS                                       SESSION 7B. DRIP AND SPRINKLER
              Craig Kallsen, U.S.A.                                    Oleg Daugovish, U.S.A.
11:20-11:40   Early-Navel Fruit Yield, Quality and Maturity in         Drip and sprinkler irrigation for establishment of
              Response to Late-Season Irrigation Stress                strawberry transplants in southern California

              José Luis Muriel Fernández, Spain                        Jorge Jara, Chile
11:40-12:00   Physiological response of citrus trees to different      Evaluation of drip irrigation systems for
              strategies of deficit irrigation                         blueberries in south central Chile

              Carmen Goñi, Uruguay                                     Eduardo Holzapfel, Chile
12:00-12:20
              Supplementary irrigation in 'Spring' navel orange and Evaluation of a micro-sprinkler irrigation system at
              satsuma 'Owari' mandarin on temperate growing         an apple farm in the Central Valley of Chile
              conditions.

              Jim Syvertsen, U.S.A.                                    Isaac Cohen, Brazil
12:20-12:40
              Irrigation and nitrogen application frequencies affect   Management of drip irrigation on watermelon
              growth, N and water uptake efficiency of Citrus
              seedlings

                                                                       Geisy Hernández Cuello, Cuba
12:40-13:00                                                            Soil water balance and wetted areas quantifications
                                                                       for drip irrigation in tropical fruit trees

13:00-13:20                                               POSTER SESSION
13:20-14:30                                                      LUNCH
              SESSION 8A. OLIVE                                        SESSION 8B. MANAGEMENT
              Riccardo Gucci, Italy                                    Mihail Iancu, Romania
14:30-14:50
              Irrigation differently affects endocarp and mesocarp     Influence of the groundcover management system
              growth during olive fruit development                    and drip irrigation on the behaviour of the 'Golden
                                                                       spur' apple cultivar grafted on MM 106 rootstock

              Enrique Fernández, Spain                                 Agustín Aljaro Uribe, Chile
14:50-15:10
              Influence of the soil water content and distribution     Position of the irrigation tape in the transplanting
              on both the hydraulic and transpiration performance      beds of lettuce crop
              of 'Manzanilla' olive trees

              Facundo Vita Serman, Argentina                           Blake Sanden, U.S.A.
15:10-15:30   Plant and soil water status behaviour under different    Improving Water Penetration and Yield Using
              irrigation strategies in Arbequina CV. Olive orchard     Water-Run Gypsum in Surface Irrigated Almonds

              Samuel Ortega-Farias, Chile                              Wim Voogt, The Netherlands
15:30-15:50
              Effect of three levels of water application on oil yield Advanced irrigation management in soil grown
              and quality for an olive (cv. Picual) orchard            greenhouse crops aiming at diminishing nutrient
                                                                       leaching to the environment

                                                                       Richard Stirzaker, Australia
15:50-16:10                                                            Strategy, tactics and heuristics for managing nitrate
                                                                       in horticultural crops

16:10-17:00                                               TEA and COFFEE




Program
                                                                                                                               6
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                               November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              SESSION 9A. SOIL MOISTURE
                                                                      SESSION 9B. MANAGEMENT
              MEASUREMENTS
              M. Carmen Ruiz Sánchez, Spain                           Eulogio López-Mata, Spain
17:00-17:20   Soil water content variations as a water stress         Irrigation uniformity effect over economic crop
              indicator in peach trees                                yield

              Carlos Schugurensky, Argentina                          Alfonso Osorio, Chile
              Review of Vegetation Water Content measurement          Soil moisture profiles under different conditions
17:20-17:40   technologies                                            associated with irrigation efficiency of drip
                                                                      irrigation. Case studies from avocado and
                                                                      mandarin, Limari River Valley

              Carlos Reisser Junior, Brazil                           Esequiel Rolando Jimenez Espinosa, Cuba
              Calibration of FDR (Reflectometry in Frequency          Financial gain from the hydraulics improvement of
17:40-18:00   Domain) device, model Diviner 2000®, by                 localized irrigation by microjet technique in an
              tensiometry                                             area of the Cooperative 'Organoponico Vivero
                                                                      Alamar'

              Carlos Reisser Junior, Brazil                           Gabriele Amoroso, Italy
18:00-18:20   Calibration of a Capacitance Probe Model Diviner        Effect of mulching and irrigation on container-
              2000® for a 'Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo'                grown plant production

                                                                      Piero Frangi, Italy
18:20-18:40                                                           Alternative nursery management system: closed-
                                                                      loop and high retention mat



FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 2009

9:00-10:00
                                      Plenary Lecture Dr. José María Quiroga Alonso
                             "Sustainable use of the water in the agriculture: recycling of sewage"

10:00-11:00
                                       Plenary Lecture Dr. Theodore C. Hsiao
              "Potential use of FAO model AquaCrop for managing irrigation and productivity of vegetables"
11:00-11:20                                               TEA and COFFEE
                                                                      SESSION 10B. IRRIGATION
              SESSION 10A. MANAGEMENT
                                                                      SCHEDULING
              Luciano Mateos, Spain                                   Uwe Schindler, Germany
11:20-11:40   Economics and psychology of deficit irrigation          Analysis of irrigation demand and monitoring of
                                                                      irrigation effects in horticulture systems

              Teresa Salamé, U.S.A.                                   Konstantinos Chartzoulakis, Greece
11:40-12:00   Effects of Irrigation Programs on 'Strawberry           Improving water efficiency: the irrigation advisory
              Festival' Growth and Yield                              service of Crete, Greece

              S. N. Ghosh, India                                      Savreet Sandhu, India
12:00-12:20
              Effect of Basin and Drip Irrigation on Sweet Orange     Irrigation Scheduling and Use of Black Polythene
              Grown in Laterite Soil                                  Mulch in Baramasi Lemon to Control Fruit
                                                                      Cracking and Improve Fruit Quality

              José Roldán Cañas, Spain                                Bernd R. Gruber, Germany
12:20-12:40   Irrigation performance indicators for best irrigation   Implementation of precisely scheduled low-
              management in an irrigation district                    frequency irrigation on steep slopes in a cool




Program
                                                                                                                            7
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                                                                       climate grape (Vitis vinifera L.) growing region

              René Chipana, Bolivia                                    Carole Isbérie, France
12:40-13:00
              Suka Kollus, ancestral ecosystem of water-soil-cop       A survey about scheduling irrigation horticulturists
              management for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)             practices and wishes among 300 horticulturists of
              production in the watershed of Titicaca Lake             south-west of Europe

13:00-13:20                                               POSTER SESSION
13:20-14:30                                                      LUNCH
                                                                       SESSION 11B. CLIMATE CHANGE
              SESSION 11A. MANAGEMENT
                                                                       IMPACT ON IRRIGATION PRACTICES
              Rafael Romero, Spain                                     Nadine Brisson, France
14:30-14:50   A simple Soil-Plant-atmosphere model in Simulink         Vineyard irrigation could become the rule
              for irrigation control testing                           tomorrow in some French vineyard areas

              Carlos Schilardi, Argentina                              Héctor Valdés-Gómez, Chile
14:50-15:10
              Surface irrigation performance in the upper Tunuyán      Modeling the effects of Niño and Niña events on
              river basin Mendoza, Argentina                           water balance of grapevine (cv. Cabernet
                                                                       Sauvignon) in Central valley of Chile

              Teresa López Seijas , Cuba                               Michele Rinaldi, Italy
15:10-15:30
              Water percolation losses and evapotranspiration          Effects of climate change on tomato productivity
              estimation in fruit crops under drip irrigation in the   and water requirements in a Mediterranean area
              south of Havana

              Haim Nerson, Israel                                      Carlos Reisser Júnior, Brazil
15:30-15:50   Mineral nutrient requirements of muskmelon               Methodologies for Selection to Drought Tolerance
              irrigated with effluent water                            in Potatoes

              Adonai Calbo, Brazil                                     Luis Gurovich, Chile
15:50-16:10   Atmodripper System for Precision Plant Irrigation        Irrigation of fruit orchards under future water
                                                                       constraints

16:10-17:00                                                TEA and COFFEE
              ISHS Meeting:
17:00
              1. Election of new chairperson for the working groups (WG).
              2. Other matters concerning ISHS WG
              3. Decision for new convener and country




Program
                                                                                                                              8
                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                   PLENARY LECTURES




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                              10
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                        ADVANCES IN IRRIGATION IN CHILE

                                               Nelson Pereira M.
                      Executive Secretary of National Irrigation Commission, CNR, Chile
                                          nelson.pereira@cnr.gob.cl
                                          HU                           U




 The development of irrigation in Chile is strongly conditioned by its climatic and physical characteristics,
 as well as the economic and specific policies of the country. The diversity of climate and geography
 presents challenges, but also provides competitive capacities to agriculture. According to the Land Census
 of 2007-2008, Chile has over 15 million ha of agricultural land, of which about 1.7 million ha is cultivated
 and 1,094,000 ha is irrigated.

 The development of agricultural exportation in Chile has been strongly supported by its commercial
 strategy; 20 international commerce treaties were established between 1993 and 2008. The results are
 clearly shown by the foreign trade values in the agriculture and forestry sector, whose exportations
 increased by more than 12% annually between 2000 and 2008. This expansion has been supported by the
 strengthening of the institutional and financial stability of the country and the integral development of the
 factors of competitiveness.

 One fundamental element in the development of exportation agriculture is the increment in the security of
 irrigation by the construction of dams; as well as the reparation, rehabilitation and modernization of
 irrigation systems and technification of their application. The application of the Law of Promotion of
 Private Investment in Irrigation and Drainage Works has been fundamental in this process.

 Irrigation in Chile is characterized by a permanent preoccupation by the government to increase the
 irrigated agricultural land, reinforce irrigation infrastructure, improve the security and quality of irrigation
 water and improve the efficiency of the management of irrigation systems and the use of the resource. The
 area with technified irrigation has increased from 9% in 1997 to 30% of the total irrigated land.

 These figures give some indication of the results of the application of the Irrigation Policy to the
 challenges that the country faces with respect to its water resources. The National Program of Irrigation
 and Drainage expects to expand the irrigated areas by 400,000 ha in the medium term. This program, as
 well as the construction, reparation and rehabilitation of irrigation works, also includes programs of:

       •    Transfer of technical institutional and operative capacities for the reinforcement of the
            Organizations of Water Users.
       •    Technification of the application of water used in irrigation.
       •    Development of systems of programming and optimization of the use of irrigation water,
            supported by networks of automatic meteorological stations.
       •    Prevention and mitigation of the contaminants which affect irrigation systems, together with
            aiding the development of clean agriculture.
       •    Support of multiple use of water in irrigation systems and especially in hydroelectric generation
            systems, taking advantage of the potential provided by the topography of the country.

 The projection of the effects of climatic change is a fundamental concern of the political authorities; a
 coordinated effort by the relevant government institutions and centers of scientific investigation is
 currently underway.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                     11
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




         ADVANCES IN CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION STUDIES
                                                  Richard Allen
                    Kimberly Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, USA
                                          rallen@uidaho.edu
                                             HU                   U




 Procedures for estimating crop evapotranspiration continue to evolve, with refinements in how crop
 coefficients (Kc) are developed from field data and in the degree of sophistication of presentation.
 Methods for estimation of Kc, besides 1) using standard or locally derived tables and curves , include 2)
 the estimation of Kc from fraction of ground covered by vegetation (fc), 3) deriving Kc from satellite-
 based application of surface energy balance, and 4) Kc derived from field measurements of surface energy
 balance using spatially averaging devices such as eddy covariance systems and scintillometers. The
 establishment of ‘dual’ crop coefficients that include a basal (mostly transpiration) and soil evaporation
 component permit the estimation of the effect of irrigation system type and wetting frequency on total ET
 use. The dual system allows one to determine estimates during wintertime in freezing climates, which can
 be important for annual water balances.

 New “hybrid” methods are being employed for estimating crop water requirements and irrigation
 scheduling that combine some of the useful ‘conservative’ features of the crop coefficient and reference
 ET with direct physiological models. These include the Aquacrop model of FAO that marry a) the ease of
 crop coefficient development for encapsulating most characteristics that impact relative crop ET and that
 change with time with b) crop physiological and stress feedback characteristics that can affect both crop
 development and biomass production and harvestable yield. Direct modeling of crop ET continues to
 develop, with the Penman-Monteith remaining as a primary, physical model. Advances continue to be
 made in modeling bulk surface conductance, combination of soil evaporation with transpiration, and
 adjusting vapor pressure and temperature of the equilibrium boundary layer to account for feedback effects
 of ET on these parameters. This feedback is important to eliminate overestimation and often involves the
 use of a blending height and profile theory.

 The reference ET (ETo) approach requires estimates of ETo that represent ET in a ‘well-watered’
 environment so that the equilibrium boundary layer (vapor pressure, temperature and wind speed) are in
 equilibrium with the surface flux that is estimated. Procedures continue to evolve to ‘condition’ the
 ‘nonreference’ weather data measured in many environments so that it better represents the reference
 condition. The application of the so-called ‘footprint’ models can provide an indication of how vegetation
 and water availability upwind of a weather station can impact the weather measurements.

 Over the past decade, procedures for quality assessment – quality control (QA/QC) of weather data have
 developed, such as those by FAO and by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), where visual
 assessment and correction of data is possible.

 Eddy covariance measurements of sensible latent heat exchange continue to suffer from energy balance
 closure error, where the sum of net radiation and soil heat flux, the available energy, exceed the sum of the
 scalar fluxes of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux. A number of corrections exist, which should be
 applied, but often some closure error remains, up to 30% in some cases. The parameter of cause can
 sometimes be determined by applying a simple multi-linear regression where net radiation is the
 dependent variable and soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux are the independent variables.
 The coefficients on the three independent variables can provide some indication of which parameter is
 most responsible for the energy balance closure error.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                   12
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     DESIGNING AND MANAGING DEFICIT IRRIGATION IN FRUIT TREES AND
                               VINES

                                                   Elias Fereres
                   IAS-CSIC and University of Cordoba, Apartado 4084, 14080-Córdoba, Spain
                                               ag1fecae@uco.es
                                              HU                   U




 In recent years, irrigated agriculture has quickly evolved to produce more with less water. Deficit
 irrigation (DI) is a technique that optimizes the limited water resource by applying less water
 than the net crop water requirements (ETc). In most field and vegetable crops, a reduction in ETc
 brings about a concomitant reduction in yield and gross income. Research has shown that this is
 not always the case in the irrigation of fruit trees and vines (FT&V). Deficit irrigation has thus
 become a popular research topic in FT&V, and is even practiced commercially in some crops
 and areas. To design DI programmes, in addition to the level of anticipated supply, knowledge of
 the yield response to water deficits at the different developmental stages is essential. Equally
 important to plan the deficits and their intensity, is to know well the water holding capacity of
 the root zone, and the expected ETc rate. Additionally, to manage RDI successfully, there is a
 need to monitor orchard water status with much more precision than what has been considered
 acceptable under ample water supply conditions. New sensors and approaches are now available
 to provide feedback on irrigation management. Coinciding with the revision of the FAO
 Irrigation and Drainage publication: ‘Yield Response to Water’ an effort has been launched by a
 group of researchers to provide, for the first time, an overview of the yield responses to water
 deficits of tree crops and vines, similarly to what that publication provides for the major annual
 crops. While the limitations in the number of long-term field experiments and the difficulties to
 have access to sufficient data of high quality, limit the content of this new publication, it
 represents an effort to provide general guidelines to face irrigation limitations in fruit trees and
 vines, despite the complexities encountered in generalizing the responses of tree crops and vines
 to water deficits.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                 13
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        IMPROVEMENT OF WATER USE FOR AGRICULTURE AT
         CATCHMENT LEVEL UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS

                               Bernard Itier & Nadine Brisson
                                            INRA - France
                                        itier@grignon.inra.fr
                                       HU                       U




 This paper aims at comparing the relative advantages of improvements in practices and changes
 in cropping systems pattern in order to manage water resources at catchment basin level and
 thus, preserve the cropping systems on the long term.

 When water for irrigation comes from large groundwater tables belonging to the catchment basin
 itself, the cropping systems pattern is the main point because it determines the annual supply of
 water to the water table in order to match the global water demand.

 When water for irrigation is surface water coming from rivers or other reservoirs, both practices
 and cropping systems play an active role in fitting water demand to water offer.

 Whatever the origin of irrigation water, a higher diversity in cropping systems will be an
 advantage to face a lack of water.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                              14
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                   IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON IRRIGATED
                                AGRICULTURE

                      Claudio O. Stöckle1, Jordi Marsal2, and Josep M. Villar3
       1
           Biological Systems Engineering Dept., Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
       2
           Irrigation Technology, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries, Lleida 25198, Spain.
                   3
                     Dept. de Medi Ambient I Ciencies del Sol, Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain
                                                HUstockle@wsu.eduU




 Increasing warming of the planet is being predicted by general circulation models (GCM) and
 supported by mounting evidence. Models referenced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
                                                                      H




 Change (IPCC) predict that global temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 to 6.4 °C between
             H




 1990 and 2100, depending on CO2 emission scenarios. Precipitation changes are also expected in
 varying amount and sign depending on world location. Concurrently, atmospheric CO2 could
 increase in the range 550 to 850 ppm depending on emission scenarios. These changes will
 impact agriculture, requiring varying degree of adaptation depending on location. Irrigated tree
 fruit production will be no exception. The most important world areas of fruit production are
 China, US, and Italy for stone and pome fruits, Brazil for citrus, and Spain for olives and
 almond, and the presented analysis will focus primarily on those areas. Overall effects of global
 warming on chill requirements, flowering time, risk of frost, length of growing season,
 maturity/harvest time, and fruit quality will be discussed. Other climate change effects may
 include increased pressure of pests and diseases, modified management of fruit loads and canopy
 size, shift of cultivars, and in some cases access to higher elevation grounds for fruit production.
 For irrigated production, changes in water demand and water supply can be critical. Calculations
 for the Yakima Valley, and important tree fruit producing region of Washington State, USA,
 using the ECHAM5 GCM, indicate that water demand could increase by 17% by the end of the
 century in response to climate change alone, but the increase is reduced to 5% when concurrent
 CO2 elevation inducing a degree of stomatal closure is accounted for. This implies that changes
 in water demand will not be a large response factor. However, changes in water supply are
 predicted to be significant with more frequent and more severe water shortages in this watershed
 dependent on snow accumulation and melting for its water supply. This is also the case in other
 fruit producing regions. Furthermore, population increase, energy price increase, decreasing
 groundwater levels, and competing demand for surface and ground water by multiple sectors will
 interact with climate change to produce a “perfect storm” affecting water supply for irrigation.
 We cannot reverse climate change, only perhaps reduce the rate of change. How is irrigated tree
 fruit production to adapt to these changing conditions?




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                    15
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE WATER IN THE AGRICULTURE:
                  RECYCLING OF SEWAGE

                                      José María Quiroga Alonso
                   Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, España
                                         HUjosemaria.quiroga@uca.esU




 Several factors diminish water resource availability, such as water demand increase for
 population and different users (agriculture, cattle farming, industry), the unequal
 distribution of water resources, long term droughts in different areas around the world
 and underground and surface resource quality loss as a consequence of pollution. These
 factors determine regional socioeconomic development and determine water issues to be
 priority.

 Traditional policy on water management, based on resource offer, is run out. So finding
 new alternatives is needed. The solution goes through the implementation of a
 sustainable development based, among other factors, in the resource rational use, leak
 minimization, adequate distribution, activity development according to ecosystem
 capacities, increasing resource quantity using different methods, without jeopardising its
 quality. So the role of desalination and wastewater reuse is of paramount importance.

 Wastewater reuse is not a new practice; it has been used in agriculture for many years
 due to its several advantages. Reclaimed wastewater reuse leads to sustainable
 development. This allows getting water at any time (supply guarantee).

 This presentation focuses on beneficial and advantages of wastewater reuse, world
 background, application for different uses, etc. Also, different stages in the
 implementation of a wastewater reuse system, reclaimed water regulations and quality
 criteria will be presented. Conventional and non-conventional treatments, and processes
 costs will also be discussed.

 As conclusion, reclaimed wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation is a safe activity
 without any risks, as for users as for water workers, becoming its application in a
 profitable resource.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                 16
                                       VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                             November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




 POTENTIAL USE OF FAO MODEL AQUACROP FOR MANAGING
     IRRIGATION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF VEGETABLES

         Theodore C. Hsiao1, Gabriella Izzi2, Elias Fereres3, and Pasquale Steduto2
                   1
                       Dept. of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, USA
                               2
                                 Land and Water Division, FAO, United Nation, Rome, Italy
                                      3
                                        IAS-CSIC and University of Cordoba, Spain
                                                  tchsiao@ucdavis.edu
                                                 HU                   U




 As a part of the revision effort of its Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33, “Yield Response to
 Water”, FAO, United Nations, has developed a productivity and water use model, AquaCrop,
 that simulates attainable yields of herbaceous crops for various water regimes. This presentation
 describes features of the model and its potential application to vegetable crop production and
 irrigation management.

 The most significant and unusual features of the model are: a) It is “water-driven” in that
 transpiration is calculated daily first and converted to biomass production and yield via water use
 efficiency (WUE) and harvest index. b) WUE for biomass production is normalized for
 atmospheric evaporative demand and CO2 concentration. This climate normalization allows the
 same WUE parameter to be used for diverse locations and climates, endowing AquaCrop with
 capabilities to predict crop responses under future climate scenarios. c) The model uses canopy
 ground cover (CC) instead of leaf area index (LAI) to separate transpiration from soil
 evaporation. CC reflects radiation interception and is more easily measured than LAI. d) The
 development of CC is a simple function of canopy growth coefficient and initial CC per
 seedling, two conservative parameters, and plant density. e) Crop responses to soil water deficits
 are simulated with four relationships that determine canopy development, transpiration as
 controlled by stomata, canopy senescence, and changes in harvest index. f) Compared to other
 crop models, AquaCrop has a significantly fewer parameters and a better balance between
 simplicity, accuracy and robustness.

 The model simulates root zone water content and keeps track of incoming and outgoing fluxes,
 making it suitable for assessing irrigation management options and efficiencies of water use.
 AquaCrop has been well tested for several field crops and recent results on some vegetable crops
 will be presented. The values of the model in managing water and developing irrigation
 strategies will be demonstrated with simulation runs.




Plenary Lectures
                                                                                                                       17
                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                ORAL LECTURES




Oral Lectures
                                                                                          18
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   CROP LOAD AND IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT DURING THE
   LATTER STAGES OF RIPENING, EFFECTS ON VINE WATER
  STATUS, FRUIT DEHYDRATION AND FRUIT COMPOSITION OF
                   MERLOT GRAPEVINES
                   Martin P Mendez, Luis Sanchez and Nick Dokoozlian
                         E&J Gallo Winery, PO Box 1130, Modesto, CA, 95353
                                    martin.mendez@ejgallo.com
                                     H




 A field trial was established in a commercial Merlot vineyard in the Central Valley of California
 to study the effects of late season water deficit and crop load on vine water status and fruit
 composition during the 2007 and 2008 seasons. All vines in the study were irrigated at the
 standard deficit irrigation level (0.7 ETc) until the fruit reached approximately 20 Brix. Irrigation
 was increased to 1.2 ETc only in one set of vines afterwards. Two crop load treatments were
 imposed in each irrigation treatment, with vines either unthinned or thinned to one cluster per
 shoot, at veraison. Irrigation during the latter part of the season significantly decreased yield
 losses, especially in the unthinned vines. Vines receiving 1.2 ETc during the final stages of
 ripening had greater levels of chlorophyll, higher carbon assimilation rates and reduced mid-day
 leaf water potential compared to vines at 0.7 ETc, but these differences were smaller in the
 unthinnned vines compared to their counterparts thinned to one cluster per shoot at veraison.
 Overall, irrigation levels had little impact on fruit composition, but high crop load had a
 significant and negative effect on fruit color and aroma precursors. Pruning weights showed no
 differences among the treatments. Crop load, when high enough (i.e. yield to pruning ratio>10),
 interacts with irrigation levels during the latter stages of ripening on determining vine water
 status and yield losses due to berry dehydration.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              19
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  IS PRE-VERAISON IRRIGATION CUT-OFF MORE CONVENIENT
   THAN POST-VERAISON WATER STRESS AS A STRATEGY TO
      IMPROVE GRAPE COMPOSITION IN VITIS VINIFERA CV.
                 TEMPRANILLO IN SPAIN?
                A. Yeves, D. Pérez, D. Risco, D.S. Intrigliolo and J.R. Castel
  Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Centro Desarrollo Agricultura Sostenible Apdo. Oficial,
                                         46113 Moncada, Valencia.
                                             castel_jua@gva.es
                                             H




 Irrigation in grapevines to meet the full seasonal water needs (ETc) usually affects negatively
 wine composition. In addition, our previous results, showed that under mediterranean climate
 conditions replacing about half of full ETc ensures a substantial yield increase, compared with
 rain-fed conditions, with no detrimental effects on grape composition. The question is then
 whether it should be better to concentrate the water applications during the pre-veraison or
 during the post-veraison period. A field experiment was carried out in a Tempranillo vineyard
 during 2007 and 2008 where different irrigation strategies were applied. Rain-fed (R0) vines
 were compared with vines that were constantly irrigated at 75% of ETc (R2). In addition, a pre-
 veraison water shortage strategy (R1) was applied by withholding irrigation until plant water
 stress experienced by vines surpassed a previously defined threshold value of midday stem water
 potential (Ψs) of –1.0 MPa. After that, 75% of ETc was applied. Finally an R3 treatment was
 irrigated as the R2 till veraison, and thereafter water application was reduced to about 40% of
 ETc, trying to avoid that water stress would become too severe (Ψs < -1.4 MPa). Results
 indicated that all irrigation regimes increased vine yield up to 50% with respect to the rainfed
 treatment and no differences in yield among the irrigated treatments occurred. However, there
 were large differences in berry composition between the different irrigation strategies. The pre-
 veraison water shortage was more effective than the post-veraison one in reducing berry growth
 leading to more concentrated berries in terms of anthocyanins. The post-veraison water shortage
 impaired berry sugar accumulation due to the detrimental effect of water stress on leaf
 photosynthetic rate. Thus, in our conditions of scarce water resources, applying moderate water
 deficits before veraison and irrigating without considerable restriction afterwards, appears as the
 most convenient irrigation strategy.

 Keywords: drip deficit irrigation, grapevine, stem water potential, yield.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 20
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




         EFFECT OF WATER STATUS ON LEAF GAS EXCHANGE,
        SENESCENCE AND FRUIT PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF
                    ‘CARMÉNÈRE’ GRAPEVINE

                         J.I. Núñez, F.A. Ibañez and C. Pastenes
                                Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
                                       jnunez@santotomas.cl
                                       H




 With the aim to study the physiology of a pre- phyloxeric grapevine variety according current
 cultural managements, four water levels were tested from véraison on a ‘Carménère’ vineyard
 grown in the High Maipo Valley of Chile during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. Mid day stem
 water potential between the most irrigated treatment and the lesser varied from 0.3 to 0.2 MPa in
 2008, and from 0.3 to 0.4 MPa in 2009. Under these apparently not extreme water treatments,
 CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance were higher in restricted plants than in the watered.
 These differences were wider when they were evaluated in the hottest hours of summer.
 Chlorophyll contents were lesser in most stressed plants and this difference tended to be larger
 in the second season, under the restrictive effect accumulated, indicating that most water
 restricted plants tended to accelerate leaf senescence. Expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase
 (PAO) genes of a chlorophyll catabolism enzyme was higher in the restricted plants than in the
 watered plants from the start of the differentiated irrigation treatments. Finally, production of
 grapevine cluster tended to be affected by water restriction, although water levels were not as
 different


 Keywords : Water stress, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, Vitis vinifera




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             21
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   EFFECTS OF LIGHT INTERCEPTION AMOUNT AND CANOPY
   ORIENTATION TO THE SUN ON GRAPEVINE WATER STATUS
           AND WHOLE CANOPY GAS EXCHANGE

                                 D.S. Intrigliolo1 and A. N. Lakso2
   1
     Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Centro Desarrollo Agricultura Sostenible, Moncada
                                           (Valencia), 46113, Spain
   2
     NYS Agric. Experiment Station, Cornell University, Department of Horticultural Sciences , Geneva, NY
                                                   14456 USA
                                        H intrigliolo_die@ivia.gva.es


 An experiment was conducted in a vineyard planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling in New
 York, USA. Vines were fully irrigated and were trained via vertical shoot positioning giving a
 narrow curtain intercepting about 30% of the incident light during the sunlit hours. Vine rows
 were north-south oriented.

 Results showed that, when the single curtain canopies were opened in order to increase light
 interception, midday stem water potential decreased around 20%, suggesting an increase in vine
 water use. On the other hand, during the course of entire days, canopies were inclined either,
 towards or away the sun in order to modify the daily patterns of vine light interception. The
 whole canopy gas exchange responses to these practices were measured with Mylar plastic
 chambers. During the warm afternoon hours, decreasing light interception by inclining vines
 towards west increased vine water use efficiency (WUE, canopy photosynthesis:transpiration) in
 a 35% in comparisons with vines in the straight position. However, over the whole day, having
 the vines inclined towards west increased WUE only in a 8%.

 Overall this study support the idea that vine gas exchange is driven more by vine light
 interception than by leaf area itself. Vines trained as a single curtain in north-south oriented rows
 offer a possibility for modifying gas exchange daily patterns by changing canopy orientation to
 the sun. These strategies could be employed in order to either, increase or decrease vine gas
 exchange depending on the environmental and soil water status conditions.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 22
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   EFFECTS OF CANOPY EXPOSURE CHANGES ON GRAPEVINE
                 PHYSIOLOGY (CV. SYRAH)

                   Eugenia Galat Giorgi, Jorge Perez Peña, Jorge Prieto
        INTA EEA Mendoza. San Martín 3853, Mayor Drummond, Luján de Cuyo. Mendoza Argentina
                                    Hegalat@mendoza.inta.gov.ar



 Changes in canopy architecture during the growing season can affect plant water status and the
 proportion between exposed and shaded leaves. To determine the effects of changes of canopy
 architecture on plant physiology, an experiment was conducted in an irrigated Syrah vineyard at
 the Agricultural Experimental Station Mendoza INTA in 2006/07. Changes in canopy
 architecture were achieved by the Ybm INTA trellis system in which the canopy, can be opened
 or closed generating a single or double curtain canopy. The single curtain is similar to a VSP
 while de double curtain is similar to a Lyra system. Between bloom and harvest and based on the
 timing of opening and closing the canopy, four treatments were established: A) closed from
 bloom to harvest; B) closed from bloom to veraison and opened from veraison to harvest; C)
 opened from bloom to veraison and closed from veraison to harvest; and D) opened from bloom
 to harvest. Irrigation was applied according to predawn leaf water potential measurements.
 Predawn and midday leaf water potential, daily evolution of leaf water potential, photosynthesis,
 transpiration, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the cluster
 zone were measured. Irrigation decision based on predawn leaf water potential values
 recommended to keep plants without water deficit produced an unforeseen reduction of vines
 capacity. Increased canopy exposure raised transpiration and decreased midday leaf water
 potential. Shaded leaves showed lower photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and
 water use efficiency, and their maximum photosynthesis was reached at lower levels of PPFD
 compared with exposed leaves. It is necessary to be careful to take the irrigation decision based
 on values from other region. It is required to research thresholds of leaf water potential to local
 situation as such as to each variety.

 Keywords: grapevine, trellis system, gaseous interchange, leaf water potential




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            23
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   VERTICAL SHOOT POSITIONING VS. BOX PRUNING: CAN WE
   IMPROVE GRAPE QUALITY AND YIELD, AND STILL REDUCE
           WATER USE AND PRODUCTION COSTS?

          J. Perez Peña1, E. Galat Giorgi1, S. Sari1, K. Navone2, M. Belmonte2 and
                                       G. Yaciofano2
                             1
                                 EEA Mendoza INTA, Mendoza, Argentina.
                                 2
                                   Bodega Trapiche, Mendoza, Argentina.
                                     Hpatagua@mendoza.inta.gov.ar


 Many studies have been published in the past about different trellis systems and pruning methods
 applied in vineyards showing their advantages and disadvantages. Although box pruning is
 currently applied in commercial vineyards, we have not found in the scientific literature studies
 evaluating box pruning as a suitable pruning and/or trellising system for premium grapes. The
 box pruning method leaves canes with approximately one to four nodes inside a virtual prismatic
 volume around the cordon. This volume is shaped by mechanical pruning that cuts the canopy
 vertically and horizontally along the row. An experiment that compared a spur pruned vertical
 shoot positioned system (VSP) versus a box pruned system (BP) was initiated during growing
 season 2008/09 in a North-South oriented, drip irrigated commercial vineyard of Cabernet
 sauvignon in Mendoza. Both systems were irrigated by ETo and a crop coefficient based on the
 shaded area measured beneath the canopy of the VSP system. Physiological, vegetative and
 reproductive variables, together with berry composition and wine quality were evaluated. Results
 from the first year showed that the BP had more shoots and clusters per vine, and higher yield
 than the VSP but lower values of midday leaf water potential. Berries from the VSP had higher
 total polyphenols and anthocyanins concentration. In both treatments, the fruit from the east
 facing side of the row had significant higher level of total seed polyphenols than the west but
 there was no significant difference between treatments. Fruit in the BP showed significantly less
 damage than VSP after a hail storm that occurred on November 1st 2009 after fruit set. Wines
 from BP had higher concentration of total anthocyanin, flavanols, proanthocyanidins and higher
 color intensity. A trained sensory panel described the BP wines as having more color intensity
 and concentration than those from the VSP.



 Keywords: trellis systems, microclimate, leaf water potential, anthocyanins, phenols, pyrazines




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             24
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        CRITICAL LEVEL OF WATER IN THE SOIL FOR
   DEVELOPMENT POTATO CROP (Solanum tuberosum L.) IN THE
                 HIGHLANDS OF BOLIVIA

           René Chipana Rivera, Hugo Bosque Sanchez, David Cruz Choque, and
                                  Samuel Patty Patty
                 Faculty of Agronomy, Mayor de San Andrés University, La Paz. Bolivia.
                                      reisser@cpact.embrapa.br
                                      H




 The Bolivia highlands is a region with hard climatic conditions for agriculture, in general is dry.
 In the past 30 years have implemented various irrigation systems, however, in the months
 August to November there is a shortage of water for crop irrigation. Therefore this study sought
 to determine the critical level of soil water in the production of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum
 L.) Var. Huaycha Paceña. The work was carried out in plots of the Bolivian Institute of Nuclear
 Science and Technology, located in the town of Viacha to 16º39´ south latitude and 68º18' west
 longitude at an altitude of 3850 meters above sea level. Six treatments were used: T1, 35%
 depletion of available soil water (ADS), T2, 50% ADS, T3, 55% ADS, T4, 60% ADS, T5, 65%
 ADS, and T6, 75% ADS. During crop growth the mean maximum temperature was 20.6 ºC and
 average minimum temperature was 2.9º C, precipitation in the period was 382 mm, which did
 not affect the experiment because the experimental area was covered. The plant height reached
 0.67 m in T1 and 0.62 m in T5, the number of stems per plant was higher in T1 (4.4) and lowest
 in T6 (3,3). The yield of fresh tubers and application of water given for T1, 31,704 kg ha-1 and
 3082 m3 of water applied, T2, 31,259 kg ha-1 for 2845 m3; T3, 30,889 kg ha-1 for 2772 m3; T4
 28,444 kg ha-1 for 2592 m3; T5, 25,556 kg ha-1 for 2731 m3 of water, and T6, 26,444 kg ha-1 to
 2551 m3. The differences are highly significant, however, all values are above average
 production of the department of La Paz that is 7000 kg ha-1, grown mostly without irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              25
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       APPLICATION OF REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION TO
        CONTROLLING GROWTH OF HARDY NURSERY STOCK

          Olga M. Grant1, Michael J. Davies1, Helen Longbottom1, Ana Herrero2,
                              Richard Harrison-Murray1
                             1
                              East Malling Research, East Malling, UK
                         2
                          Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
                                      Holga.grant@emr.ac.uk


 Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has proved successful in saving water without severely
 impacting on yield for a variety of fruit-producing crops. Less attention has been paid to the
 potential application of RDI to hardy nursery stock (HNS) crops. Growth control of many HNS
 cultivars requires substantial labour investment. The possibility of reducing labour inputs by
 controlling growth via irrigation scheduling is therefore appealing to growers. Additionally,
 water costs and the increasing difficulty of obtaining abstraction licences have led to grower
 interest in reducing water consumption. We aimed, firstly, to determine whether RDI could be
 applied to control growth of selected HNS cultivars without damaging quality, using a highly
 uniform drip irrigation system. Secondly, we determined the extent to which the benefits of RDI
 were affected by the non-uniformity of water uptake inherent under overhead irrigation, as a
 result of variation between plants in canopy size, water use, and surface uptake. We also
 investigated whether RDI had different effects depending on the type of growing substrate.
 Finally, we compared scheduling of RDI using an evaporimeter with scheduling using soil
 moisture sensors. The potential of thermal imaging for scheduling RDI was also investigated.
 RDI successfully controlled growth without deteriorating quality, whether overhead or drip
 irrigation was used, and whether plants were grown in 100% peat or a peat: bark mix.
 Scheduling of a specific severity of RDI was more difficult using soil moisture sensors than the
 evaporimeter, and thus biomass was not reduced in a relatively mild RDI treatment (70% ETp)
 when soil moisture sensors were used. On the other hand, when the evaporimeter was used the
 reduction in biomass under more severe (50% ETp) compared to milder RDI was limited. On
 warm, clear days, thermal images showed notably increased canopy temperatures under RDI
 compared to control irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            26
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      BIOMASS FORMATION AND NUTRIENT PARTITIONING IN
       POTTED LONGAN TREES UNDER PARTIAL ROOTZONE
                         DRYING

  Umavadee Srekasetaraku1, Wolfram Spreer2, Somchai Ongprasert3, Winai Wiriya-
    Alongkorn4, Kanokwan Sringarm1, Pittaya Sruamsiri1 and Joachim Müller2
                 1
                  Chiang Mai University, Department of Horticulture, Chiang Mai, Thailand
            2
             University of Hohenheim, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Stuttgart, Germany
          3
            Mae Jo University, Department of Soil Resources and Environment, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                   4
                     Mae Jo University, Department of Horticulture, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                                       Hspreerwo@uni-hohenheim.de


 In Northern Thailand longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is the most important fruit crop. With
 fruit development taking place during the dry season, irrigation is needed to ensure high yields.
 With increasing production irrigation water is becoming scarce. In previous studies it was
 documented, that under “partial rootzone drying (PRD)” high yield can be obtained with 33%
 reduced irrigation water use. The reason of this increase in WUE was so far not researched.

 Ten split-root longan trees were irrigated on one half of the root system, changing at a two weeks
 interval, and compared to ten trees which received the double amount of irrigation water on both
 sides of the root. The new formed leaves were classified in four size classes and counted to
 compare the canopy development under both irrigation regimes. After three months the trees
 were cut and separated into roots, trunk and leaves. Fresh and dry weight of the biomass and
 total leaf area were compared. Five samples of each part were analyzed on the macro-nutrient
 (N, P, K) composition.

 It was shown that the biomass formed under PRD was significantly less than under normal
 irrigation. The leaf size was lower under PRD and especially the roots had not well developed.
 The nutrient composition in the storage organs - such as roots and bark - of the PRD treated trees
 was less, while the nutrient content in the leaves was not significantly lower.

 This study shows that under PRD less biomass is produced as under full irrigation. In
 combination with previous results which show no yield reduction it can be concluded that longan
 trees under stress reduce their vegetative growth but not the generative growth. For Thailand,
 PRD is an appropriate irrigation method as during the time of fruit growth irrigation water can be
 saved.

 Keywords: Dimocarpus longan, split-root, leaf size, irrigation, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               27
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL AND YIELD MODIFICATIONS IN
    TWO POTATO CULTIVARS UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION
                    MANAGEMENTS

                      S. Casanova1, R. Carlesso2, C. García3 and F. Vilaró3
                          1
                             Agr. Eng. Department of Agriculture of Uruguay (MGAP)
        2
           Prof. Ph.D. Agricultural Engineering Department. Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil
       3
         Scientist of Horticulture Program. National Research Institute of Agriculture of Uruguay (INIA).
                                             Hcgarcia@inia.org.uy


 The potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the main vegetable in volume of trade in Uruguay.
 The variety Chieftain occupies around 80% of planted area. The National Agriculture Research
 Institute (INIA) potato breeding project is developing local cultivars more adapted to the country
 climatic conditions. INIA Iporá, a medium late, short dormancy variety was the first one
 developed. It was considered necessary to generate experimental results for quantifying their
 responses under different amounts of soil water availability, in comparison to the traditional
 cultivars.

 The objective of this work was to study morpho-physiological and yield modifications in these
 two potato cultivars (Chieftain and INA Iporá) under different irrigation managements. The
 experiment was carried out during 2006/07 growth season in a rainout shelter, at the
 Experimental Station “Wilson Ferreira Aldunate” (34°40´ 19´´ S, 56°20´24´´ W, 45 m Alt.), of
 INIA, in Uruguay. Chieftain and INIA Iporá were studied under two irrigation managements: (i)
 irrigated treatment (2003/04 rainfall + 246 mm) and (ii) deficit irrigation (2003/04 rainfall + one
 irrigation of 25 mm when the accumulated maximum daily crop evapotranspiration reached 90
 mm). The maximum daily crop evapotranspiration was estimated using the FAO Penman-
 Monteith equation.

 The experimental design was split plot. The results indicated that based on the
 morphophysiological parameters studied, the leaf area and the total plant photosynthesis are
 better correlated with adaptations of potatoes crops to the water deficit. This resulted in a direct
 relationship with crop yield. The two potato cultivars showed modifications in: length of growth
 season, leaf area, number of principal stems, plant height, and plant transpiration rates. At
 harvest, there were no differences in total tuber yield for both varieties. However, yield
 components were modified by irrigation managements and differences in commercial yield and
 total number of plant tubers were observed between them. The explanation would be the
 differences in seed tubers physiological age attributed to INIA Iporá shorter dormancy period.

 Keywords: Solanum tuberosum, evapotranspiration, morpho-physiological modifications,
 irrigation depth.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                   28
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        WATER RESPONSE FACTOR OF SOME HORTICULTURAL
         CROPS IN FERRASOLES OF THE SOUTH OF HAVANA.

          Felicita González Robaina1, Julián Herrera Puebla y Teresa López Seijas
   1
       Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje. Apdo postal 6090. C. Habana. Cuba.
                                        Telefax (537) 6911038
                        H felicita@iird.cu , julian@iird.cu , teresa@iird.cu .
                                       H   H            H   H               H




 World is facing a higher challenge, guarantee food security, this goal is only possible if
 it is developed strategies that permit a more efficient agriculture water use, principally
 increasing water productivity. Using a data base of more than 30 years of experimental
 results in crop’s water requirements at the Irrigation and Drainage Research Station
 located in Alquizar at south of Havana Province (red ferralitic soils), it was estimated the
 crop water productivity (WP) and the crop water yield response factor (kr) for tomato,
 pepper, papaya and banano crops. It was found a linear relationship between the crops
 yield and the crop evapotranspiration. WP values for pepper (1,7- 6,7 kg/m3) and tomato
 (11-18 kg/m3) indicated a best opportunities in these crops to increase the agriculture
 production with less water. In papaya and banano crops WP values varied between 3 to
 4,5 kg/m3. Tomato and pepper showed similar response to water deficit and the relative
 yield was proportional (Kr >1,05), deficit irrigation practices in banano (Kr =0,71)
 would be more productive.

 Keywords: water productivity, horticultural crops, deficit irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                          29
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     INFLUENCE OF MYCORRHIZAE IN GERANIUM IRRIGATED
           WITH SALINE WATER: AGRONOMICAL AND
                 ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE

                   Navarro, A.1, Elia, A.2, Conversa, G.2, Mastrorilli, M.1,*
          1
           Agricultural Research Council - Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry
              Environments (CRA-SCA), Via Celso Ulpiani, 5 - 70125 Bari, Italy.
         2
           Department of Agro-Environmental Science, Chemistry and Plant Protection,
                   University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25 - 71100 Foggia, Italy.
                                Hmarcello.mastrorilli@entecra.it


 As of now, no information is available about the effect of mycorrhizae in reducing the
 environmental impact of irrigation saline-water. This study is addressed to investigate the
 behaviour of mycorrhizal geranium plants irrigated with saline water. At the same time the
 influence of the symbiosis on the environment (leaching and substratum) has been evaluated.

 Mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola and Glomus intraradices) and non-mycorrhizal plants of
 Pelargonium hortorum L. cv. Markab were pot-grown during three months in a greenhouse and
 submitted to three irrigation treatments. Each treatment represent an EC salinity level (0.85
 dSm−1, control C; 3 dSm−1, Medium Salinity; MS; 6 dSm−1, High Salinity, HS). The frequency
 and intensity of mycorrhizal colonization by G. intraradices in geranium roots was higher than
 by G. deserticola. Under saline conditions, the mycorrhizal colonization increased leaf area and
 dry shoot-weight (higher with G. deserticola).

 Salinity led to increase Cl-, Na+ and Ca2++ and to decrease NO3- and Mg2++ in the geranium
 tissue, while a lower Cl, Na and Ca ion concentration was found in mycorrhizal plants. A
 decrease in Cl and Na content was observed in MS geranium inoculated with G. deserticola,
 while G. intraradices reduced Ca and Cl in HS plants.

 In the leached water, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and K concentrations increased with the salinity level of the
 irrigation water. The impact of the salinity in leaching was mitigated by mycorrhizae, mainly G.
 intraradices. The chemical composition of substratum was significantly modified by the salinity.
 G. deserticola reduced the Na concentration in the HS treatment and the total limestone in the
 MS treatment.

 Based on these results, the mycorrhizal inoculation improves the growth of geranium plants
 under saline conditions and it reduces the harmful effects on the environment caused by the
 salinity.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            30
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     THE DUAL CROP COEFFICIENT APPROACH: TESTING THE
          SIMDUALKC MODEL WITH PEACH ORCHARD
          EVAPOTRANSPIRATION EDDY COVARIANCE
                     MEASUREMENTS
                    Paço, T.A, Rosa, R.D., Paredes, P., Rodrigues, G.C., Conceição,
                                   N., Ferreira, M.I., Pereira, L.S1.
                1
                 Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
                                               lspereira@isa.utl.pt
                                               H




 The SIMDualKc model is a water balance simulation model that allows estimating crop
 evapotranspiration using the dual crop coefficient approach. This approach separately considers
 plant transpiration (basal crop coefficient) and soil evaporation. The use of dual crop coefficients
 has proved to be more adequate for discontinuous crops (with incomplete cover of the soil) and
 for high frequency irrigation than the use of average crop coefficients.

 The model was tested with peach orchard evapotranspiration (ET) measurements obtained by the
 eddy covariance technique (EC). The measurements were performed in central Portugal under
 Mediterranean conditions, in a sandy soil, during two irrigation seasons. Direct measurements of
 ET were thereafter correlated with continuous sap flow (SF) measurements (providing tree
 transpiration) and soil evaporation estimates (obtained from a locally calibrated model). These
 combination of techniques provided ET for the entire irrigation season. The orchard had a low
 fraction of ground covered by vegetation which was taken into account in SIMDualKc by
 introducing a density factor for vegetation in the Kc calculation.

 Results showed a difference of 0.4 mm between mean daily measured (2.0 mm) and simulated
 (2.4 mm) ET. The model overestimated ET with an average deviation of +14%, when comparing
 to ET obtained via EC-SF relationship. The experimentally determined crop coefficient (Kc) was
 around 0.5, while the modelled mean Kc was 0.6. This represents a 20% overestimation, but a
 small error when comparing to previous crop coefficient estimates. Soil evaporation estimates by
 the SIMDualKc model were closer to experimental data then transpiration estimates, indicating
 that improvement of the accuracy of the model could be achieved by improving the basal crop
 coefficient estimation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                    31
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           ADJUSTMENT OF TOMATO CROP COEFFICIENTS ON
                      ORGANIC SUBSTRATE

          Carmen Duarte, Felicita González, Teresa López, Osvaldo Campos, and
                                   Magdalena Pedroso
    Institute of Investigations of Irrigations and Drainage. Avenida Camilo Cienfuegos y Calle 27, Arroyo
                                         Naranjo, Ciudad Habana, Cuba.
                                              H  carmen@iird.cu


 The information about the dynamics of present moisture in the profile of biosoil substrate, as part
 of the containers/groovers at the Experimental Organoponic, on which the method Penman
 Montheit recommended FAO has been used (2006), is presented for irrigation schedulling in
 tomato crop Vita. The objectives, were adjusting crop coefficients of tomato under organic
 conditions using two scheduling methods & to evaluate the contribution of both to the efficiency
 of the fertirrigation from the dry matter curve indicator of on total air biomass. For volumetric
 moisture balances a TDR device was used, in 0.2 m substrate profile of of depth. The previous
 crop coefficients of the tomato were adjusted for these conditions using the climatic method,
 what stated the truthfulness of the methods and the possibility of the acuteness in the calculation
 of crop water requirements. the volumetric humidity available in all containers/groovers was
 between 0.392 - 0.390 cm3 /cm3, representing 92% of the Cc approximately was also quantified.
 On the other hand, it contributed to the efficiency in the fertirrigation, of 3 dosage treatments of
 the ecological fertilizer Fitomás E, determined by the curves of dry matter on total air biomass
 for defined growth periods in the tomato cropping. This approach was taking as reference to
 determine the most opportune dose of application of the biofertilizer, being compared with a
 theoretical model generated to estimate the daily accumulation of dry matter. The data obtained
 and the ones estimated were related by means of a lineal regression (R2=0.99, P <0.01).




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 32
                                      VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              DETERMINATION OF CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR
            HORTICULTURAL CROPS IN CUBA THROUGH FIELD
            EXPERIMENTS AND WATER BALANCE SIMULATION

  Yoima Chaterlan1; María León1; Carmen Duarte1; Teresa López1; Paula Paredes2;
                                 Luís S. Pereira2.
                      1
                      Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje, La Habana, Cuba;
     2
         CEER – Biosystems Engineering, Institute of Agronomy, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal.
                                  ychaterlan@yahoo.es l; spereira@isa.utl.pt
                                  H                    HH




 A proper soil water balance provides for a good irrigation management. With this objective the
 water balance simulation model ISAREG was calibrated and validated for micro-sprinkler
 irrigated sweet pepper, garlic, onion, cabbage and carrots, using field observations performed in
 the Irrigation Station of Alquízar, south of La Havana. Model calibration and validation were
 performed using two independent data sets for each crop. The calibration referred to the crop
 coefficients (Kc) and the soil water depletion factor for no stress (p) and to the soil hydraulic
 properties of a Red Ferralitic compacted soil. The calibration procedure consisted of adjusting
 first the soil properties and then, through an iterative procedure, to determine the Kc and p values
 that minimize the differences between observed and simulated soil water content along the crop
 season. The model validation was performed using the calibrated Kc and p with a different
 climate and crop data sets. The following indicators of goodness of fitting were used to assess
 model calibration and validation: regression coefficient forced to the origin (b), determination
 coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE). Results show a good
 agreement between field observations and model predictions, with b close to 1.0; R2 ranging 0.84
 - 0.95 for the calibration and 0.78 - 0.90 for the validation for all the five crops. The RMSE and
 RE are small. RMSE ranged 0.003 - 0.007 m3 m-3 for the calibration and 0.003 to 0.011 m3 m-3
 for the validation. The Kc and p values are in the range suggested in FAO 56. Results allow to
 further use the ISAREG model to define alternative irrigation schedules and to generate those
 that may provide for improved water productivity in Cuba.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  33
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       A GENERIC SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING CROP
  COEFFICIENTS ACROSS A WIDE RANGE OF HARDY NURSERY
                        STOCK

   Olga M. Grant, Michael J. Davies, Helen Longbottom, Richard Harrison-Murray
                              East Malling Research, East Malling, UK
                                       olga.grant@emr.ac.uk
                                       H




 In areas of intensive horticultural production, increasing pressure on water resources means that
 water management needs to be optimised. The possibility of scheduling irrigation of hardy
 nursery stock based on crop evapotranspiration has to date been limited by the absence of known
 crop coefficients for the vast numbers of species and cultivars in production. We aimed to
 determine the relationship between crop coefficients and various measures of plant growth and
 physiology, over the course of the growing season, and thus to establish a widely applicable
 system for estimating crop coefficients which can be used on the nursery. Crop coefficients were
 determined gravimetrically for several hardy ornamental nursery stock shrub species grown in 2
 L pots, in a series of experiments under plastic tunnels or outdoors. Crop coefficients were found
 to correlate significantly with several measures of plant canopy dimensions and with stomatal
 conductance. The dependence of the coefficients on the different measured variables differed
 between species and between months of the growing season. Across all species and over a
 growing season, 76% of the variation in crop coefficients under a plastic tunnel could be
 explained by a combination of plant height, leaf area, and stomatal conductance. For the same
 species grown outdoors, 62% of the variation in crop coefficients could be explained by these
 variables along with percentage cover. Plant height and percentage cover alone explained 64 and
 57% of the variation under plastic and outdoors respectively. Plant height and percentage cover
 can be easily and rapidly measured on nurseries. Our results suggest that these two
 measurements should suffice to estimate crop coefficients and schedule irrigation across a wide
 range of different hardy nursery stock crops. By monitoring crops for which irrigation is
 scheduled in this way, growers could adjust the coefficients for individual crops if greater
 accuracy is desired.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            34
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           VARIATION IN WITHIN-BLOCK CROP WATER
         REQUIREMENTS OF ORCHARDS AND VINEYARDS –
       IMPLICATIONS FOR IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT UNITS.

                L. McClymont, I. Goodwin, M. O’Connell, and D. Whitfield
                         Department of Primary Industries, Tatura, VIC 3616
                                 lexie.mcclymont@dpi.vic.gov.au
                                  H




 Micro-irrigation systems have improved irrigation efficiency in the viticulture and horticulture
 industries. Compared to flood and sprinkler irrigation systems, they reduce cover crop and soil
 evaporation water losses and enable precise scheduling of irrigation events. However, gains in
 irrigation efficiency can be compromised by variation in crop water requirements and poor
 distribution uniformity of irrigation supply across an irrigation management unit. These factors
 can lead to under-irrigation and subsequent yield losses or over-irrigation and wasted water
 through drainage and runoff. Distribution uniformity of irrigation supply has received
 considerable attention through documented techniques to monitor emitter rates and diagnostics to
 examine system performance to reduce the variability. In contrast, little information exists
 regarding typical within-block variation in water requirement of horticultural crops.

 Aerial photographs of orchard and vineyard blocks in the Sunraysia and Goulburn Valley
 irrigation districts of Australia were utilised to determine variation in crop water requirement
 based on the linear relationship between canopy cover and potential water use. Yield penalties
 and drainage losses due to failure to match irrigation supply with individual tree/vine water
 requirement were calculated. The implications of this study for improved water management via
 creation of smaller irrigation management units to enable closer matching of irrigation supply
 with crop water requirements will be discussed.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            35
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  AN EMPIRICAL MODEL TO PREDICT THE WATER STATUS OF
                   ORANGE TREES

            F. Stagno1, A. Giuffrida1, C. Germanà2, F. Intrigliolo1, A. Continella2
      1
     CRA - Centro di Ricerca in Agrumicoltura e Colture Mediterranee (ACM), Acireale (Catania), Italia
  2
   Dipartimento di OrtoFloroArboricoltura e Tecnologie Agroalimentari, Università degli Studi di Catania,
                                  Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania, Italy
                                        fiorella.stagno@entecra.it
                                        H




 Investigation on crop water status is mostly based on plant responses to water stress. The
 most widely used parameter in fruit trees to estimate this response is predawn leaf water
 potential (Ψpd).

 Three years of field experiments on orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck] cv ’Tarocco NL
 Meli’ and cv ’Tarocco NL Scirè’ grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) were carried
 out in order to evaluate: i) the behaviour of Tarocco clones during the irrigation season;
 ii) the possibility to build an empirical model to estimate the Ψpd using stem water
 potential (Ψmd) and vapor pressure deficit (VPDmd) measured at midday.

 The results showed statistical differences in water potential between the two clones. This
 dissimilarity permitted to evaluate differently the behaviour of Tarocco clones building
 empirical models.

 The analysis allowed of the data to obtain a 2nd degree equation (Ψpd = a + b1Ψmd
 +b2VPDmd) through multiple regression techniques considering the Ψpd as dependent
 variable, the Ψmd and the VPDmd as explanatory variables. ANOVA applied to the
 multiple regression resulted highly significant with P-value <0.000, indicating highly
 predictive capacity of the equation. The multiple coefficients of correlation of the two
 models were 0.783 and 0.825 in ‘Tarocco Meli’ and ‘Tarocco Scirè’, respectively.

 The observed and fitted data were tested with the method of cross-validation. Through
 this procedure the observed data were statistically not different with respect to fitted data
 in both clones.

 The results of the empirical model to estimate the Ψpd are discussed, showing Ψpd as the
 best indicator of tree water status, without the need of measuring Ψ before sunrise.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                36
                            VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        A PROTOTYPE OF AUTOMATIC PRESSURE PUMP (TYPE
                     SCHOLANDER PUMP)

                                        Sergio Villagrán
                           Universidad de Concepción, Chillan – Chile
                                    sergiovillagran@udec.cl
                                    H




 A prototype for the automation of a pressure pump type Scholander is being developed.
 Determining the Leaf Water Potential (Ψw) using a pressure pump (Scholander pump)
 depends on the proper use and training of the operator, which must simultaneously
 pressurize the measuring chamber at a constant and slow rate and at the same time
 observing the exact moment when the water runs out of the petiole, and at this time stop
 the pressurization of the measuring chamber and record the pressure inside it. The
 process described above does not ensure the accuracy and precision of the measurements
 being made. To avoid this problem, we are developing an automatic control and
 measurement system. The prototype system consists in of automatic controller, that
 controls a valve with differential step pressure control (which allows gradual increases in
 pressure inside the chamber) and optical sensor (which determine when water runs out of
 the petiole). With the integration of these components, it is possible to make the
 measurement automatically and it eliminates the human error in determining the Leaf
 Water Potential. On the other hand, this prototype allows the standardization of the
 speed and the increment of the pressure differential on the determination of Leaf Water
 Potential.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                          37
                                           VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          TOWARDS THE SPATIAL PREDICTION MODEL OF VINE
           WATER STATUS USING ANCILLARY INFORMATION

     C. Acevedo-Opazo1, F. Jara1, H. Valdés-Gómez1,2, S. Ortega-Farías1, J.A.
                            Taylor3 and B. Tisseyre4
            1
             Universidad de Talca, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, CITRA, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile
      2
          Universidad de Talca, Fac. de Ingeniería, Escuela de Ingeniería en Bioinformática, Talca, Chile
                                     3 INRA, UMR LISAH, Bât. 24, 2 Pl. Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
                        4
                            SupAgro Montpellier, UMR ITAP, Bât. 21, 2 Pl. Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
                                                 cacevedo@utalca.cl
                                                          H




 Several studies have shown that changes in grapevine water status, at critical phenological
 stages, have a direct effect on berry composition and quality attributes by influencing vegetative
 growth, canopy microclimate and berry development. Several authors have proposed the use of
 the pressure chamber method as an excellent tool to measure vine water status under irrigated
 and non-irrigated conditions. However, pressure chamber measurements are time and labour
 intensive; therefore, it is difficult to generate high-resolution spatial and temporal information
 with this instrument. An alternative approach would be to estimate vine water status using low
 cost complementary information that is available at high-spatial resolution, such as multi-
 spectral aerial imagery and/or apparent soil electrical conductivity maps (ECa). With this
 ancillary information, it may be possible to model the relative difference in plant water status
 between a reference point and all other sites in a production system. Thus, the goal of this study
 was to test the feasibility of extrapolating a single vine water status measurement to several
 locations using ancillary information with a high-spatial resolution. An experiment to identify
 and test the model was carried out over a commercial Syrah field located in the Languedoc-
 Roussillon Region, France, during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. A regular grid of 49
 measurement sites was distributed over the field. For each grid point, measurements were
 conducted to assess: (i) predawn leaf water potential (PLWP) at seven dates in 2003 and six
 dates in 2004 and, (ii) vine vegetative expression (vine trunk circumference, expose leaf area and
 pruning weight). Results showed that most of the variables of plant (water status and vegetative
 growth) were highly correlated among them and with NDVI and ECa. Also, the proposed model
 was able to predict spatial variability of PLWP with a spatial and temporal mean error of 0.09
 MPa and 0.10 MPa, respectively. This result show the ability of this approach to extrapolate the
 plant water status from one reference site by taking into account spatial variability characterised
 by ancillary information. Further studies will aim to confirm the relevancy of this approach for
 different seasons, locations and cultivars.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                                            38
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        PREDICTING PLANT WATER POTENTIAL IN A PEAR
      ORCHARD UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION CONDITIONS

                                Jordi Marsal1* and Claudio Stöckle2
        1
         Irrigation Technology, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries, Lleida 25198, Spain.
            2
              Biological Systems Engineering Dept. Washington State University, Pullman. WA, USA.
                                               H jordi.marsal@irta.es


 In this study, we explore the practical use of an existing crop model with a recently implemented
 application for fruit trees to predict plant water potential. The model considers a combined
 weather and soil scenario, and is able to forecast plant water potential, which can be used for
 drought management recommendations. The model simulates plant growth by partitioning
 growth among different tree organs based on the principle that fruits are stronger tree sinks than
 vegetative and root sinks, and that they can be modeled from fruit relative growth rate
 (Grossman and DeJong, 1995). Oyarzun and Stöckle’s tree intercepted radiation model is used
 for the tree light interception calculations. The fraction of incident solar radiation intercepted by
 the green crop canopy is used as a multiplier coefficient to maximum evapotranspiration to
 simulate tree transpiration. Restrictions in tree transpiration are governed by threshold values in
 leaf water potential. Plant water potential is solved together with tree transpiration using an
 analogue ohm law. Canopy photosynthesis and potential source supply from the tree is derived
 from the minimum value of a 3-way method: i) direct conversion from intercepted radiation to
 carbohydrates, ii) Tanner and Sinclair method, and iii) water use efficiency experimental
 relationship with vapor pressure deficit. The parameters of the model have been determined from
 field measured data on an apple and pear lisimeter. Tree transpiration and light interception
 simulations were compared to the values measured in the lisimeters, and it was found a
 satisfactory agreement. Once crop parameters were adjusted in CropSyst, simulations on leaf
 water potential were tried as surrogate of stem water potential in a deficit irrigated field
 experiment in pear orchard. Two different periods were considered: One-month and two-month
 water deficit. The results indicated that CropSyst could predict stem water potential provided a
 calibration of plant hydraulic conductance was performed. For longer periods than one month,
 further adjustments are needed, probably by considering phenological changes in hydraulic plant
 conductance.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  39
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        EARLY WATER STRESS ASSESSMENT AND AUTOMATIC
      IRRIGATION SYSTEM OPERATION BASED ON ELECTRICAL
                   SIGNALING IN FRUIT TREES

                            Luis A. Gurovich and Patricio Oyarce
                    Universidad Católica de Chile - P. O. Box 30622 Santiago – Chile
                                          lgurovic@puc.cl
                                          H




 Real - time plant water potential assessment is postulated as an efficient tool for
 irrigation scheduling and automated irrigation system operation in precision agriculture.
 We have developed an Ag/AgCl micro-electrode enabling the continuous measurement
 of plant electric potential differences between roots, shoots and leaves in several fruit
 trees, in response to changes in micro - environmental conditions related to light,
 temperature and soil water availability.

 Electric action (EAP) and variation (EVP) potentials have been detected in several pla
 organs; most EAP ranged -50 to -250 mV, and lasted from a few miliseconds up to
 minute, with a very short lag time after the stimuli is imposed. In most cases, AP we
 followed by long term (1 to 10 hours) distinct EVP. Our results indicate that there is
 clear, fast and accurate electrical signalling mechanism within the plant, which is positive
 correlated to the intensity and duration of micro – environmental stimuli modifying pla
 water potential.

 In several fruit trees (avocado, blueberry, lemon and olive), placed in a Faraday cage in
 environmentally-controlled greenhouse, significant changes in EP between the base of t
 stem and leaf petiole (ΔVL-S), have been measured in response to short- and long-ter
 drought; an extra-cellular electrical signal travels through the phloem at speeds in the ran
 of 1.8 to 2.4 cm min-1.

 Applications of this signalling mechanism as an early detector of plant water stress a
 discussed and many questions with regard to the role of electrical signals in eliciti
 physiological responses in fruit tree species are proposed.

 Keywords: Plant electrical signaling, action potential, variation potential, real time plant wa
 stress detection




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             40
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    ASPARAGUS WATER REQUIREMENTS IN SOUTHERN ITALY

                          Palumbo, A.D., Campi, P., Mastrorilli, M.
                   Agricultural Research Council – Research Unit for Cropping Systems
                in Dry Environments (CRA-SCA), Via Celso Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari, Italy
                                    H domenico.palumbo@entecra.it


 In Southern Italy the water emergency concerns most of irrigated crops, as well as the green
 asparagus. Soil water stresses affect negatively the crop at a short (annual yield reduces and
 spear quality gets worse) and at a long (the stand duration diminishes) temporal scale. The main
 objective of this four-year research (2005-2009) was to update the asparagus water requirements.
 The secondary objective was to verify if the regulated deficit irrigation could represent a suitable
 technique for the asparagus crop.

 The research activity was realized in an Apulian site (alt. 147m, lat. 41°01’ N, long. 17°01’ E)
 characterized by hot-dry Mediterranean climate and shallow soil. The experimental design
 (factorial ‘strip block’ with four replications) consisted of: A) four irrigation regimes (well-
 irrigated control, as suggested by FAO Paper 56, 50% of the control, and withholding the water
 supply at the end of the first or of the second fern flush); B) two irrigation methods (surface and
 sub-surface drip irrigation); C) two hybrids (‘Grande’ and ‘Italo’).

 The irrigation seasons lasted 109, 136, and 126 days and the irrigation volumes ranged from 424
 to 219mm, from 540 to 223mm, and from 600 to 227mm, respectively in 2006, 2007, and 2008.
 A part the first year (2007) when asparagus spears were harvested for less than 30 days, the
 highest marketable productions were due to: A) the surface drip irrigation in comparison with the
 sub-surface method (7.2 vs 5.6 t/ha and 6.4 vs 5.3 t/ha, respectively in 2008 and 2009); B) the
 full water supply in comparison with the stress treatments (7.4 vs 6.0 t/ha and 6.9 vs 5.4 t/ha,
 respectively in 2008 and 2009). The three deficit-irrigation treatments did not significantly
 diversify the asparagus yields, whatever irrigation method was adopted.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              41
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    ESTIMATION OF WATER REQUIREMENTS OF THOMPSON
     SEEDLESS TRAINED AS OVERHEAD TRELLISED SYSTEM
  (“PARRONAL”) BY MEANS OF EDDY COVARIANCE METHOD IN THE
                              ACONCAGUA VALLEY, CHILE

         Gabriel Selles1, Raúl Ferreyra1, Cristina Aspillaga1, Waldo Lira1, Paulina
           Villagra2, Víctor García de Cortázar2, and Samuel Ortega–Farías3
                          1
                          Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile
                                         2
                                          Universidad de Chile
                                     3
                                       Universidad de Talca, Chile
                                          H gselles@inia.cl



 During the 2008-2009 season, crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and energy balance were
 measured by the eddy-covariance method on a table grape vineyard cv Thompson
 Seedless trained as overhead trellised system (“parronal”) The experiment was located in
 Calle Larga, Aconcagua valley, Chile (32º 52’ 32” S and 70º 37’ 46” W). There was
 good agreement between energy balance and eddy flux as the closure error was 23% in
 november ‘08 and 14% in march ’09. At flowering (20% solar interception), latent heat
 (LE) was 53.4% of net radiation (Rn), sensible heat (H) was 25.8% and soil heat flux (G)
 was 10.7%. Near harvest (97% solar interception) LE, H and G were 94%, 0.47% and
 4.02% of Rn respectively. Etc was estimated from the measured values of LE, reference
 evapotranspiration (ETo) was obtained with the FAO-PenmanMonteith method and the
 corresponding crop coefficient (kc) was calculated. An increase of kc values from
 October to mid-november was observed. Then, it was almost stable until mid-january
 when an increase was again observed. A maximum value of 1.3 was reached near
 harvest.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             42
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EVALUATION OF A WATER BALANCE MODEL FOR COVER
   CROPPED VINEYARDS IN MEDITERRANEAN AND ATLANTIC
                  CLIMATE CONDITIONS.

                    Delpuech X., Celette F.1, Ripoche A.2, Barbeau G.3, Gary C.2
                IFV, Nimes, France; 1Isara, Lyon; 2Inra, Montpellier, France; 3Inra, Angers, France.
                                               gary@supagro.inra.fr
                                               H




 If cover crops growing in vineyards offer a number of services (mitigation of runoff and erosion,
 and improvement of physical and biological properties of soils), they compete for soil resources
 with grapevines. A water balance model was designed to simulate the dynamics of water
 availability in two soil compartments explored either by the grapevine only (under the row and in
 deep soil layers) or by the two crops (the upper soil layers under the inter-row). It was
 parameterized in a series of crop cycles characterized by contrasting Mediterranean rain regimes
 (Celette et al. 2009).

 In the present research, the model was evaluated with independent data sets from experiments
 comparing strategies of soil surface management. In the first one, under Mediterranean
 conditions with dry summer periods and high rain intensities in autumn (Montpellier, south
 France), the focus was on the resulting run-off. In the second one, under Atlantic conditions with
 a more even rain regime (Angers, Loire Valley), the focus was on the comparison of two
 grapevine rootstocks. The major parameters to be estimated were the maximum crop coefficient
 (calculated from the row dimensions), the Total Transpirable Soil Water in the two soil
 compartments (calculated from the soil water profiles), and the Curve Number.

 The dynamics of the Available Soil Water for the grapevine was properly simulated, with some
 bias in the cover cropped treatments. The Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water in the grapevine
 compartment correlated with measured pre-dawn water potential and dC13. The high inter-annual
 variability of the winter soil water recharge observed in Mediterranean conditions, and
 depending on soil surface properties and resulting runoff, could be reproduced.

 Such results open the way to the use of simulations for evaluating strategies of cover cropping
 with respect to their performances in terms of grapevine production and environmental
 externalities (Ripoche et al, 2009).




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                     43
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF WATER USE, VEGETATION
       COVER AND CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR PERENNIAL
     HORTICULTURE IN NORTHERN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

  M. O’Connell, D., Whitfield, M. Abuzar, C. Savige, K. Sheffield and A. McAllister
                  Department of Primary Industries, Tatura, Victoria, 3616, Australia
                                   mark.oconnell@dpi.vic.gov.au
                                    H




 Irrigation accounts for >70 % of water consumption in the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia.
 Improvements in water management are urgently needed because water resources are
 increasingly restricted by drought, over-allocation, and increased competition from urban and
 environmental users. Irrigation practices must pay an increased recognition of the importance of
 crop water requirement (CWR). CWR describes the amount of water needed for maximum crop
 yield. Irrigation inputs supplied beyond CWR are wasted, representing an inefficient, potentially
 harmful, use of a valuable resource. Improved crop coefficients potentially lead to more accurate
 water use and water savings in irrigation districts throughout the Murray-Darling Basin.

 Crop type, vegetation cover, and weather collectively determine CWR. Actual crop water use
 (ETa), the important component of irrigation water use, depends on soil water conditions
 (irrigation practices). Traditionally, ETa has been difficult and costly to measure. Australian
 estimates of CWR in perennial horticultural crops are therefore derived largely from overseas
 experience, and are therefore inappropriate to the wide range of vegetation cover and the diverse
 assortment of crops grown in the region.

 This project is investigating the application of satellite remote sensing to measure both ETa and
 vegetation cover (NDVI), with the aim of establishing NDVI-customised measures of CWR for
 use by industry. The paper describes the derivation of CWR estimates from ETa – NDVI
 relationships obtained by SEBAL-METRIC analyses of Landsat images in the Sunraysia and
 Shepparton Irrigation Regions in season 2008/09.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              44
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      WATER REQUIREMENT OF VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. SYRAH
      GROWN IN A WARM REGION. CROP COEFFICIENTS (Kc)
                     ESTIMATIONS.

                              F. Vita Serman1, A. Olguín Pringles1
                INTA EEA San Juan. Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
                                       fvita@sanjuan.inta.gov.ar
                                        H




 Wine grapes are grown in arid and semi arid zones of Argentina. They have warm climate
 conditions with high summer temperatures. As vine is grown under irrigation, water resource is a
 yield restricting factor and it competes with some increasing demand usages. Besides, the agro-
 ecological conditions of these regions (soil and climate) define a major vegetative expression of
 the vineyard. Such features together with mostly used trellis systems and a high foliar surface
 exposed to light generate water requirement conditions greater than those cited by world
 bibliography. This work was undertaken to know the water requirement in vertical shoot position
 (VSP) trellis system vineyard grown in warm climate conditions, in order to obtain the crop
 coefficients (Kc).

 The experiment was conducted between 2003 and 2008 in a VSP trellis system cv. Syrah
 vineyard located at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) Experimental
 Station, San Juan, Argentina. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated using the water
 balance equation (ETc= P+R-D-ΔH). Irrigation (R), rain (P) and deep percolation (D) water
 amount were measured. D was quantified with three drainage volumetric lysimeters, with two
 plants each, set in the inner part of the vineyard. Soil water variation (ΔH) was considered null
 since soil was constantly kept above field capacity. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was
 estimated with a Type A evaporation pan method.

 The mean crop cycle water requirement during the 5 years evaluation was of 1297.2 mm. year-1.
 The water uptake was 9.5 mm .day-1 during the month of maximum demand. This value was
 higher than those mentioned in other world wine grapes growing areas. The uptake was 9.6 % of
 the total amount from budding to flowering; 34.7 %, from flowering to ripening, 40.5 % from
 ripening to harvest and 15.2 % from harvest to leaf fall. The initial Kc value was 0.40. Then it
 increased until January when reach its maximum (Kc=1.11). It may be inferred that the crop
 reached its highest foliar area. Kc diminished in the subsequent months although they remain
 over 1.00.

 Taken together our results suggest that Kc values published sub-estimate the vineyard water
 required under local agro-ecological conditions.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              45
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        USE OF THERMAL IMAGERY TO DETECT WATER STRESS
          DURING BERRY RIPENING IN VITIS VINIFERA L. CV.
                     CABERNET SAUVIGNON

                   A.D. Wheaton1, N.C. Cooley1, G.M. Dunn1 and I. Goodwin2
    1
        The University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, Dookie College, Victoria
                                                3647, Australia.
                       2
                        Department of Primary Industries, Tatura, Victoria 3616, Australia.
                                          awheaton@unimelb.edu.au
                                          H




 The combination of low water availability, the increasing cost of water for irrigators and the use
 of water as a lever to control yield and fruit composition has driven a need for improved
 irrigation scheduling. Remotely sensed technologies, such as canopy temperature assessment,
 offer reliable and cost effective means for doing this. Crop water stress index (CWSI) was
 assessed during a deficit irrigation experiment in central Victoria, Australia in Cabernet
 Sauvignon during berry ripening. An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of
 grapevine canopies and reference surfaces. CWSI was calculated from canopy temperature (Tc),
 a dry reference surface (Td) and a wet reference surface (Tw) using the method of Jones et al.
 (1999). Measurements were taken of grapevines irrigated at intervals or 3-4 days and those not
 irrigated for 18 days. CWSI calculated from either northern (sunlit) or southern (shaded) facing
 canopies identified differences in grapevine water status on all five occasions except on a day of
 high VPD (5.8 kPa). On this day, at time of measurement, stem water potential of both irrigated
 and non-irrigated vines was quite negative (< -1.5 MPa). The standard deviation of Tc was
 greater for southern compared to northern facing canopies and did not vary with irrigation
 treatment suggesting poor reliability of using canopy temperature of partly shaded canopies to
 detect the onset of water stress. More precise methods to identify shaded and sunlit leaves to
 improve repeatability and reliability of CWSI as a measure of vine water status are being
 investigated and will be presented and discussed in this paper.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 46
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      ESTIMATING LEAF AND STEM WATER POTENTIALS OF
     GRAPEVINE USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: AN
     APPLICATION FOR PRECISION IRRIGATION SCHEDULING

      Roberta De Bei1, Daniel Cozzolino2, Wendy Sullivan1, Wies Cynkar2, Sigfredo
                   Fuentes1, Robert Dambergs3 and Steve Tyerman1
      1
       The University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Plant Research Centre, Waite
                                 Campus, Glen Osmond SA 5064, Australia
 2
   The Australian Wine Research Institute. Waite Road, Urrbrae. PO Box 197, Glen Osmond SA 5064, Fax:
                                       ++ 61 8 8303 6601, Australia
    3
      The Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of
                       Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia
                                     Hroberta.debei@adelaide.edu.au


 The amount of water available for irrigation is declining worldwide due to climate change, which
 makes imperative the development of novel irrigation methods that minimize unproductive water
 use. Therefore fast and accurate measurements of plant water status are needed. Midday leaf and
 stem water potentials are the most direct and relevant measurements that indicate plant water
 status for irrigation purposes. The common methods of measuring midday leaf and stem water
 potentials using the pressure chamber technique have been assessed for use as rapid methods in
 grapevine, but the measurements are, in fact, labour intensive, and the leaf water status within a
 canopy is variable, requiring many measures to be made. In remote sensing studies, near infrared
 (NIR) techniques have been used to predict plant water status, relying on the fact that in the NIR
 region (730-2300 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, reflectance at different wavelengths is
 dependent on the amount of water stored in leaves. This study reports multivariate analysis of the
 NIR absorption spectrum over the wavelength range 1100-1830 nm, correlated with
 physiological measures of water potentials in pot and field grown Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon
 and Chardonnay grapevines. For calibration purposes, leaves were measured on both the adaxial
 and abaxial surfaces using a portable NIR spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpec® III, 350-1800
 nm). Midday leaf and stem water potentials were determined on the same leaves used for the
 NIR spectra collection. Better correlations between predicted and measured water potentials
 were obtained when spectra were collected on the abaxial surface. The best calibration obtained
 yielded a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.92 (SECV= 0.09 MPa) between predicted and measured
 stem water potential for Shiraz. In this study we have demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy offers
 a rapid, accurate, cost-effective and non destructive way of measuring plant water potential that
 can be used for precision irrigation management purposes.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                47
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     WIND SPEED AFFECTS DROUGHT STRESS MONITORING IN
       MANGO AND LONGAN BY THERMAL PHOTOGRAPHY

           Wolfram Spreer1, Winai Wiriya-Alongkorn2, Klaus Spohrer1, Somchai
                           Ongprasert3 and Joachim Müller1
            1
             University of Hohenheim, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Stuttgart, Germany
                    2
                      Mae Jo University, Department of Horticulture, Chiang Mai, Thailand
          3
            Mae Jo University, Department of Soil Resources and Environment, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                                       H spreerwo@uni-hohenheim.de


 The remote sensing of drought stress in plants is increasingly important in irrigation planning.
 Especially the use of thermal photography holds a big potential. However, the practical
 application is often limited by solid calibration data and exactly defined threshold values. These
 data is crop specific as the reaction to drought stress varies among different plant species.

 In this study drought tolerant mango trees (Mangifera indica, L.) and drought sensitive longan
 trees (Dimocarpus longan, Lour.) were submitted to a drying cycle under controlled conditions
 by complete withdrawal of irrigation water and compared to a well watered control. Drought
 stress reactions were monitored in terms of pre-dawn leaf water potential, stomatal resistance
 and change in soil water content. Trees were kept under shelter, so they were not exposed to
 direct radiation. Thermo images were taken every hour and the average canopy temperature was
 set into relation to wet and a dry reference to determine the threshold value for drought stress for
 both tree species. After establishment of drought stress, wind was applied at different levels and
 the changes in canopy temperature measured in a one-minute interval.

 The temperature in both, treatment and control, changed quickly under the influence of wind. At
 a low wind speed there were still differences visible. On the thermo images it was possible to
 determine the stressed treatment based on the changes in temperature of the reference surfaces.
 At higher levels of wind, the cooling effect was so strong that differences between treatment and
 control were not visible. It was shown that thermographic measurements for drought stress
 detection are very sensitive to wind. Even the use of reference surfaces does not enable the
 distinction between stressed and unstressed trees under influence of wind.

 Keywords: Mangifera indica, Dimocarpus longan, leaf water potential, stomatal resistance,
 chlorophyll fluorescence




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                48
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  ELECTRICAL SIGNAL MEASUREMENTS IN AVOCADO TREES:
   A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR MONITORING PHYSIOLOGICAL
          RESPONSES TO SOIL WATER CONTENT?

            Pilar M. Gil 1,2, Luis Gurovich3, Bruce Schaffer4, Julio Alcayaga5 and
                                      Rodrigo Iturriaga6
               1
                 Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chorrillos 86, La Cruz. Chile.
                2
               Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile.
     3
       Departamento de Fruticultura y Enología. Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia
                          Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile.
     4
       Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 18905 S.W. 280 Street, Homestead,
                                                Florida 33031, USA.
    5
      Laboratorio de Fisiología Celular, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de
                                         Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
     6
       Laboratorio de Neurobiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de
                                         Chile, Portugal 49, Santiago, Chile
                                               H    pgil@inia.cl



 Monitoring soil water content coupled with phytomonitoring techniques have been shown to be
 good tools for irrigation management in avocado orchards. There are many well-tested devices
 for monitoring soil moisture in orchards but options for measuring plant water status are limited.
 The objective of this study was to determine if measuring voltage differences between roots and
 leaves can be used as a technique to measure plant water status related to soil water content.
 Root and shoot voltage differences were monitored in young ‘Hass’ avocado trees grafted onto
 clonal rootstocks grown in containers, and in young seedling ‘Mexicola’ avocado trees grown
 hydroponically, both experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. In container-grown
 ‘Hass’ avocado trees, root and shoot voltage differences were initially measured for about 2
 hours to determine steady state conditions. Plants were then exposed to cycles of soil drying and
 re-watering. In seedling ‘Mexicola’ trees, electrical signals were measured for at least 75 min in
 control plants and plants exposed to simulated drought stress. The extracellular electrical
 potential difference between the base of the trunk and the leaf petiole was continuously
 monitored after exposing plants to treatments. Results indicated that in ‘Hass’ avocado trees, a
 change in soil water content induced by root drying and re-watering was accompanied by a slow
 change in the electrical signal at the leaf petiole which was greatest after 52 and 32 minutes for
 root drying and re-watering, respectively. This was related to a decrease in stomatal conductance
 (gs) of plants exposed to drought. Also, in hydroponic conditions, significant voltage differences
 occurred in plants exposed to drought simulated by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG
 6000) to the hydroponic medium resulting also in a decrease in gs. These results suggest that it
 may be possible to use voltage differences measurements as a technique for monitoring
 physiological responses to soil water content.

 Keywords: phytomonitoring, electrical signal, soil water content, Persea americana, water
 stress.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 49
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           QUANTIFYING THE ART: INSTRUMENTS IN DEFICIT
                             IRRIGATION

                        L.L. Bissey1, J.L. Smith2, K. Umiker3, D.R. Cobos1
                    1
                  Decagon Devices, Inc. 2365 NE Hopkins Court, Pullman, WA 99163 USA
                2
                USDA-ARS 215 Johnson Hall Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164
                                     3
                                      Umiker Vineyard, Lewiston, ID
                                         Hlauren@decagon.com



 Specialty crops such as olives, wine grapes, and almonds often utilize deficit irrigation to
 improve fruit quality. The strategy behind deficit irrigation is to water stress the crop at
 critical periods during the growing season. Properly managed, deficit irrigation can
 improve fruit quality by increasing sugar content, color, and other desired organoleptic
 qualities, while lowering incidence of certain diseases. Despite the potential for higher
 crop value, many growers are reluctant to utilize deficit irrigation because of the risks
 associated with the practice, including lower yield, injury or death of the crop, and an
 increase in the intensity of crop management. While many tools are available to growers
 to optimize yield, few tools exist for use in managing a deficit irrigation regime. The
 goal of this research was to determine if irrigation scheduling instrumentation such as
 Decagon soil moisture sensors and leaf porometers could be utilized in deficit irrigation
 scheduling.
 Our presentation will explore our first growing season of data from Umiker Vineyard in
 Lewiston, Idaho, USA. The current deficit irrigation regime utilizes weather data as well
 as visual symptoms of crop water stress. While this year’s deficit irrigation strategy will
 not utilize data from the soil moisture sensors or the porometer, we hope to create a
 baseline to work from for subsequent years’ irrigation strategy. Volumetric water
 content sensors and soil water potential sensors were installed in soils at a depth of two
 feet and four feet in a block of Merlot vines at Umiker Vineyard in April, 2009. Stomatal
 conductance measurements were taken biweekly in the same variety. At the time that
 this abstract was submitted, large-scale deficit irrigation for the growing season had not
 begun. However preliminary tests of well-water vines had 100% higher stomatal
 conductance values than water stressed vines suggesting future promise in deficit
 irrigation tools.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            50
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CROP WATER STRESS INDEX
   AND IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLE IN A
     LOAMY SOIL: A CASE STUDY IN SOUTHERN ROMANIA

                           Cr. Paltineanu 1, E. Chitu 2, N. Tanasescu 2
    1
     Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, comuna Valu lui Traian, str. Pepinierei no. 1, district
                   Constanta, Romania, Fax: 40 241/231187 , Telephone: 40 241/231300,
     2
      Research Institute for Fruit Growing, Pitesti – Maracineni, Pitesti, Romania, Fax: 40 248/278477,
                                         Telephone: 40 248/278066;
                                      cristian_paltineanu@yahoo.com
                                      H




 The paper describes the correlations between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and both the
 soil moisture content (SMC) and the irrigation water depth (ID) in a loamy soil from southern
 Romania. The soil has clay contents of 30 – 35 % g g-1 throughout the 0 – 1 m depth profile, and
 bulk density ranges from 1.40 to 1.49 g cm-3. The land slope is from 0 to 2 % and the water table
 varies between 4 m and 6 m depth. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni,
 southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with Idared
 cultivar grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation
 between the crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit for apple under
 the soil and local climate conditions of Pitesti-Maracineni, Romania. It is highly significant. The
 CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. Irrigation was usually applied at CWSI values from
 0.20 to 0.50. SMC varied with time, usually between field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP)
 in the research treatments during July and August, the months of maximum irrigation
 requirements. The correlation between CWSI and the soil moisture content as both absolute
 values and as a fraction of the available soil moisture storage capacity is inverse and highly
 significant. However, the coefficient of determination is low due to the multitude of factors
 involved. The correlation between CWSI of apple trees and ID is represented by a highly
 significant linear regression equation but with a relatively low value of R2 (0.414). Soil
 variability and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical
 recommendation in irrigation scheduling is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need
 for application of 500 to 700 m3 ha-1 irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  51
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          YOUNG APPLE TREES RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS.
                        EARLY RESULTS

                  M. García Petillo, L. Puppo, P. Morales and R. Hayashi
  Departamento de Suelos y Aguas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Avda. E. Garzón
                                   780, 12900 Montevideo, Uruguay.
                                       Hmgarciap@fagro.edu.uy


 The fruit production zone in the south of Uruguay presents very limited water resources so that
 growers must develop strategies to maximize the return of applied water. In the winter of 2006
 an experiment with apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. “Royal Gala” grafted on M9, was
 installed in a frame of 4 x 1,25 m. From the 2007/2008 season four irrigation treatments were
 applied, consisting of increasing levels of stress, covering the 100, 66, 33% of the ETc and
 without irrigation, only rain fed. By mid-December, the xilematic potential already presented
 significant differences (p=0.05) between the non-irrigated and the irrigated treatments, but with
 no differences amongst them. A month later, differences between all the treatments were shown.
 The vegetative growth, both the length of the buds and the trunk section still did not present
 differences between the treatments by the end of the summer of 2009. Nevertheless, the weekly
 increase of the fruits size showed significant differences between treatments, being smaller in the
 non irrigated trees in all the dates. The first harvest, obtained in 2009, showed significant
 differences in the yield between the two more irrigated treatments and the non irrigated one. The
 treatment irrigated to 33% of the ETc had an intermediate production. The yield differences were
 due not only to a greater number by tree but also, mainly, to a larger size of fruits. Indeed, the
 three irrigated treatments had significantly bigger fruits compared to the non irrigated, but
 without differences amongst them. These early results suggest that, faced with water shortage,
 irrigation deficit could be handled covering only 66% of the ETc without affecting neither the
 production nor the structure of the trees.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             52
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      EFFECTS OF REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON PEAR
        TREES CV. CONFERENCE UNDER TEMPERATE ZONE
                         CLIMATE

      Janssen P., Elsen F, Vandendriessche H.1, Deckers T., Schoofs H. Verjans W.2
                           1
                           Soil Service of Belgium growing Herlee, Belgium
                      2
                       PC Fruit Research Station for gfruit . Sin –Truiden, Belgium
                                           pjanssens@bdb.be
                                           H




 To prevent drought stress, pear trees (Pyrus Communis, cv. ‘Conference’) in Belgium and the
 Netherlands, under temperate conditions are equipped with a drip irrigation system. To
 determine the optimal Soil Water Tension (SWT) threshold a field experiment was accomplished
 in a commercial orchard during two successive years (2007-2008). The objective is to test
 Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) during the shoot growth period. The orchard was situated on a
 silt loam soil, and was composed of 11 year old pear trees cv.’Conference’ on Quince Adams
 rootstock. The trees were trained in a free spindle system with a planting distance of 3.50 m x
 1.25 m. One sided root pruning was preformed one month before full bloom. Each year two
 different irrigation regimes where accomplished. In the control treatment (T1) during the whole
 growing cycle SWT was maintained above -40 kPa. In the second treatment (T2) SWT reached
 -60 kPa up to -80 kPa during shoot growth. Each treatment consisted of minimal three
 randomised blocks of 4 trees. Irrigation was scheduled with the aid of a soil water balance model
 calibrated by granular matrix sensors (Watermark) and gravimetric soil moisture determination.
 Based on the data of a nearby weather station, Reference Evapotranspiration (ET0) was
 calculated with the Penman-Monteith method. Tree water status was examined by Stem Water
 Potential (SWP) readings and sap flow measurements (Thermal Dissipation Probes). At harvest
 yield, fruit size and fruit quality of T2 were not different. Tree water status was not influenced by
 the depressed SWT. These findings illustrate the possibilities of RDI, on a silt loam soil under
 temperate climate conditions.

 Keywords: Pyrus Communis, pear cv. ‘Conference’, root pruning, drip irrigation, Watermark
 sensors, Stem Water Potential (SWP), sap flow, Soil Water Tension (SWT).




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               53
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES ON
       APPLE (MALUS DOMESTICA). PHYSIOLOGICAL AND
                  PRODUCTIVE RESULTS

        Joan Girona, Jesús del Campo, Nuria Bonastre, Carles Paris, Merce Mata,
                          Amadeu Arbones and Jordi Marsal.
                Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Irrigation Technology,
                             Centre UdL-IRTA. Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
                                             H joan.girona@irta.es



 Apple is one of the species traditionally considered not suitable for applying RDI strategies or
 any type of plant water deficits without affecting final yield, especially affecting fruit size
 because of the seasonal fruit weight rectilinear pattern shown from few days after fruit set to
 harvest. However, in the recent years several studies have shown that this idea is not absolutely
 correct and the negative effects of any plant water deficits will depend on when happens, the
 intensity and the duration. The present study wants to add some new information to this topic,
 analyzing the effects of applying four different irrigation strategies.

  In a 0.5 ha apple plot located in Lleida (Spain) four irrigation strategies have been applied for
 three years. The irrigation treatments were: Control = Full irrigation during the whole season;
 RDI = like Control, except from July 15 to harvest ( 15 – 20 September) where 50% of Control
 was used to schedule irrigation; SSDI 50% = where the total amount used for the whole year was
 50% of Control and the irrigation was scheduled as IR = Control * 0.5 * Kdef, where Kdef was
 1.15 from fruit set to 15 July and 0.80 from 15th July to harvest; and finally SSDI 33% = defined
 to use 1/3 of the Control irrigation water and scheduled like SSDI 50%.

 Although at the moment of elaborate this abstract the harvest of third experimental year is not
 already done, all the results indicate that RDI applied as defined on this report do not reduce fruit
 size and yield, while both SSDI strategies reduces drastically fruit size. Seasonal evolution of
 Stem water potential clearly shows the reduction of applied irrigation water in all the treatments.
 On the report yield and fruit quality effects of these irrigation strategies will be presented as well
 as the physiological parameters to identify the water stress intensity and the possible
 accumulated effects.

 Keywords: crop water use, irrigation scheduling, Malus domestica, stem water potential




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                   54
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AND NITROGEN
        FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY IN “GALA” APPLE
                               CULTIVAR


                                          P. Campi1 and C. García2
                    1
                       Agr. Eng. Posgradute Agronomy Student. Faculty of Agronomy. Uruguay.
        2
            Scientist of Fruit Tree Program. National Research Institute of Agriculture of Uruguay (INIA).
                                               Hcgarcia@inia.org.uy


 Fertilizers application in irrigation water (Fertigation) is considered to be an efficient method of
 fertilizing fruit trees, but some information is needed on the relationship between irrigation depth
 and nitrogen (N). The objective of this work was to know the response of apple tree to different
 levels of irrigation depth based on maximum crop evapotranspiration (Etc) and N fertilization.
 The experiment was carried out in the 2008-09 summer growing season in a row spacing of 4 m
 x 1 m (2500 pl ha-1) on plants of apple var. “Gala” seven years old on M9 rootstock in a silt
 loam soil. The experimental design was split plots with two factors, with four complete
 randomized blocks. A main plot was irrigation depth according Etc: 0% (only rainfall), 50%,
 75% and 100% of the Etc, and a submain plot was three N fertilization levels: 0 (control), 44 and
 88 gr. of N per plant. Soil water content (0-20 cm of soil depth), NO3-N concentration in soil,
 leaf minerals content (N, P, K, Ca), trunk section diameter, fruit total number and weight, fruit
 volume, fruit colour, fruit pressure, acidity and soluble solid were determined. At pre-harvested
 were observed different leaf mineral contents according irrigation depth. Results indicate that it
 was a significant yield response to the supplemental irrigation application. Yield at 100 % Etc
 reached 39 t ha-1, non-irrigation plants yielded 29 t ha-1. Fruit diameters ranged between 71.45
 mm to 62.7 mm from 100% Etc and non-irrigation treatments respectively. It was not observed
 differences in N levels on yield and fruit quality parameters.

 Keywords: growing fruit, nitrate, evapotranspiration, irrigation depth




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                     55
                             VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     COMBINED USE OF PLANT SENSORS TO OPERATE HIGH
   PRECISION HIGH FREQUENCY IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN
                     FRUIT ORCHARDS

                         Luis A. Gurovich and Francisco Rivera
                  Universidad Católica de Chile - P. O. Box 30622 Santiago – Chile
                                         Hlgurovic@puc.cl



 The combined use of real-time phytomonitor sensors is discussed in relation to optimal
 and precise high frequency irrigation scheduling system operation in fruit orchards.
 Incorporation of this management strategy requires the adoption of intensive information
 and communication technology in data gathering and transmission, as well as an
 artificial intelligence modeling approach, based on fuzzy logics, for on-line data
 interpretation and its use as a decision support system to the activation and control of the
 irrigation equipment at the field.

 Integration of plant sensor data with data obtained in automatic micro-weather stations
 for precise ETp determinations and the use of real time soil moisture / tension
 measurements is also required for this quantitative approach on fruit orchard irrigation
 management. Plant sensors considered are: highly sensitive electromechanical
 dendrometers, stomata conductance probes, sap flow devises, electric potential
 microelectrodes, CO2 assimilation and gas exchange portable equipment, leaf thickness
 probes, xylematic water potential micro transducers based on thermocouple psicrometry,
 infrared differential thermometry, remote and onsite leaf reflectance and spectral
 electromagnetic analysis, leaf area index evolution by PAR probes, as well as TV based
 rhizotron quantitative observation.

 Information obtained with these sensors, combined with continuous control of the
 irrigation system performance (pressure and flow control at sensitive points along the
 hydraulic net) and actual emitter uniformity discharge can lead to significant water and
 energy savings, crop yield and fruit quality sustainable optimization, resulting of a
 constant soil water availability condition related to actual tree ET, associated to optimal
 root system aeration and soil salinity control.

 Keywords: Water regime optimization, phytomonitoring, soil – plant – climate and irrigation
 system performance sensors.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            56
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      DENDROMETRIC MEASUREMENTS IN WINE GRAPE (VITIS
    VINIFERA, L.; CVS. TEMPRANILLO, CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND
       MACABEO) UNDER REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION

                A. Montoro1, R. López-Urrea1, P. López-Fuster1, E. Fereres2
                       1
                        Instituto Técnico Agronómico Provincial, Albacete, Spain
                          2
                           IAS-CSIC and University Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain
                                        H meli.itap@dipualba.es


 Measurements of trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF) were carried out in 2004 and 2006 in a wine
 grape (Vitis vinífera L.) experiment aimed at establishing criteria for irrigation scheduling based
 on TDF readings.. The experiment had three cultivars (Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon and
 Macabeo) under four Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) regimes. . The results of the first year
 showed that the evolution of maximum trunk diameter (MXTD) was a good indicator of vine
 water status before veraisson in the different treatments and varieties. By contrast, the maximum
 daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) was not such a good r indicator of water stress, as no differences
 were found among RDI treatments, although they were highly significant (P<0,001) among
 varieties.

 In the second year of the experiment, only the two most extreme irrigation treatments were
 monitored with a double number of LVDT sensors to focus on stress detection. The results
 confirmed those of 2004, with differences in water status (as measured with the pressure
 chamber) not well correlated with the MDS measurements, while the MDS differences among
 cultivars were confirmed to be highly significant and related to the inherent water relations of
 each cultivar. It was concluded that, in winegrapes, TDF measurements do not lead to the direct
 assessment of vine water status and therefore may not be best suited for the development of
 irrigation scheduling procedures.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              57
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  IS THE USE OF DENDROMETER A USEFUL TOOLS FOR TABLE
              GRAPE IRRIGATION SCHEDULING?

                Jaime Otarola1, Gabriel Sellés1, Raúl Ferreyra1 Herman Silva 2
                                   1
                                    Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile
  2
      Laboratorio Relación Suelo Agua Planta, Departamento de Producción Agrícola. Facultad de Ciencias
                                     Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile
                                              Hgselles@inia.cl


 Electronic advances in the past few years have allowed the development of dendrometers which
 measure the variation in the diameter of trunk and fruit with a high degree of precision. A
 number of authors have suggested that the daily variation in the diameter of plant organs could
 be used as a tool for irrigation scheduling in many fruit trees.

 This study used electronic dendrometers of variable to study the interaction between trunk and
 berry growth in three table grape varieties , in different growing seasons: Crimson Seedless in
 2004-2005; Thompson Seedless, in its own feet, in 2006-2007, and Flame and Thompson
 Seedless, grafted on Freedom rootstock, in 2007-2008, in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile. The
 objective was to determine if trunk diameter variation could be e used as an indicator of the
 plant water status for irrigation purposes.

 In the three varieties we observed that trunk growth stopped at berry veraison, and become
 negative at berry maturity. On a daily scale we found temporal differences between the growth
 of the fruit and the trunk. We also found positive effect of the rootstock on trunk , especially in
 the exponential phase of stem growth.

 The strong interaction between the trunk and berry growth shows a drawback in using the trunk
 growth rate as criteria to decide when to irrigate in grapes of the Crimson, Thompson and Flame
 varieties. The daily trunk growth could be used as criteria for irrigation scheduling only until
 berry veraison..




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                58
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   SIMPLE MODEL TO ESTIMATE NET RADIATION IN CENTRAL
      ZONE OF CHILE FROM NOAA IMAGES AND DIGITAL
                   ELEVATION MODEL

   Luis Morales-Salinas1, Luz Alicia Cárdenas-Jirón2, Esteban González-Rodriguez1
    1
        Department of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Natural Resources, Department of Agronomy,
                                          University of Chile, Chile.
           2
             Department of Urbanism, School of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Chile, Chile.
                lmorales@uchile.cl , lcardena@uchile.cl , egonzalez@renare.uchile.cl
                H                   H   H                   H   H




 A simple method was developed for estimating net radiation in the Central Zone of Chile. The
 method is based on the modification of the PINSOL model (USDA, 2003), introducing the
 effects of the atmosphere, topography and the surface condition. The model was calibrated with
 data from measurements taken at monitoring stations in several locations within the studied area.
 The surface albedo was estimated using reflectance images from the NOAA-AVHRR sensor.
 From this method it is possible to build monthly average maps of net and global solar radiation.
 The optical effect of the atmosphere is estimated from average values of cloud cover in tenths,
 characteristic of the Central Zone of Chile. The results of this estimation show an improvement
 compared to those obtained by classical interpolation methods between weather stations.

 Keywords: Solar radiation, PINSOL model.

 Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Domeyko Initiative, University of Chile.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               59
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       FLUORESCENCE OF THE CHLOROPHYLL A IN CASHEW
      TREE, MEASURE WITH AND WITHOUT USE OF ADAPTING
              CLIP OF THE ORIGINATOR OF LIGHT

      Rossini Daniel1, Karina Guedes Correia2, Pedro Dantas Fernandes3, Hans Raj
                 Gheyi3, Tatiana Silva Santos4, Karla Barboza Pereira5
                             1
                                Engº Agrônomo, Cruz das Almas-BA, Brasil
                                  2
                                    Bióloga, Campina Grande-PB, Brasil
                             3
                               Engº Agrônomo, Campina Grande-PB, Brasil
                                4
                                  Estatística, Campina Grande-PB, Brasil
                       5
                         Estudante de Engª Agricola, Campina Grande-PB, Brasil
                                         H rossini.pi@gmail.com


 It was aimed at to accomplish a comparative analysis of the fluorescence of the chlorophyll the
 in precocious dwarfish cashew tree, measure with the portable " fluorometer PEA " with and
 without use of the adapting clip of the light originator, seeking to test as it would be the
 reduction in the values of the variables: minimum fluorescence (Fo), variable (Fv) of the
 chlorophyll the, maxim (Fm) and the efficiency fotossintetics (Fv/Fm). The work was
 accomplished at the house of vegetation of DEAg/CTRN/UFCG. The evaluations were made in
 plants of cashew tree precocious dwarfish clone CCP-76 cultivated in lisimeters, on 06.04.2007
 and 10.04.2007. The readings were accomplished after a period of darkness of 1 hour, using the
 determination technique, alive in, to 10:00 h, being used the portable fluorometer PEA (Plant
 Efficiency Analyse, Hansatech Norfolk, UK). The factorial arrangement was used 2x2x2,
 represented by two irrigation sheets (L1 that corresponds to 40% of the consumption of the
 culture and L5 to 100%), 2 clips (measures accomplished with and without the use of the
 adapting clip of the light originator) and two evaluation times, in a design in blocks randomized.
 The interval of time that the plants were submitted to the sheets L1 and L5 was not enough to
 establish a deficit water with damage to the apparatus photossintetic; The parameters associated
 to the emission of the fluorescence were not altered in the cultivation conditions found; The non
 use of the adapting clip of the light originator implicates in a smaller precision in the readings.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            60
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                POST HARVEST DEFICIT IRRIGATION DECREASES
                  SUBSEQUENT FRUIT NUMBER IN T204 PEACH

                                    I. Goodwin and R. Bruce
                     Department of Primary Industries. Tatura, Victoria. Australia
                                     ian.goodwin@dpi.vic.gov.au
                                     H




 Drought has substantially reduced irrigation allocation to Australian peach growers in the past 3
 years. Orchardists have paid record high prices for temporary irrigation water to maintain tree
 health and produce yields to generate an income. Many have cut-off irrigation post harvest to
 limit input costs and have experienced variable productivity outcomes the following season. The
 objective of this study was to investigate the effects of post harvest water deficits on subsequent
 yield and fruit quality disorders. A field experiment was established immediately after harvest in
 a commercial ‘T204’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) orchard in the Goulburn Valley region
 in 2008. Irrigation treatments were 50, 80, 100, 150 and 190 % of grower irrigation practice. The
 total amount of irrigation applied post harvest to the 100 % treatment was 173 mm. Rainfall
 during the post harvest period (early February to the end of April) was negligible with one
 effective rainfall event (15 mm) on days after harvest (DAH) = 49. ETo during the post harvest
 period was 341 mm. Average leaf water potential for the post harvest period was -2.08, -2.05, -
 1.86, -1.79 and -1.74 MPa for the 50, 80, 100, 150 and 190 % treatments, respectively. In the
 subsequent season, flower number per lateral tended to be less and the duration of flowering was
 greater on the deficit treatments. There was no difference in flower bud dry weight. Fruit number
 per lateral prior to thinning was substantially less and even after commercial thinning there was a
 significant decrease in fruit number per tree in the deficit treatments. There was no effect of the
 deficit treatments on fruit firmness, soluble solids or the number of defective fruit (split stones,
 twins or deep sutures). Canning yield was above 90 % in the deficit treatments whereas the 100
 and 190 % treatments failed to meet canning size requirement suggesting these treatments were
 over-cropped. Results from successive post harvest deficit irrigation will be presented and
 discussed.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              61
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND
  SUBSEQUENT RECOVERY OF YOUNG JAPANESE PLUM TREES

                                  D.S. Intrigliolo and J.R. Castel
    Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Centro Desarrollo Agricultura Sostenible, Apartado
                                        oficial 46113, Moncada, Spain
                                          H intrigliolo_die@gva.es


 Different deficit irrigation strategies were carried out during seven consecutive years in a young
 Japanese plum drip irrigated orchard in Spain. The long term effects of these treatments are
 summarized. By the end of the seventh year, the water restrictions did not lead to any soil salt
 accumulation in the dripper zone, a concern when deficit irrigation is applied in the long term.
 However, the water restriction lead to smaller trees (28% in canopy shaded area). This had a
 carry over effect on yield which was reduced by an 18% in the eighth season, when trees were
 fully watered, compared to the control always well irrigated ones. In addition, the more severe
 water restrictions lead to a lower concentration of root starch content and there was a negative
 correlation between starch concentration and bud fruitfulness. This result is of physiological
 significance, but it had not agronomical consequences as fruit thinning, which is a commercial
 practice in this species, offsets the initial differences in fruiting intensity. After the seven years of
 deficit irrigation, several watering and crop level regimes were employed in order to accelerate
 the recovery of the vegetative growth. The more successful strategy was increasing the wetting
 zone by adding drippers with water application up to 133% of crop evapotranspiration. This was
 particularly effective when carried out together with lowering the crop level in order to alleviate
 the vegetative versus fruit growth competition. After two years of applying this strategy the
 previously deficit irrigated trees were able to obtain a similar tree size than the always fully
 irrigated ones. This was also consequence of the pruning practice that tended to level off
 differences between treatments. The results provide for some insights on how to manage the
 watering regime when a scenario of full water availability follows a drought cycle.

 Keywords: crop load, Prunus salicina, stem water potential, yield




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 62
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF PEACH FOR PROCESSING IN A
     SOIL WITH LOW AVAILABLE WATER HOLDING CAPACITY

                Joseph Rufat1, Xavier Domingo2, Miquel Pascual3, Joseph M. Villar4
                                                1
                                                  IRTA,
                                 2
                                 DMACS-Universitat de Lleida/Lab-ferrer
                                      3
                                        DHBJ-Universitat de Lleida
                                    4
                                     DMACS-Universitat de Lleida
                                        Heulogio.lopez@uclm.es


 Different strategies of irrigation and nitrogen management have been applied to fit industry
 requirements and farmer’s goals. A 4 year field experiment (2006-2009) has been conducted on a
 commercial peach orchard, with mechanical harvesting. Three irrigation strategies were
 evaluated according to fruit growth stages: full irrigation during all the growing season,
 irrigation restriction during stage II (70% ETc reduction) and irrigation restriction during stage
 III (30% ETc reduction), combined with three nitrogen treatments: 0, 60 and 120 kg N/ha. The
 peach cultivar was Andross on GF677 at 5 x 2.8 m planted in 1999. The soil type was shallow,
 loam, well drained and had a petrocalcic horizon within 45 cm of the soil surface (Xeric
 Petrocalcids). Total available water holding capacity was 49.7 mm. A randomised complete-
 block design with four replications and a total of 36 elemental plots were established. Regulated
 deficit irrigation (RDI) increased significantly the water productivity (applied on stage II and on
 stage III) and the sugar content (RDI applied on stage III) without affecting the farmer profit
 (yield). The wet year 2007 had the highest irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) (20.9 kg dry
 mater fruit /ha/mm of irrigation water) while the drier year 2006 produces the fruits with higher
 soluble solids concentration (SSC), 12,15%. The highest IWUE was obtained with 60 kgN/ha
 and restricting irrigation during stage III. A moderate reduction of water use (30% during stage
 III) improves IWUE, SSC without affecting fruit yield (fresh and dry matter). A moderate N
 application (60 kg N/ha) provides the maximum IWUE and yield, and didn’t affect the SSC.
 There is a clear year effect on IWUE and on dry matter fruit yield.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             63
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  EVALUATION OF PEACH TREE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS
   BY LIDAR SYSTEM. RELATION WITH WATER IRRIGATION
                 STRATEGIES IN PEACH

           Miquel Pascual1, Josep Rufat2, Josep M. Villar3, Joan Ramon Rossell4,
                              RicardoSanz4 and Jaume Arnó4
                                       1
                                         DHBJ. Universitat de Lleida
                                  2
                                   IRTA. Area de Tecnologia del Reg
                                     3
                                       DMACS. Universitat de Lleida
                                   4
                                     DEAGROF. Universitat de Lleida
                                         H josep.Rufat@irta.cat



 An important issue in fruit tree experiments is that related with canopy volume and shape pattern
 and their effect on yield, fruit quality and other plant physiological parameters. The aim of this
 study was to evaluate the differences on canopy volume and shape in a peach irrigation
 experiment. Canopy volume and tree shape were evaluated by scanning trees with a Light
 Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system, a non destructive system based on laser technology.
 RDI (regulated deficit irrigation) vs fully irrigated trees were compared. Tree volume and its
 vertical projection (equivalent to midday shadow projection) measured by LIDAR system
 showed a significant correlation with tree fruit number, yield and fruit quality (i.e. fruit weight).
 A relationship was obtained between measured LIDAR vertical projection and midday PAR
 interception measured by a PAR probe, suggesting a good performance of LIDAR as a way to
 evaluate fruit tree production capacity and some physiological aspects related to light
 interception. Moreover, that tree volume estimation system showed a high performance when it
 is used as a component for statistical analysis of models that include factors affecting tree
 growth, like irrigation water.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              64
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION STRATEGY INTEGRATED
        IN A SUSTAINABLE ORCHARD MANAGEMENT

                Bartolomeo Dichio1, Giuseppe Montanaro1, Cristos Xiloyannis1
                  1
                  Dipartimento di Scienze dei Sistemi Colturali, Forestali e dell'Ammbiente,
                           Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
                                       bartolomeo.dichio@unibas.it
                                       H




 Sustainable irrigation in arid regions requires special attention to optimize the management of all
 components of the orchard system in order to increase water use efficiency and reduce the
 environmental impact (e.g. soil salinization, degradation of ground/surface waters).

 Currently in most of the orchards in Southern Italy, due to unsolved issues related to water
 irrigation use (e.g. price, storage and reserves, competition with urban/industrial users, restricted
 use of non-conventional water, etc.) application of water is empirically managed. This misused
 of water increases the environmental cost of food production.

 This paper reports experimental results concerning practicable interventions able to save water
 and maximizing water use efficiency in a peach orchard.

 The 4-year study was carried out in Southern Italy in a peach orchard, where the conventional
 orchard management (C) (soil tillage, mineral fertilizers, empirical irrigation) adopted by local
 farmers was compared with the sustainable orchard management (S) (not tillage, cover crop,
 organic fertilizer and sustainable irrigation) . Treatments were applied to about 1 ha plot each. In
 plot under the S practices was adopted the postharvest regulated deficit irrigation and specific
 crop coefficients were introduced to calculate the plant needs.

 Results demonstrated that the S techniques allowed increasing the soil water holding capacity
 and saving on average 1,300 m3 ha-1 of water per year without affecting the yield and the quality.
 We conclude that adequate knowledge on orchard management exists for implementing
 strategies that focus on sustainable irrigation within Peach tree orchards.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  65
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                SENSITIVITY AND VARIABILITY OF WATER STATE
                     INDICATORS IN HASS AVOCADO TREES

          R. Ferreyra1, G. Selles2, P. Maldonado1, J. Celedón1, P. Gil1, C. Barrera1,
                              J. Haberland 3 and M. Martinez 3
      1
       Instituto Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional V Región, Chorrillos 86, La Cruz; Chile
  2
   Instituto Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional La Platina. Santa Rosa 11610, Santiago, Chile.
    3
      Escuela de Agronomía U de Chile. Santa Rosa 11315 Santiago, Chile.Proyecto financiado INNOVA-
                                                    CORFO
                                             H. rferreyr@inia.cl .
                                                              H




 On February of 2006 in a commercial avocado orchard located in Quillota, at the central zone of
 Chile, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the sensitivity and variability of water
 state indicators in avocado trees (maximal daily contraction of the trunk, ACD), stem water
 potential (SWP) and stomatal conductance (SC). Twelve Hass avocado trees on mexicola
 rootstock planted in year 2000 were selected. They were irrigated daily by microsprinklers. Six
 trees were not irrigated for 13 days (no irrigation treatment), while the rest were normally
 irrigated (control). In the control treatment the average ACD was 69.15 µm and the average
 SWP was -0.55 Mpa. Later the treatment with no irrigation reached ACD values of 285 µm and
 SWP of -0.95 MPa.After six days since the beginning of the trial the ACD showed differences
 between the control trees and no irrigated trees, that occurred before the other indicators and the
 intensity of its response was bigger. When the SWP increased until 100%, ACD increased 236%.
 That’s meaning ACD is a sensible and an earlier indicator of the soil water decrease.ACD
 showed the biggest variability in relation to other indicators of the water status of the plant. ACD
 measures had approximately a 40% of variation coefficient, while in SWP and SC it was 12%.

 Key words: stem water potential, stomatal conductance, maximum daily contraction of the trunk.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 66
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCK ON THE RESPONSE OF ‘HASS’
               AVOCADO TO FLOODING STRESS

                        C. Fassio1, P.M. Gil2,3,B. Schaffer4, M. Castro1
    1
      Facultad de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, San Francisco s/n, La Palma
                                                Quillota, Chile.
  2
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional de Investigación La Cruz, Chorrillos 86, La
                                                  Cruz, Chile.
 3
   Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile.
   4
     Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 18905 S.W. 280 Street, Homestead, FL
                                                  33031, USA.
                                              H frutales@ucv.cl


 The effects of soil flooding on stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf chlorophyll content
 (estimated with a SPAD meter) and vegetative growth of one-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees
 (Persea Americana Mill.) grafted onto one of three different seedling rootstocks were studied in
 a greenhouse. Trees grafted onto Mexicola, Zutano or Nabal rootstock were subjected to one of
 two flooding treatments: 1) non-flooded (control) or 2) flooded for six days. After the flooding
 period, flooded plants were removed from the water, placed in the same conditions as the control
 plants and their responses were measured during a six-day recovery period. Visible symptoms of
 flooding were desiccation of the shoot apex and leaf abscission. There were no consistent
 differences between non-flooded and flooded plants for stomatal conductance or transpiration
 during the flooding period. However, during the recovery period, trees on Mexicola had higher
 stomatal conductance and transpiration and appeared more vigorous than trees on the other
 rootstocks. Root, leaf and total plant dry weights and leaf chlorophyll content were significantly
 lower for flooded than nonflooded trees. The data indicated that ‘Hass’ avocado grafted onto
 Mexicola rootstock are able to recover from six days of soil flooding better than trees grafted
 onto Zutano or Nabal rootstocks.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 67
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      DIFFERENT LEVELS OF WATER AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN
        AVOCADO TREES CV HASS DURING FOUR SEASONS AT PEUMO
                           VALLEY, CHILE

                                E. Holzapfel1, J. Jara1 , N. Valderrama1
      1
          Dpto. de Recursos Hídricos, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Universidad de Concepción-campus
                                                  Chillán, Chile
                                               Heholzapf@udec.cl



 A research study was carried out during four seasons since December 2003 to May 2007,
 in five years old avocado trees cv. Hass at Peumo Valley, Chile, within the framework of
 project FONDEF D0Ì - 1146. Its objective was to analyze the effects of two doses of
 fertilizer and four differentials levels of water application (25, 50, 75 and 100% of the
 theoretical water volume required by the plant) on the production and quality of the fruit.

 A split-plot experimental design with allocation in completely randomized blocks with
 four replications was used. Each experimental unit was made up of 6 trees in a grid of 7
 x 4 m, on a ridge of 0.6 m height and 2.3 m wide.

 The volume of water applied in the four seasons ranged between 6.600 to 10.100 m3 ha-1
 (for the treatment of 100%) and 1.600 to 3.250 m3 ha-1 (for the treatment of 25%).

 With the exception of season 2005-2006, there were no significant differences in yield
 for the doses of fertilizers. Similarly, the levels of water application did not show
 significant differences in production in every season. However, the fruit yield was highly
 variable year by year, with a minimum average of 1,450 kg ha-1 in season 2004-2005 to
 a maximum value of 40,000 kg ha-1 in season 2005-2006.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  68
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EFFECT OF ROOT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY ON SAP
  FLOW IN ‘HASS’ AVOCADO TREES ON CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS

                C.Fassio1, M.Castro1,Robert Heath2, Mary Lu Arpaia2, J. Mamani1
    1
     Facultad de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, San Francisco s/n, La Palma
                                              Quillota, Chile
      2
        Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-
                                                 0124.USA.
                                             Hfrutales@ucv.cl


 Sap flow was related to root anatomical and morphological characteristics in two-year-old ‘Hass’
 avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees grafted onto Duke 7 (D7) or Toro Canyon (TC) clonal
 rootstocks. Sap flow in each rootstock was measured with a Dynagage sap flow system using the
 heat balance technique. For each rootstock, root morphology was assessed by identifying the
 type of roots (fine roots with only primary growth or thick roots with secondary growth) and the
 root branching order. Roots were also examined histologically to determine the relative
 proportion of stele and cortex. Significant differences in the sap flow rate were found between
 rootstocks; ‘Hass’ had a 29% higher sap flow rate on D7 than on TC. Anatomical and
 morphological differences were observed between rootstocks, with D7 tending to have more
 fine roots with a greater proportion of stele then cortex compared to TC. Thus, differences in sap
 flow between clonal rootstocks of ‘Hass’ avocado appear to be related to differences in root
 anatomy and the effect of these anatomical differences on water transport.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                69
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       ESTIMATION OF DAILY ACTUAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
       OVER A MERLOT VINEYARD USING METEOROLOGICAL
           DATA IN COMBINATION WITH REFLECTANCE
                       MEASUREMENTS
                               C. Poblete-Echeverría1, S. Ortega-Farias2
    1,2
          Research and Extension Center for Irrigation and Agroclimatology (CITRA), Universidad de Talca,
                                                   Talca, Chile.
                                              H cpoblete@utalca.cl



 Accurate prediction of the daily actual evapotranspiration (ETda) of the vineyard is needed to
 estimate vine water requirements, which are used to optimize water application and grape
 quality. In this study, common algorithms used to estimate ETda from instantaneous latent heat
 flux (LEi) were evaluated using meteorological data in combination with reflectance
 measurements obtained by a hand-held multi-spectral radiometer over a drip-irrigated Merlot
 vineyard trained on a vertical shoot positioned system (VSP) under semi-arid conditions, located
 in the Talca Valley, Maule Region, Chile. Data used in this study (twenty one days) were
 collected during two consecutively growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009) in different
 phenological stages. The performance of the algorithms used to estimate the components of the
 surface energy balance was evaluated by eddy covariance system, net radiometer and soil heat
 flux plates measurements. The estimated values of daily actual evapotranspiration (ETda e) of the
 vineyard ranged between 1.7 and 4.0 mm day-1, with an average value of about 2.8 mm day-1,
 showing a good agreement with ETad values derived from eddy covariance system
 measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE) and model
 efficiency (EF) of 0.45 mm day-1, -0.02 mm day-1 and 64 %, respectively. These results validate
 the use of ground-based sensors (i.e. hand-held multi-spectral radiometer) for the estimation of
 instantaneous ETa and its extrapolation to ETda.

 Keywords: Daily actual evapotranspiration, reflectance measurements, surface energy balance,
 Eddy covariance system, Merlot vineyard.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  70
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




         REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DETERMINATION
         UNDER CLIMATIC STRESS CONDITIONS IN “PAMPA DEL
                  TAMARUGAL” ATACAMA DESERT

                                      J. Arenas1 y F. Santibáñez2
    1
        Departamento de Agricultura del Desierto y Biotecnología, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique, Chile
                 2
                   Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
                                               jarenas@unap.cl
                                               H




 Empirical equations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) have not been tested in extreme
 climatic conditions like Atacama Desert. It is possible that in highly stressed environments,
 crops can develop physiological answers in order to regulate water flux to atmosphere, changing
 expected energy partition producing errors in evapotranspiration determination from classical
 expressions.

 If we consider desert conditions, we can answer about classical methods accurate in reference
 evapotranspiration determination. Water flux to atmosphere, is not necessarily the same or it has
 a different intensity with higher radiations level and air water vapor deficit.

 In Canchones Agricultural Experimental station, located in northern Tarapacá Region form
 Chile, ET0 Penman Monteith formula was evaluated using 3 gravitational microlysimeters in
 order to measure atmosphere water loss.

 Average diurnal measuring in microlysimeter exceed in 2,4 mm (24,4 %) ET0 calculated by
 Penman Monteith. In order to decrease differences between calculated and measured ET0,
 correction coefficient (ryegrass/alfalafa) was increased from 0,7407 to 1,0, canopy resistance
 was decreased from 66,7 to 16,7 m/s, aerodynamical resistance coefficient (Ku) was decreased
 from 110 to 30, obtaining 0 mm of difference between both ET0 determination methods.

 The main environmental effect detected on ET0 was radiation, while wind velocity had a little
 effect on ET0 meaning a reduced advective effect. It was evaluated Priestley Taylor ET0
 formula, with an α coefficient of 2,06 there were no differences between both ET0
 determinations methods.

 It was evaluated Oasis effect over ET0, having almost none impact, being this behavior expected
 if we consider the reduced wind velocity effect determined over ET0.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  71
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        DEVELOPMENT OF A SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE FOR
         MODELING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF PARTIALLY
                   VEGETATED SURFACES.

                             L.O. Lagos, D. Martin and S. Irmak
                                  Universidad de Concepción, Chile.
                                        octaviolagos@udec.cl
                                        H




 In evapotranspiration (ET) modeling it is very common to represent the vegetation assuming a
 single source of energy flux at an effective height within the canopy. However when crops are
 sparse, the single source/sink of energy assumption in such models is not entirely satisfied.
 Improvements using multiple source models have been developed to estimate ET from crop
 transpiration and soil evaporation (i.e Shuttleworh and Wallace,1985; Choudhury and
 Monteith,1988 and Lagos, 2008). However evaporation from the soil has been only considered
 beneath the canopy. Soil evaporation on partially vegetated surfaces over orchards and natural
 vegetation include not only the soil under the canopy but also areas of bare soil between
 vegetation that contribute to total ET. Soil evaporation can account for 25-45% of annual ET on
 agricultural systems. Partially vegetated surfaces accounts for significant portion of the land
 surface, it occurs seasonally in all agricultural areas and through the year over orchards and
 natural land covers. In this work, a surface energy-balance model has been modified to simulate
 evapotranspiration for partially vegetated surfaces. The model extents the method proposed by
 Choudhury and Monteith (1988) and Lagos (2008) to estimate evapotranspiration using explicit
 solutions of the equations that define the conservation of heat and water vapor fluxes for partially
 vegetated surfaces and soil. The development of the model, the assumptions, the mathematical
 derivation and the definition of model inputs and parameters is presented. The sensitivity of the
 model to changes in model resistances and model parameters was investigated.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             72
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        WIND FIELDS MODELING IN DEL MAULE REGION, FOR
         REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ESTIMATION
                      Luis Morales-Salinas and Francisco Lang-Tasso
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Renewable Natural Resources, Department of Agronomy,
                                      Universidad de Chile, Chile.
                              lmorales@uchile.cl , flang@renare.uchile.cl
                              H                  H   H




 In 1990, FAO recommended the adoption of the Penman-Monteith method to estimate reference
 evapotranspiration, which depends on the wind speed for its calculation. However, in Chile, the
 scarcity of surface weather stations has impeded the estimation of wind fields that allows a
 reliable evapotranspiration spatializing. This study proposes the implementation of a diagnostic
 meteorological model to estimate wind fields, using Del Maule region as a pilot area. The
 CALMET model (Earth-Tech), which is within the models used throughout the world for
 diagnosis weather, was implemented. This model estimates the surface weather conditions, past
 or present, is based on observed meteorological data and does not perform forecast. It estimates
 the horizontal (u, v) and vertical winds (w) throughout the modeling domain, based on hourly
 data of wind speed and direction, taken from radiosonde and surface meteorological stations. The
 wind fields modeling combined information of surface stations and from the NCEP / NCAR
 Reanalysis database project, from 1977 to 2007, which is a project that generates continuous data
 to a resolution of 2.5 º x 2.5 ° globally. The model successfully simulates the wind field at a
 regional level with a spatial resolution of 1 km.

 Keywords: Wind, Calmet, Evapotraspiación, Penman-Monteith.

 Acknowledgments: This work was funded by projects FIA-ES-L-2005-1-A-003 and FIA PDT-
 2007-007.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            73
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EARTH OBSERVATION AS A SUPPORT TO IMPROVE WATER
              USE IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

                                        Enrique Palacios V.
                           Full Professor, Colegio de Postgraduados, Mexico
                                          epalacio@colpos.mx
                                          H




 By the end of 60th decade, several satellites were launched to observe the earth, among them the
 Landsat has been important to study the natural resources and in special agriculture. The first
 satellite of the Landsat series was launched in 1972, the last one the Landsat 7, was launched in
 1999, but unfortunately had a fail in 2003, nevertheless the images could be used with some
 defects, but the Landsat 5 are still very useful to evaluated the crop development.

 In the USA and Europe several technologies has been developed to evaluate the crop yield
 several months before harvested, as well as follow their development by the producers to correct
 problems related with the water management, soils, as well as to control and prevent plagues and
 diseases of the crops.

 It is interesting to mention a European project named DEMETER (DEMostration of Earth
 observation TEchnologies in Routine irrigation advisory services), co-financed by the European
 Communities (Contract GOCE 037095) to support the Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy,
 Greece and Portugal for improving the efficiency of water use in irrigation. The success of this
 project was the motive for the European Commission to support a new one named
 “Participatory multi-Level EO-assisted tools for Irrigation water management and Agricultural
 Decision-Support” (PLEIADeS) which addresses the efficient and sustainable use of water for
 food production in water-scarce environments. Eleven countries and 23 research institutions
 were considered, among them were included three countries of Latin America, Brazil, Peru and
 Mexico with three institutions which are: University of Sonora, the Sonora Institute of
 Technology and the Graduate College in Agriculture Science.

 Some of the results obtained in the pilot zone considered in Mexico, in the state of Sonora, are
 presented in this article. By using vegetation indices obtained by combination of reflectances in
 different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, has been possible to estimate the behavior of
 several biophysical parameters of crops which are used to evaluate the vegetation development,
 water stress, spatial soil variation as well as effect of plagues and crop diseases. To facilitate this
 process a visor on line was developed and named SPIDER (System of Participatory Information
 Decision support and Expert knowledge for River basin management).

 Keywords: Satellites, Reflectances, Vegetation Indices, water stress.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               74
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    OXYGATION: AN IRRIGATION APPROACH FOR BALANCING
       CROP SUPPLY OF SOIL WATER AND OXYGEN FOR
       IMPROVING YIELDS, NUTRIENTS AND WATER USE
                       EFFICIENCY
                           Surya P. Bhattarai, David J. Midmore
        Centre for Plant and Water Science, CQUniversity, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 Australia
                                      Hs.bhattarai@cqu.edu.au


 The socio-economic pressure for improvements in irrigation efficiencies is increasing due to
 intense competition for water between agricultural, domestic and industrial users as well as
 demands for compliance to environmental regulations. Traditional irrigation methods such as
 furrow, flood and sprinkler are neither efficient nor environmentally benign. Drip irrigation (DI)
 and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) are increasing in popularity due to their improved water use
 efficiency (WUE) and ease of automation. However, sustained wetting fronts around emitters
 associated with DI/SDI impose hypoxia in the rhizosphere impeding root respiration and plant
 performance, and that a positive response can be achieved through aeration of the irrigation
 stream, a process known as oxygation. Aerated DI and SDI using venturi for air injection also
 allow for the simultaneous application of agro-chemicals directly in to the crop root zone.
 Delivering nutrients and other chemicals with aerated irrigation water according to the crop
 requirements may reduce the cost of application and improve efficiencies of inputs and has
 become increasingly practical with increased automation with dosing equipments. We have
 tested the benefits of oxygation in a range of crops in different soil types and irrigation water
 sources. We have consistently noted greater yield, quality and water use efficiency of crop in
 controlled environment and field situations. We present the concept and method of oxygation,
 engineering oxygaiton design for existing DI/SDI as well as new installation. This presentation
 provides an extensive analysis of the crop response to aerated irrigation water, air movement in
 the soil and their interaction with plant roots. We also present results of a number of field
 research on oxygation in saline and non-saline soil environment, and link oxygation effects to
 plant physiological and molecular mechanism for enhanced plant performance with oxygation.
 The analyses based on results from controlled environment, field trials and modelling are
 presented, and potential applications of oxygation to various agricultural/horticultural industries
 and environmental applications are discussed.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            75
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          OXYGATION PROMISING FOR HORTICULTURAL
       IRRIGATION: NEW APPROACH FOR BALANCING CROP
       SUPPLY OF SOIL WATER AND OXYGEN FOR EFFECTIVE
         ROOT FUNCTIONING MEDIATED THROUGH ROOT
                  AQUAPORIN GENE ACTIVITIES

                        Surya P. Bhattarai, David J. Midmore
 Centre for Plant and Water Science, CQUniversity, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 Australia
                                s.bhattarai@cqu.edu.au
                                     H




 Socio-economic pressure for improvements in irrigation water use efficiencies is increasing due
 to intense competition for fresh water between agricultural, domestic and industrial users as well
 as demands for compliance to environmental regulations. Traditional irrigation methods such as
 furrow, flood and sprinkler are neither efficient nor environmentally benign. Drip irrigation (DI)
 and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) are increasing in popularity in horticulture due to their
 improved water use efficiency (WUE) and ease of automation. However, sustained wetting
 fronts around emitters associated with DI/SDI impose hypoxia in the rhizosphere impeding root
 respiration and plant performance, and that a positive response can be achieved through aeration
 of the irrigation stream, a process termed as oxygation. Aerated DI and SDI by different methods
 such venturi for air injection also allow for the simultaneous application of water, air and other
 agro-chemicals directly in to the crop root zone. Delivering nutrients and other chemicals with
 aerated irrigation water according to the crop requirements also reduce the cost of application
 and improve efficiencies of inputs and may become irrigators attraction due to ease of
 automation such as dosing equipments. Our research showed benefits of oxygation in a number
 of crops in different soil types and irrigation water qualities. We have demonstrated greater
 yield, quality and water use efficiency of crop with oxygation in controlled environment and
 field conditions. We present the concept and method of oxygation, engineering, plant
 physiological processes associated with the response and cost of installation. We also provide an
 extensive analysis of the crop response to aerated irrigation water, air movement in the soil and
 their interaction with plant roots. Results of field and controlled environment trials in saline and
 non-saline soil and irrigation environment are presented. The link between plant physiological
 and molecular mechanism mediated by the involvement of aquaporin genes for enhanced plant
 performance with oxygation with particular focus on root physiology are discussed. The analyses
 based on results from controlled environment trials, field trials and modelling are presented, and
 current and potential applications of oxygation to various horticultural industries and
 environmental applications are discussed.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             76
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     OXYGATION ENHANCED PINEAPPLE YIELD AND QUALITY

                Jay K Dhungel1, Surya P Bhattarai1, Xinming Chen2, Kerry B Walsh1, Phul
                                  P Subedi1 David J Midmore1
                      1
                       Centre for Plant and Water Science, CQUniversity, Rockhampton, QLD 4702.
                             2
                              Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100 China
                                            Hj.dhungel@cqu.edu.au

 The use of aerated irrigation water with sub-surface drip irrigation (oxygation) has been
 documented to benefit growth of a range of crops, particularly on heavier soils. In the
 current exercise, the technology was applied to pineapple (Ananas comosus) on a loamy
 sand at Yeppoon, Australia (23°09’ 32.7 ’’ S, 150° 42’ 51.4’’). Three irrigation
 treatments (irrigation with and without oxygation, and no irrigation) were evaluated in
 plots each 3200 m2 in a replicated randomised block layout for the two irrigation
 treatments, and 1 replicate only for the no irrigation treatment. In each replicate two
 sampling areas each of 4 m linear row length comprising 16 bordered plants were
 identified. The crop was planted on 24 October 2007, and oxygation treatment
 commenced on 14 April 2008, and continued until harvest. The soil was irrigated to
 field capacity when soil water content reached refill point. The total amount of irrigation
 water applied to the oxygation and control plot was 1.09 and 1.24 ML/ha, respectively,
 and most crop demand was supplied by rainfall (19.63 ML/ha).

 First season crop fruit were harvested from January 2009. Total fruit yield of the
 sampling area for the oxygation treatment was 11.3% higher than that of the irrigated
 control and 11.5% higher than that of the no irrigation treatment. However, marketable
 yield of the whole oxygation treatment plots was only 3.5% and 7% higher than that of
 the irrigated control and no irrigation treatments, respectively. Fruit total soluble solids
 (TSS) was 0.5 Brix units higher, significantly so, than that of irrigated control fruit.

 The first season crop occurred during a period of good rainfall, and the small yield
 difference between rainfed and irrigated treatments suggests that soil water was not a
 major limiting factor during growth of this crop. The crop is currently ratooning and we
 expect greater effects of oxygation on the ratoon crop harvest, as lower rainfall amounts
 are expected over this period. We conclude that aeration of subsurface irrigation water
 (oxygation) can improve both yield and quality of pineapple at the field scale operation,
 the extent determined by the amount of irrigation required by the crop.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                77
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      IMPROVING SOIL OXYGENATION WITH HYDROGEN
     PEROXIDE INJECTION INTO HEAVY CLAY LOAM SOIL:
   EFFECT ON PLANT WATER STATUS, CO2 ASSIMILATION AND
               BIOMASS OF AVOCADO TREES.
    Pilar M. Gil M.1, 2, Raúl Ferreyra E. 1,2, Cristián Barrera M.1, Carlos Zúñiga E.1
                                  and Luis Gurovich R.3
                    1
               Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chorrillos 86, La Cruz. Chile.
                2
              Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (CREAS), Valparaíso, Chile.
     3
       Departamento de Fruticultura y Enología. Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia
                        Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306-22, Santiago, Chile.
                                               H pgil@inia.cl



 Commercial avocado production in Chile has expanded to areas with poorly drained soils
 presenting low oxygenation over significant periods of time throughout the year. In many of
 these areas, irrigation management is difficult because plantations are often placed on slopes of
 hills. Poorly aerated soils combined with irrigation design and management problems can limit
 avocado fruit production and quality, particularly if stress occurs between spring and the
 beginning of summer. It is well known that avocado trees are very sensitive to waterlogging and
 the relatively low productivity of this species may be related to root asphyxiation. Therefore, in
 order to get adequate yield and fruit quality, proper irrigation management and better soil oxygen
 conditions in avocado orchards are necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the
 effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) injection into the soil as a source of molecular oxygen, on
 plant water status, net CO2 assimilation and biomass of avocado trees established in clay loam
 soil with water content at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted
 outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content kept at field
 capacity. Plants where divided into 2 treatments, those with H2O2 injected into the soil through
 subsurface drip irrigation and plants in soil with no H2O2 added (control). In addition to
 determining physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A), transpiration (T), stomatal
 conductance (gs) and shoot and root biomass were determined for plants in each treatment.
 Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant,
 but had no significant effect on measured A, T or gs. The increased biomass of the aerial
 portions of plants in treated soil indicates that H202 injection into heavy loam clay soils may be a
 useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.

 Key words: stomatal closure, net photosynthesis, oxygen injection, root hypoxia, subsurface drip
 irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 78
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      EARLY-NAVEL FRUIT YIELD, QUALITY AND MATURITY IN
         RESPONSE TO LATE-SEASON IRRIGATION STRESS

                        Craig Kallsen1, Blake Sanden2 and Mary Lu Arpaia
                          1
                           University of California Cooperative Extension, Kern County
                          2
                           University of California Cooperative Extension, Kern County
                3
                 University of California Cooperative Extension, U.C. Kearney Agricultural Center
                                             Hcekallsen@ucdavis.edu



 Early-maturing navel orange varieties, such as ‘Beck’, ‘Newhall’, and ‘Fukumoto’ that are
 planted in the southern San Joaquin Valley produce the first navel orange fruit of the season in
 California. Before harvest commences, fruit must meet minimum regulatory standards for juice
 sweetness and peel color. The earliest of the early harvested oranges reaching the market receive
 a price premium as do large-sized oranges. Delaying harvest will result in larger, sweeter and
 orangery fruit, but at the cost of missing the price premium for earliness. Irrigation has been
 demonstrated by others to influence fruit size, quality, and yield, but little scientific information
 is available on how it affects fruit size, quality, numbers, color and earliness of early-maturing
 navel oranges in the San Joaquin Valley. The objective of this research was to measure effects of
 late-season irrigation stress on fruit yield, quality, human sensory evaluation and maturity of
 Beck Navel, an early-maturing navel orange variety. Three irrigation regimes were initiated in
 August in 2006, 2007 and 2008 and continued through harvest each year. In 2007, increasing
 levels of water stress resulted in decreasing mid-day shaded leaf water potential ranging from -
 1.4 MPa in early September to a maximum of -2.5 MPa at harvest. In the final season, 2008, the
 trees in the treatment with the highest irrigation stress in 2006 and 2007 were fully irrigated to
 measure the recovery response of the tree in terms of fruit yield, quality and harvest maturity.
 Generally, over the course of the three years, late-season irrigation stress decreased fruit yield,
 fruit numbers and grade, and increased soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), the
 BrimA index, and orange color. Fruit juiciness and SSC:TA ratio were little affected by water
 stress. The intensity of the irrigation stress in 2007 decreased fruit yield by number and weight,
 decreased the percentage of large fruit and reduced fruit grade. When trees exposed to two years
 of late-season irrigation stress were fully irrigated the following year, fruit yield and quality was
 similar to trees that had been fully irrigated all three years.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                   79
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF CITRUS TREES TO DIFFERENT
                   STRATEGIES OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION

        Muriel, J.L.,García-Tejero1, I Romero, R., Ruiz, R., Cristino, L., Pinto, L.,
                                      Hernández, A.
                   IFAPA, Centro Las Torres-Tomejil. Alcalá del Río. Sevilla, Spain
                                 josel.muriel@juntadeandalucia.es
                                  H




 Different strategies of deficit irrigation based on different water stress dynamics applied to the
 crop, have been studied in an 11-year old citrus trees (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. Cv. Navelina)
 grafted on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus Trifoliata L. Osb.). Deficit
 irrigation (SDI) treatment were established, with a water supplied of 50% of ETc; and a low
 frequency irrigation treatment (LFDI), irrigated according to the plant water energy status. An
 irrigation treatment irrigated at 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) along the irrigation
 season was included as control. Midday stem-water potential, stomatal conductance and
 micrometric trunk diameter fluctuations were measured during the maximum evapotranspirative
 demand period to evaluate the plant-water status, and to establish the main relationships between
 them.

 The temporal dynamics of the variables studied had a behaviour consistent with the contributions
 made by the dynamics of water supplied. Specially significant were the close relations between
 these physiological stress indexes and crop response; tree yield and organoleptic fruit quality
 parameters.

 The lowest stem water potential and stomatal conductance values were registered in the
 treatments with lowest irrigations levels, (SDI and LFDI) being the maximum daily shrinkage
 (MDS) significative       higher in these treatments, than in the control treatment. The LFDI
 treatment showed an oscillating behaviour in these parameters, according to the irrigation-
 restrictions cycles applied.

 Our results conclude that the physiological stress indexes used like MDS or stem water
 potential allow establishing different irrigation-restriction cycles, achieving significant water
 saving without affecting significantly the yield and the fruit quality parameters.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              80
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   SUPPLEMENTARY IRRIGATION IN ‘SPRING’ NAVEL ORANGE
      AND SATSUMA ‘OWARI’ MANDARIN ON TEMPERATE
                 GROWING CONDITIONS

                                      C. Goñi and A. Otero
                National Institute of Agricultural Research. INIA-Salto Grande. Uruguay.
                                         H cgoni@sg.inia.org.uy


 Supplementary irrigation in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck ‘Spring Navel’ and Citrus unshiu
 Marcow trees were studied according to fruit development stages on the northwestern region of
 Uruguay (32º S, 58º W) from 2000 to 2009. The effective precipitation (Pe) variability between
 consecutive years is bigger than the ETo variability; despite the annual water balance seems to
 be adequated for excellent yields. Water deficit occurs at different intensities during fruit growth
 stages I, II and III. Supplementary irrigation was necessary in ‘Spring’ navel and satsuma
 ‘Owari’ during stage I and II, although ‘Spring’ navel requires occasionally irrigation during
 stage III. The major irrigation impact was to increase the fruit weight but not the number of
 fruits. The increment in the marketable fruit was related to the best size distribution of the fruits,
 also it was verified an attenuation on the alternate bearing. An inverse and significant
 relationship was found between the ETr/Pe ratio and the relative yield reduction in the stage I
 (R2=0.73) and in stage II (R2= 0.91); and between the ETr/Pe and the fruit weight in satsuma
 ‘Owari’, (R2= 0.56) (R2= 0.85) respectively. The yield reduction between trees without irrigation
 and all year irrigated represents 20% in ‘Spring’ navel and 40% in satsuma ‘Owari’. Maximum
 water application of 1000-1200 m3. ha-1 was required for irrigated trees on stage I and between
 1800-2000 m3. ha-1 for the stages I+II. In a close up view, supplementary water is required to
 reach maximum marketable yield and alternate bearing reduction in citrus production in
 temperate conditions.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               81
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN APPLICATION FREQUENCIES
    AFFECT GROWTH, N AND WATER UPTAKE EFFICIENCY OF
                    CITRUS SEEDLINGS
                       J.C. Melgar, A.W. Schumann and J.P. Syvertsen
   University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake
                                           Alfred, FL 33850, USA.
                                              H jmsn@ufl.edu


 We determined if irrigation frequency could control root and shoot growth of six-month-old
 seedlings of the citrus rootstock Swingle Citrumelo grown in native Candler sand in a
 greenhouse. Using an ET of 15 ml/day with 0.3 mg N per plant per day, 3 irrigation frequencies
 were applied either in ten 10 sec 1.5 ml pulses per day, one 30 sec 15 ml application or 45 ml
 applied every 3 days in one pulse. Plants were weighed daily to calculate ET and net gas
 exchange of leaves was measured 3 times during the experiment. Ten pulses per day decreased
 root DW but specific root length and root N were increased. Leaf N, CO2 assimilation and leaf
 water use efficiency were not affected. Plants with lowest irrigation frequency of once every 3
 days grew more and had highest water use efficiency but there were no irrigation frequency
 effects on relative growth allocation to shoot and roots. A second similar experiment used
 identical weekly irrigation volumes and N application rates but they were applied at four
 frequencies: 1. both were applied daily, 2. daily irrigation with fertilizer every 2 weeks, 3. water
 and fertilizer applied every 3 days or 4., application of water every 3 days and fertilizer every 2
 weeks. Shoot growth was not affected but roots grew less with N applied every 2 weeks
 implying that uptake efficiency was increased. Plants irrigated every 3 days with N applications
 every 2 weeks used less water with similar growth as plants with daily fertigations. Thus, less
 frequent applications of fertilizer improved N uptake efficiency while less frequent fertigations
 increased water use efficiency.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               82
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  DRIP AND SPRINKLER IRRIGATION FOR ESTABLISHEMNT OF
   STRAWBERRY TRANSPLANTS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

                          O. Daugovish, B.Faber and M. Mochizuki
                University of California Cooperative Extension, Ventura , California, USA
                                       H odaugovish@ucdavis.edu


 Strawberry is a major crop in Ventura County, California with an annual value of US$394
 million. Strawberry transplants are planted through the narrow holes in polyethylene mulch that
 covers the beds. Each 1.2 m wide bed has two drip irrigation lines placed 5-10 cm deep between
 four planting rows during bed construction. Yet, sprinkler irrigation is used instead of drip for 5-
 6 weeks after transplanting with daily overhead irrigations of 50-60 mm. The reasons for
 sprinkler use are: need to rapidly hydrate plants to aid establishment of adventitious roots,
 leaching of salts from root development zone and frost protection, if necessary. With sprinkler
 irrigation of mulched beds most of the water runs off the plastic to furrows and off the field,
 resulting in significant losses of water, sediment and nutrients. Additionally, overhead water
 spreads water-dispersed pathogens and aids weed germination in furrows.

 In 2006-2008 we evaluated strawberry plant establishment with either sprinkler or drip irrigation
 with two lines in a clay loam soil at Santa Paula, California, USA in experiments with four
 replications. During 2006-2007 season, drip was placed about 5 cm deep and irrigation applied
 in both treatments immediately after planting in November. In 2008 drip was placed near soil
 surface and beds were pre-irrigated in drip treatment for 48 h prior to planting in June. Irrigation
 was applied in both treatments after planting when soil in the root zone at 5 to 10 cm reached >5
 cb, measured by tensiometers and watermarks. Throughout the plant establishment time we
 measured water use and ECsoil 0-5 cm in saturated paste. We have also measured plant canopy
 size, weed densities in furrows, incidence of common leaf spot and early fruit yield (in 2008
 only).

 In 2006-07 water use was reduced about 75% in drip plots compared to sprinkler. One of the drip
 lines was clogged resulting in plant mortality near it; however, plants in functioning drip plots
 were similar in size to those in sprinkler irrigated plots. Sprinklers were more efficient in
 reducing ECsoil initially, but after 7 days ECsoil was similar in both treatments, from 7 to 2
 dS/m. Weed densities were reduced 96% in furrows near beds irrigated with drip compared to
 sprinklers. In 2008 water savings in drip treatment were less (48% compared to sprinklers), since
 beds were pre-irrigated with drip. Plants in drip irrigated plots were larger and had lower
 incidence of leaf spot than sprinkler irrigated plants, but early yields were similar in the two
 irrigation systems. Again, sprinkler was more efficient in leaching salts from plant root zone, but
 pre-irrigation with drip kept EC soil <3 dS/m during the first week after planting, aiding plant
 establishment in drip plots.

 Our current research focuses on increased number of drip lines and their placement to optimize
 strawberry plant establishment with drip irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               83
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     EVALUATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR BLUEBERRIES IN
                       SOUTH CENTRA CHILE

                          J. Jara, E. Holzapfel, A. Quiñónez, M. Soto
      Dpto. de Recursos Hídricos, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Universidad de Concepción-Campus
                                               Chillan, Chile
                                              jc jara @udec.cl
                                              H   U   U




 In two farms of 80 ha in the south central Chile ( Los Angeles in season 2003-2004; Chillan in
 season 2006-2007), the drip irrigation systems were evaluated in blueberries on the basis of
 Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CUC) and Total Efficiency Distribution (TED). In the Los
 Angeles farm the irrigation realized under the farmer criterion was evaluated, whereas in Chillán
 the irrigation was technically controlled in the second part of the irrigation season using the
 Hargreaves and Samani model, the canopy cover factor, and the permanent monitoring of the
 soil water content.

 In Los Angeles, CUC took values around 92 %, whereas TED showed values from 0 to 90 %.
 This wide range of values shows the excess time of irrigation in sectors with a high soil water
 content- which caused drainage problems – or insufficient irrigation times that which were
 enough to supply the plants water requirements.

 At the Chillan farm, in the first part of the irrigation season, which was operated by the farmer,
 CUC was in average 85%, whereas TED varies among 32 to 61% in average. Later, under
 technical irrigation operation from end of December, CUC was 90% in average, which is due to
 the permanent pressure regulation in the valves, allowing a homogeneous discharge and nearest
 to the nominal flow. Similarly, TED increased to 89 % average, and in some cases it was 93%,
 which is due to the adjustment of irrigation times on the basis blueberry water requirements.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              84
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  EVALUATION OF A MICRO-SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM
   AT AN APPLE FARM IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY OF CHILE

                              E. Holzapfel1 , G. Martínez1 , J. Jara1
         1
             Dpto. de Recursos Hídricos, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Universidad de
                                 Concepción-campus Chillan, Chile
                                          eholzapf@udec.cl
                                          H




 Micro-sprinkler irrigation systems in a 100 ha apple farm located 8 km west of Curicó city, were
 evaluated. The micro-sprinkler was conformed by six irrigation systems, under different soil
 characteristics and different apple orchard varieties. The evaluation was done using the
 Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), the Efficiency of Lower Quarter (ELQ25%) and the
 Total Distribution Efficiency (TED). In addition, an analysis of the pressure at different positions
 in the systems, from the exit of the Control Head to the end of the lateral in the sub-unit, the
 effect of pipe size of distribution system in the energy cost and time of irrigation and volume
 applied was performed.

 The CUC and ELQ25% were 84% and 79%, respectively, whereas the average TED was 23%, due
 to the excess of water applied, of up to 100 % in the irrigation times in some sub-units. However,
 the 5 day irrigation frequency used was adequate on the basis of soil, climate, and orchards
 characteristics.

 The operation efficiency of the pumping systems took values from 33% to 87% resulting
 from changes in the discharge required by every subunit in the micro- sprinkler systems.
 In addition, a large decrease of pressure from the control head to the last laterals in the
 subunit due to the small pipes diameters was found. If change in diameters were done, in
 the diameters of principals, manifold and auxiliary and the irrigation times applied were
 the required one, it would be possible to reduce the costs of operation by up to in 51 %.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             85
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       MANAGEMENT OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON WATERMELON
                   (CITRULLUS LANATUS)

                I.C. Antonio1, M.O. Cardoso1, J.R.P. Gonçalves1, M.F. de Moura2,
                                      M.S.R. Pamplona1.
                 1
                     Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, C. Postal 319, 69010-970, Manaus-AM, Brasil
                            2
                              Universidade Federal da Paraíba – CCA, Areia-PB, Brasil
                                         Hisaac.cohen@cpaa.embrapa.br


 In the Amazon State, the irrigation is indispensable to watermelon growing in “terra firme”
 conditions in the water deficit period. But, researches regarding irrigation applied to watermelon
 growing are insufficient. The drip irrigation presented gains compared with furrows and sprinkle
 methods, particularly regarding water economical spend. This work aimed to study effects of
 different drip irrigation arrangements in the watermelon growing. The experiment was carried in
 ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico (sandy loam), of 29/07 a 02/10/2008 (Total Precipitation =
 127.1 mm; daily average: Solar Brightness = 6.5 h and Temperature = 27 oC). The experimental
 design was a randomized block with four replications. The irrigation arrangements were: A drip
 tape with dripper distant 20 cm (DT – 20 cm); B drip tape with dripper distant 10 cm (DT - 10
 cm); C (Polyethylene tube with 1 m of drip tape - 20 cm, around the plant); C (Polyethylene
 tube, with one dripper per hole).Each plot had 12 holes with 2 plants, spaced 3 m x 2m.
 Limestone (3,0 t ha-1) was applied to provide Ca, at 30 days before placed seedlings of cv.
 Pérola within hole, in the plant line.

 The planting line was prepared with rotary hoe (70 cm wide and 30 cm deep). Each hole receives
 chicken manure (2 kg), simple superphosphate (320 g), potassium chloride (120 g), urea (40 g)
 and micronutrients. Besides, was applied in top-dressing potassium chloride (30 g) and urea (80
 g). The soil moisture was check by soil moisture sensor soil moisture Irrigás (equipment
 developed with the technology Embrapa – Agricultural Research Brazilian Company). There
 was need control of Aphis gossypii (imidaclopride and deltamethrin) and Diaphania hyalinata
 and Diaphania nitidalis (Bacillus thuringiensis). The treatments were tested by Dunnett test
 (5%).

 Only C treatment was different to A (Total Number Fruits, TNF = 50 fruits; Yield, YD = 41.25 t
 ha-1; Fruit Commercial Percentage = 51.2 %; Fruit Comercial Average Weight = 7.72 kg; Fruit
 Number per hole, FNP = 4.17 unid.) which was inferior to TNF (-26.5 fruits), YD (-22.39 t ha-1)
 e FNP (-2.20 unid), attesting poor efficiency of only one drip per hole. Treatment C consumed
 less water when compared to other treatments due to water being concentrated in the area of the
 root system of plants. Thus, the C treatment with water spend of 4.7 L/day per hole (watering
 three times a day, from 21 days of cultivation until harvest, when there are greater demand for
 water in the culture) showed extraordinary efficient use of water, in respect to the others. So, due
 to reduce water wastefulness take positive effect to environment. The trials go to follow up
 different soils class and with genetic materials unlike cv. Pérola.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  86
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




            SOIL WATER BALANCE AND WETTED AREAS
        QUANTIFICATIONS FOR DRIP IRRIGATION IN TROPICAL
                         FRUIT TREES

       Geisy Hernández Cuello1, Roberto Martínez Varona, Omar Puig Estrada and
                                 Teresa López Seijas.
   1
       Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje. Apdo. Postal 6090. La Habana. Cuba. Telefax: (537)
                                                    6911038.
                                                H geisy@iird.cu .
                                                              H




 The irrigation management of guava and papaya crop was defined in two agricultural scenarios.
 Water delivery for the crop was carried out with a localized irrigation system, using the drip
 irrigation technique in both cases. In the first area five treatments were carried out consisting in
 restoring the water when the soil water tension arrived to the two critical values 25 cb and 40 cb
 using one and two laterals per plants with each tension value. The wetting area (ah), soil water
 balance, and the crop coefficients (kc) were determined. Main results about wetting area
 determinations in papaya crop show that in the one lateral design wetted area represent 19.44%
 of the plantation area (amp) and in two lateral designs wetted area represent 30.55 % of the
 plantation area. In guava crop the results show that wetted area represent 12 % of the plantation
 area. It was also determined for both crops that it wasn’t necessary to irrigate, beyond 40 cm of
 depth. The soil water balance quantifications allowed to define the soil water availability, water
 fluxes beyond the root zone and evapotranspiration and crop coefficient determinations. It was
 defined crop coefficient curves for each crop under conditions of maximum soil water
 availability. It was also defined crop coefficients decennial value for irrigation management
 under productions conditions.

 Keywords: guava crop, papaya crop, crop coefficient (Kc)




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  87
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     IRRIGATION DIFFERENTLY AFFECTS ENDOCARP AND
   MESOCARP GROWTH DURING OLIVE FRUIT DEVELOPMENT

                   R. Gucci1, E. M. Lodolini2, G. Caruso1, H. F. Rapoport3
    1
      Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose, Università di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80,
                                                 56124 Pisa, Italy
   2
     Department of Environmental and Crop Production Sciences, Marche Polytechnics University, Ancona,
                                                        Italy
              3
                Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, C.S.I.C., P.O. Box 4084, 14080 Cordoba, Spain
                                                rgucci@agr.unipi.it


 To determine the growth response of the olive fruit, mesocarp and endocarp to tree water status
 we used field-grown, fully-productive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) subjected to
 different irrigation regimes. Tree water status was assessed as pre-dawn leaf water-potential
 (Ψw), fruit and tissue growth as fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW). Fruit weight responded
 readily to Ψw and reflected differences in tree water status. Mesocarp FW was positively
 correlated to Ψw and the response was evident starting at 15 weeks after full bloom (AFB)
 through harvest. The endocarp FW responded weakly to severe water deficit and by 15 weeks
 AFB had grown to full size. The pulp/pit ratio, expressed on FW basis, tended to decrease,
 although rather weakly, as the level of water deficit increased since 15 weeks AFB when Ψw was
 less than –2 MPa. The mesocarp DWwas unaffected by tree water status at 9 weeks AFB and
 only slightly decreased when Ψw was less than –1.2 MPa at 20 weeks AFB. The results indicate
 how the behavior of different tissues and growth processes during fruit development affect the
 overall fruit response to water status.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  88
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        INFLUENCE OF THE SOIL WATER CONTENT AND
         DISTRIBUTION ON BOTH THE HYDRAULIC AND
    TRANSPIRATION PERFORMANCE OF ‘MANZANILLA’ OLIVE
                          TREES
    J.E. Fernández1*, J.M. Torres-Ruiz1, M.J. Martín-Palomo2, A. Morales-Sillero2,
              J.L. Muriel3, R. Romero3, A. de Cires4, A.E. Rubio-Casal4
     1
       Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología (IRNAS-CSIC), Avenida de Reina Mercedes, n.º 10,
                                              41012-Sevilla, Spain
               2
                 Departamento de Ciencias Agroforestales, Universidad de Sevilla, 41013-Sevilla.
      3
        IFAPA, Centro Las Torres-Tomejil, Ctra. Sevilla-Cazalla, km 12.2, 41200-Alcalá del Río, Sevilla.
           4
             Dpto. de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1095, 41080-Sevilla.
                                            H jefer@irnase.csic.es


 In this work we study the influence of the soil water content and distribution on key variables
 related to the water consumption of ‘Manzanilla’ olive trees. Our aim was to evaluate the effect
 of localized irrigation that leaves part of the rhizosphere under drying soil, on the plant water
 status, gas exchange and hydraulic efficiency of the xylem.

 A three-year experiment (2007-2009) is being carried out with young (3- to 5-year-old trees in
 50 L containers) and mature (39- to 41-year-old trees planted at 7 m × 5 m) olive trees at La
 Hampa experimental farm, close to Seville, southwest Spain. Four water treatments are being
 considered: dryfarming, a pond treatment in which the whole rhizosphere is wetted to around
 field capacity all throughout the irrigation season, and two localized irrigation treatments, one
 supplying 100% of the crop water needs (ETc) and the other 50% of ETc; in these two treatments
 part of the root system is left under drying soil during the irrigation season. For each treatment,
 daily and seasonal courses of the ‘effective’ soil-to-root water potential, leaf water potential,
 stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis are being determined. The sap pH and ABA
 concentration are also determined, to evaluate to what extent stomatal closure is affected by a
 root-to-shoot signalling mechanism. In addition, both the total tree hydraulic conductance and
 the hydraulic conductivity of shoots of the current year are being determined, to evaluate the
 effect of the plant water stress and plant gas exchange on the hydraulic efficiency of the xylem.
 Measurements include the period of water recovery after the beginning of the rainy season.

 Results show to what extent both the stomatal closure and xylem functionality are affected by the
 amount and distribution of water in the soil, and give us a more comprehensive view of how the
 olive tree uses water, which can be helpful to optimize irrigation in orchards of this species.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 89
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      PLANT AND SOIL WATER STATUS BEHAVIOUR UNDER
     DIFFERENT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES IN ARBEQUINA CV.
                     OLIVE ORCHARD.

                D. Pacheco1, A. Olguín1, L. Bueno1, F. Capraro2, F. Vita Serman1
                    1
                   INTA EEA San Juan. Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
                2
                 Instituto de Automática. Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina.
                                           Hfvita@sanjuan.inta.gov.ar


 The constant increase of olive intensive growing (Olea europaea L.) in arid regions of Argentina
 requires some efforts to improve the water use efficiency. The aim of the present work was to
 evaluate the behaviour of different plant and soil physiological parameters in order to use them
 as an olive irrigation scheduling tool.

 Several irrigation situations, based on regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies, were applied
 to a six years old intensive olive orchard (cv. Arbequina): (T3) RDI from fruit set to harvest,
 (T2) RDI during pit hardening period and (T1) a fully irrigated as a control. In T2 and T3, water
 deficit meant 30% reduction of field capacity. The soil moisture level (SWC) was continuously
 measured with a capacitive (FDR) sensor in order to manage the irrigation strategies. Pre-dawn
 (ψpre-dawn), midday (ψl) and stem (ψstem) water potentials were periodically measured.

 Pre-dawn (ψpre-dawn), midday (ψl) and stem (ψstem) water potential showed a high correlation
 among them. Linear regression analysis between ψl and ψstem versus ψpre-dawn was significant
 (P<0.05) and it resulted in 0.73 and 0.70 r2 values, respectively. The best correlation was
 observed between ψl and ψstem with r2= 0.93. There was a low correlation among the three water
 potential measurements with the SWC (r2<0.4) when the whole cycle was evaluated.
 Nevertheless, subsequent days after the beginning or recovering from a stress situation shows in
 T2 a high correlation (r2=0.95) between ψpre-dawn and SWC. During the same period, ψpre-dawn was
 more sensitive to water deficit. No correlation was observed among the three plant water status
 indicators and the vapor pressure deficit (VPD).

 ψpre-dawn represents the most reliable tool for irrigation scheduling. However, the high correlation
 between ψl and ψstem with ψpre-dawn and the VPD low influence in diurnal measurements of water
 potential make the use of such indicators interesting due to their easiness when they are
 incorporated to commercial orchard.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  90
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




 EFFECT OF THREE LEVELS OF WATER APPLICATION ON OIL
 YIELD AND QUALITY FOR AN OLIVE (CV. PICUAL) ORCHARD

                                  F. Flores and S. Ortega-Farias
                Centro de Investigación y Transferencia en Riego y Agroclimatología (CITRA)
                              Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile.
                                            Hsortega@utalca.cl


 An experiment was carried out to study the effect of three levels of water application on yield and
 oil quality for an olive (cv. Picual) orchard, located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region of
 Chile (35º 23' S; 71º 44' W), during the 2007-2008 growing season. The 8 year-old trees were
 irrigated by drip irrigation and trained on vase training system with a planting density of 6 x 3m
 Levels of water application were: T1 = 100% of the actual evapotranspiration (ET) between the
 beginning of massive pit hardening (MPH) and end of April (EA); T2 = 30% of ET at the
 beginning of MPH and 60% of ET at the end of April; T3 = 60% of ET between the beginning of
 MPH and at the end of April. A significant reduction of fruit yield was found among treatments
 where T2 presented the highest yield (15.5 t ha-1). However, oil yield was not affected by the
 levels of water application. Oil yield varied between 2.3 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1 . Also, results
 indicate that there were not significant differences on oil quality, UV absorbance and fatty acid
 composition. However, the total polyphenols for T2 and T3 were greater than those for T1.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                91
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  INFLUENCE OF THE GROUNDCOVER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      AND DRIP IRRIGATION ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE
    ‘GOLDEN SPUR’ APPLE CULTIVAR GRAFTED ON MM 106
                       ROOTSTOCK

                       Iancu M1., Stănică F.2., Isac I.3., Dumitraşcu M.2.
                        1
                           Fruit Research&Development Institute Piteşti, Mărăcineni
  2
   Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucureşti, Romania
                       3
                         Romanian National Fruit Growers Society, Piteşti, Mărăcineni,
                                         H  flstanica@yahoo.co.uk



 The low amounts of precipitation and their irregular time and space distribution in Romania
 determine many years with high soil water deficits affecting fruit yield quantity and quality. This
 is particular important in hilly regions with high density orchards and mowed sod strips. In order
 to quantify the effects of drip irrigation on the behavior of the ‘Golden spur’ apple cultivar
 grafted on MM 106 rootstock, investigations were performed between 1982 and 2004. The
 orchard was located on a brown, weakly–medium surface gleized soil, on a 5-6% sloped hillside.
 Influence of drip irrigation within two groundcover management systems between tree rows
 (cultivated and mowed sod strips) and on the row (cultivated and mulched) was studied in a 3-
 factor experiment of 2 x 2 x 2 type. The annual average of water deficit over the April through
 October period of the experiment, as a difference between the reference Penman – Monteith
 evapotranspiration (ETo) and total precipitation, was 195.74 mm representing 31.6% of ETo. By
 annual application of 144.2 mm by drip irrigation this deficit was reduced to 8.32% of ETo. The
 cultivated treatment between tree rows induced a significant increase of the annual trunk cross
 sectional area (TCSA) by 10%, of the total shoot length/tree (TSL/tree) by 14%, of the number
 of shoots/tree (NS/tree) by 17%, of the fruit yield (Y) by 17%, of the number of fruits/tree
 (NF/tree) by 6% and of the average fruit mass (AFM) by 9%, versus the mowed sod treatment.
 For the whole experiment, the drip irrigation treatment induced a significant increase of the
 annual TCSA by 16%, of the TSL/tree by 29%, of the NS/tree by 21%, of the Y by 16%, of the
 NF/tree by 10% and of the AFM by 13%. Under the same conditions, versus the cultivated
 treatment, the mulch on tree row treatment induced a significant increase by 15% of the in
 TSL/tree, by 12% of the NS/ tree, by 8% of the Y, by 4% of the NF/tree and by 3% of the AFM.
 On average over the entire period of this study and the whole experiment, an increase of 2.82 kg
 in fruit yield was obtained for 1 m³ of drip irrigation water. These results entirely justify drip
 irrigation application in most of the apple orchards in our country.

 Keywords: Malus x domestica, irrigation efficiency, mowed sod strips, mulcing,
 evapotranspiration, tree growth, yield




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               92
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                   POSITION OF THE IRRIGATION TAPE IN THE
                   TRANSPLANTING BEDS OF LETTUCE CROP (1)

                Agustín Aljaro U. 2 , Cristián Cáceres R.3 and Martín Battaglia A.3
                         (2)
                               Agronomist M.Sc. INIA, Chile; (3) Agronomists INIA Chile
                                                  aljaro@inia.cl
                                                  H




 In 2006/07 season an experiment in lettuce was carried out to evaluate different positions
 of the irrigation tape on the transplanting beds. The experiment was done at a
 demonstrative module of Regional Research Centre of La Platina, INIA, located in
 Colina, a closed county to the Metropolitan Region of Santiago.

 In the treatment 1 the watering tape was located on the surface of the beds, just at the
 centre of the two lettuce lines planted in each one. In treatment 2, the tape was also
 located at the centre, but in this case it was buried 7-9 cm deep. Both were compare with
 a Control treatment, consist in furrow irrigation.

 The research was carried out in a winter period, because the Chilean crops central zone
 is must be watered. Two different varieties were used, Costina (Cos) and Milanesa
 (Latin), and they were planted under 66.000 un/ha of plant density. The land was
 prepared in beds of 15 cm height and 75 cm wide in both cases of the mechanical
 watering systems. The control was prepared the same distances, but it was used the
 traditional semi-rounded furrow design.
 The analysis of the results, were done following a four replicates Splited Blocks
 Statistical Design, where the main plot was the variety, and the split plot was the system
 of watering. The same research was done, but in summer of 2007, then it was used an
 Iceberg type of lettuce, Desert Storm. The effects of the watering systems were
 measured on quality, healthiness and yield of the harvested lettuces.

 The winter research experiments, shown 90 days after the transplanting date, a bigger
 size of lettuce in both mechanical watering systems. In fact, the lettuce weight and leaf
 number per unit were much better than the control, yielding in both, buried or surface
 tape position, a 58% and 31% more marketable lettuce compared with check respectably.

 Besides, a much less infection of the fungus Bremia lactucae (Mildew), was found in
 both tape irrigation systems compare with the control treatment, watered by furrow.

 The summer experiment results, 64 days alter transplanting, shown the same data gotten
 at the winter experiment, yielding a significantly higher marketable lettuce in both
 mechanical system of watering.
 (1)
       Proyecto FIA-PI-C- 2005-1-A-051.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                    93
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      IMPROVING WATER PENETRATION AND YIELD USING
     WATER-RUN GYPSUM IN SURFACE IRRIGATED ALMONDS

                             Blake L. Sanden1, Mario Viveros1
                           University of California Cooperative Extension.
                                       blsanden@ucdavis.edu
                                       H




 Many soils in the San Joaquin Valley of California have water penetration problems. Studies
 documenting the impact of various amendments including manures, cover crops, and gypsum
 have been carried out for over 50 years. Most of these coarse materials must be broadcast in
 orchards and vineyards during the dormant season. Unfortunately, the soil often reseals as peak
 water demand begins and the crop load prevents entry of spreading machinery. During the 2001
 through 2004 seasons a 75% purity coarse gypsum was applied to border irrigated almonds on a
 Wasco Sandy Loam irrigated with low salinity canal water. About 100 kg of the gypsum
 material was placed in a pile at the head of the check in May and again in July. Gypsum simply
 dissolved into the water as it flowed out of the valve and down the 7.3m wide check.

 Defoliation of some trees, even in treated checks, was evident during the whole trial. Irrigation
 distribution uniformity down the check was 95%. The concentration of gypsum dropped sharply
 with distance from the head end. Volume balance infiltration tests between treated or untreated
 checks during gypsum application showed no difference the first two years, but increased to 10
 to 47% for the last two years. Stored water content (by neutron backscatter) showed only a 15%
 improvement in stored soil moisture. The final three year nut yield increased a significant
 317kg/ha/yr (10%) over the untreated trees. Nut size increased by 3.8%. The treatment cost was
 about $30 to $35/ha. Injection equipment (10 year depreciation) using high grade gypsum would
 cost about $80/ha for the same amount of free calcium. Over 3 years, this procedure returned the
 grower $7,030/ha (950 kg meats @ $7.40/kg) for a cost of $105/ha – a return of 6,695%.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             94
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     ADVANCED IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN SOIL GROWN
    GREENHOUSE CROPS AIMING AT DIMINISHING NUTRIENT
            LEACHING TO THE ENVIRONMENT.

                                   Wim Voogt, Aat van Winkel
           Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture,PO Box 20, 2665 ZG Bleiswijk,The Netherlands
                                         Wim.Voogt@wur.nl
                                          H




 In order to diminish pollution to ground- and surface water, reuse of drainage water is obligatory
 for substrate grown greenhouse crops in the Netherlands. However, for soil grown crops this
 method is unfeasible. In view of the European Nitrate Directive and the European Water
 Framework Directive, the Dutch Government put pressure on growers with soil grown crops to
 reduce the emission of nutrients and plant protection chemicals to the environment. In recent
 years a number of initiatives were launched focussing on improvements in irrigation
 management in order to reduce and minimize root zone leaching. Results are shown of
 experiments with irrigation scheduling based on the course of the soil moisture content, using
 electronic tensiometers as well as the new TDR and FD sensor techniques. Also Et models were
 used as decision support systems. In experimental and demonstrational projects, it was shown
 that substantial reduction in leaching and henceforth emission could be reached. However,
 implementation in commercial practice of these techniques and strategies showed to be
 ineffective. The main reasons for this are connected with site specific soil - and hydrological
 conditions and above all the growers mind-set of avoiding any risks of reduction in yield or
 produce quality. Therefore, as next step specific lysimeters were developed to make leaching
 more concrete for the grower, besides, to obtain on site data of the actual leaching process in
 order to make feed back control on the irrigation management possible. Results are shown of the
 first steps in the development of the lysimeter as additional instrument in an on-line irrigation
 and nutrient management tool for soil grown greenhouse crops.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             95
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       STRATEGY, TACTICS AND HEURISTICS FOR MANAGING
              NITRATE IN HORTICULTURAL CROPS

                                    Richard Stirzaker
                        CSIRO Land and Water - Canberra - Australia
                                richard.stirzaker@csiro.au
                                   H




 Recommendations for nitrogen fertiliser application to horticultural crops are usually based on
 empirical evidence. A trial is run with varying rates of nitrogen to generate a crop response
 function. This empirical data is useful but limited, because factors such as initial soil N,
 mineralisation rates and irrigation practices have a huge bearing on the outcome. Nevertheless
 farmers base their fertiliser strategy on such data, or their own informal experience. Since nitrate
 is easily leached, it is best to supply nitrogen fertiliser little and often. Depending on the
 available technology this may be possible, but most farmers adopt a compromise strategy of split
 applications. Few farmers add tactical information to the strategy, that is, the collection of data
 to check if it is necessary to adjust the strategy. Tactical information includes monitoring of soil
 or plant nitrogen status. Soil monitoring for nitrate is relatively easy with suction lysimeters and
 test strips, but is not commonly carried out. This is most likely because soil solution sampling is
 time consuming, and there are few agreed thresholds for action. In place of strategy and tactics,
 we offer heuristics for nitrogen management based around the use of wetting front detectors
 (WFD) www.fullstop.com.au . Heuristics are rules of thumb that give an approximate solution to
           H                   H




 a problem, subject to the operational constraints of the farmer. Since nitrate and water
 management are inextricable linked, we need to know both the depth that irrigation water is
 infiltrating to and the concentration of nitrate it is carrying. Simple heuristics may include: if a
 WFD in the lower part of the active root zone collects a water sample containing >50 mg/l, then
 irrigation is adjusted to ensure the detector does not collect water again for the next few
 irrigation events – i.e. less watering more often. Similarly side dressings are delayed until the
 nitrate concentration in the shallow detectors falls below 25 mg/l.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             96
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      SOIL WATER CONTENT VARIATIONS AS A WATER STRESS
                  INDICATOR IN PEACH TREES

      I. Abrisqueta1, J. Vera1, L.M. Tapia2, J.M. Abrisqueta1, M.C. Ruiz-Sánchez1
  1
   Dpto. Riego, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100
                                                Murcia, Spain
       2
         Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias (INIFAP), Uruapan, México
                                         H   mcruiz@cebas.csic.es


 The use of soil water sensors for irrigation management requires that soil water content be
 maintained within limits, the lower limit being slightly above that, at which crop begins to
 experience water stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether changes in the daily
 reduction in soil water content could be used to identify the beginning of plant water stress. For
 this, a trial was developed in a drip-irrigated mature peach tree orchard (Prunus persica L.
 Batsch, cv. Flordastar, on GF-677 rootstock) at the CEBAS-CSIC experimental station, in
 Santomera, Murcia (SE Spain). One drying cycle was applied to the trees (stress treatment)
 lasting one month and coinciding with the post-harvest stage. The soil water content (SWC) was
 measured continuously using multi depth-capacitance probes at 0.8 m depth; from the daily
 variations in SWC data four indices were calculated. To reduce the effect of climatic fluctuations
 the indices were normalised for ETo. The beginning of plant water stress was identified by the
 first statistically significant difference in midday stem water potential (ψstem) between stressed
 and control trees. The dates for both the indication and confirmation of plant water stress using
 the SWC-derived indices were determined. The “breaking point”, calculated as the transition
 from the relatively rapid rate to a slower rate of SWC reduction in the drying soil, coincided
 with the indication of plant water stress (Ψstem reduction). The results suggested that multi-depth
 capacitance probes can be used to provide a reasonably accurate in situ estimation of the SWC at
 which crops begin to suffer from water stress.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             97
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  REVIEW OF VEGETATION WATER CONTENT MEASUREMENT
                   TECHNOLOGIES

                             Carlos Schugurensky, Rogelio Fullana
     Instituto de Automática (INAUT), Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av.Libertador 1109 oeste, San
                                              Juan, Argentina
                                        carlosu@inaut.unsj.edu.ar
                                        H




 Vegetation Water Content (VWC) measurement technologies are reviewed with the aim of select
 one of them for his application in irrigation close loop automatic control. It is verified that the
 developed technologies present limitations that prevent until now his application in irrigation
 automatic control. This encourage the development of a new sensor based in the measurement of
 the dielectric permittivity of part of the crop canopy including more than one leaf, is noninvasive
 and allows on-line continuous measurements.

 Keywords: Vegetation water content (VWC), remote sensing, ground sensing, capacitive
 sensing, irrigation automatic control




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               98
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    CALIBRATION OF FDR (REFLECTOMETRY IN FREQUENCY
   DOMAIN) DEVICE, MODEL DIVINER 2000®, BY TENSIOMETRY

           V.S.S. Terra1, L. C. Timm, C. Reisser Jr.2C. F. A, Teixeira, L. Madaloz3
   1
       Pós – Graduação em Sistemas de Produção Agrícola Familiar Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel
             2
              Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Clima Temperado – EMBRAPA Pelotas – RS Brasil.
               3
                Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas – RS
                                                   Brasil
                                         reisser@cpact.embrapa.br
                                         H




 The methods for determining water soil content are normally classified as direct method where
 they allow a durect determination of soil humidity, and indirect when they allow to estimate it
 fron soil physical properties. FDR (Diviner 2000® model) is a relatively new direct method of
 determining water soil content. The calibration curse way be expressed after the connection
 between relative frequency and soil humidity. In this study a comparison was carried out among
 calibration curves of a device based in FDR technique, indirectly obtained from the connection
 between relative frequency and matrix potential obtained by tensiometry and its subsequent
 connection with volumetric humidity, by the water retention curve in soil, with those directly
 obtained in the field in 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60 and 0,75 m of depth and for the profile 0 – 0,75 m ,
 in a soil classified as “ Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo” (according to Brazilian system of
 classification of soils). The statistics indexes presented values “d” higher than 0,80, for “EF” the
 values were on the average 0,50, “CRM” varied from 0,15 to 0,42. For the equation that
 represents the indirect methodology a better adjustment was obtained for layer 0,15 m with
 deviations near zero.

 Keywords: irrigation, Diviner 2000®, volumetric humidity, FDR.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               99
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   CALIBRATION OF A CAPACITANCE PROBE MODEL DIVINER
       2000® FOR A “ARGISSOLO VERMELHO AMARELO”

           V.S.S. Terra1, L. C. Timm, C. Reisser Jr.2C. F. A, Teixeira, L. Madaloz3
   1
       Pós – Graduação em Sistemas de Produção Agrícola Familiar Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel
             2
              Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Clima Temperado – EMBRAPA Pelotas – RS Brasil.
               3
                Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas – RS
                                                   Brasil
                                         reisser@cpact.embrapa.br
                                         H




 The use of methodologies to determine the soil water content is very important for agriculture.
 The methods for determining the soil water content are normally classified as direct methods. In
 this study a capacitance probe model Diviner 2000® was used, calibrated for a “Argissolo
 Vermelho Amarelo” (according to Brazilian system of classification of soils), in the region of
 Pelotas-RS. Two access tubes and two levels of humidity (dry and saturated) were fitted . The
 readings were carried out from 0,15 m to 0,75 m, related to the volumetric humidity determined
 at the laboratory. The calibration equation presented high correlation (R² = 0,99) with standard
 error of 0,10 m³m-3 at a depth of 0,60 m. The manufacturer’s calibration curve is considered
 applicable to the superficial layers (sandy), so it is necessary a more detailed study for layers
 with more clay.

 Keywords: irrigation; Diviner 2000®; volumetric humidity; FDR-capacitance probe




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               100
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   IRRIGATION UNIFORMITY EFFECT OVER ECONOMIC CROP
                        YIELD
         López-Mata, E., Tarjuelo, J.M., de Juan, J.A., Artigao, A., Domínguez, A.
   Investigador, Centro Regional de Estudios del Agua (CREA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ctra.
                                   de Las Peñas km. 3.4, 02071 Albacete.
                                         Heulogio.lopez@uclm.es



 The MOPECO model is a decision making tool for selecting the optimal crops pattern that
 maximizes gross margin of an irrigation farm. In addition, this model offers the regulated deficit
 irrigation calendar that achieves the maximum yield under different conditioning factors (i.e.
 saline water, harvest sale prices variation or climatic conditions variation). Irrigation uniformity
 and deficit irrigation schedule have an effect on yield and water efficiency. It is interesting to
 analyze the uniformity effect in crop yield for a better approach to the reality, developing
 methodologies for obtaining the irrigation scheduling that allows yield maximization. MOPECO
 simulates the irrigation uniformity effect dividing farmland in m parts and applying different
 irrigations depth depending on Christiansen uniformity coefficient. To achieve better irrigation
 schedulers MOPECO uses an optimal deficit distribution algorithm in each crop stage. As
 application of the tool, four different irrigation schedulers has been applied with the same total
 water volume. The results show 9% more yield using the optimized irrigation scheduling that
 this used by the farmers. Results obtained by MOPECO can help to make irrigation decisions
 with limited water availability.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               101
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   SOIL MOISTURE PROFILES UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS
     ASSOCIATED WITH IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY OF DRIP
       IRRIGATION. CASE STUDIES FROM AVOCADO AND
             MANDARIN, LIMARI RIVER VALLEY

          Alfonso Osorio, Mauricio Cortes, Kattia Rypowski and Marcela Burgos
                                  Agricultural Research Institute, INIA
                                            aosorio@inia.cl
                                            H




 In six tests involved the application of irrigation rates achieved in Limarí River Valley (30 °
 36'Latitud South 71 ° 12'Longitud West and 218 m of altitude) in avocado orchards and
 mandarin for two seasons agricultural assessments were made in volumes of water applied,
 discharge of the drippers, irrigation frequency used and monitoring the water stored in the soil
 profile moisture by direct sampling with drill, done deeply and transversely to the drip lines and
 rows of plantation.

 In the cases studied it was possible to appreciate a wide variety of situations compared to water
 stored in the profile. In the vast majority of cases are found excess water conditions, both in the
 root zone and below it and in very few cases studied, the moisture in the root zone of trees,
 reaching levels close to permanent wilting percentage (PMP).

 This would reflect low levels of efficiency in the implementation and management of irrigation
 water through drip irrigation, regardless of the uniformity coefficient (CU) who report the
 droppers. This situation becomes much more problematic in those soils have textures with high
 percentages of clay, creating conditions of low aeration for root development. There is also a
 sharp departure from the profiles of moisture into the lower sectors or steeper, the plantation
 system, creating dried soil conditions and less humid in those higher areas, seriously affecting
 the growth of roots. In a complementary manner presents information obtained from rizotrones
 installed in some orchards.

 When calculating the relationship between the water stored in the root zone versus the total water
 available in the profile, yielded results between 44% and 73%, values that reflect inefficient
 irrigation conditions. This is consistent with inefficient practices of monitoring soil moisture in
 irrigation management in orchards. These results were corroborated by the high coefficients of
 variation (CV) in the moisture content in the profile, with values higher than 19.00% and with
 maximum value equal to 43,64% CV.

 The storage efficiency in some sectors was 100%, found excess moisture conditions. The
 percentage of non-usable water under the root zone, recorded values between 38% to 96%,
 obtained from the relationship between the volume of water existing on the PMP on soil pore
 space between PMP and Percent Saturation (PS).

 Keywords: drip irrigation, moisture profile, efficiency, water stored in the profile.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               102
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   FINANCIAL GAIN FROM THE HYDRAULICS IMPROVEMENT
   OF LOCALIZED IRRIGATION BY MICROJET TECHNIQUE IN
   AN AREA OF THE COOPERATIVE "ORGANOPONICO VIVERO
                       ALAMAR"
  M.Sc. Esequiel Rolando Jiménez Espinosa, Dr. Ricardo Pérez Hernández and Tec.
                            Laurel Hidalgo Fernández
                   Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje, La Habana, Cuba
                                          H  esequiel@iird.cu


 This work was carried out in the Cooperative ¨Organopónico Vivero Alamar¨, in Habana del
 Este municipality. Several field mensurations were carried out and hydraulic design to solve an
 effective problem of hydraulic deficiencies that exists in an area with micro sprinkle irrigation
 dedicated to the production of vegetables. The detected main deficiencies were: elevated
 hydraulic losses in the hole with 16 mm of diameter and floor flow values in the micro
 sprinklers. It provokes that is applied half of the irrigation dose should be applied. After, a new
 hydraulic design with good dimensions was proposed, where the correct application of water is
 guaranteed to the horticultural crops. The results hurtled that with the improvement of the
 watering system, the net utility increases in 28.8%, and the cost per production decreases at 0.41,
 while the relationship between cost of production and watering-cost increased from 4.62 to
 4.7%, the relationship benefits-cost increased to 1.07 USD of utility for each dollar of total cost.
 These results reveal the economic viability of the modification of the watering system. The
 workers of the study area will benefit with these results, because their salary stimulation will
 increase of 324.79 USD/workers/month at 385.71 USD/workers/month. Therefore, the above-
 mentioned rebounds in the improvement of life quality of the same ones.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             103
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     EFFECT OF MULCHING AND IRRIGATION ON CONTAINER-
                GROWN PLANT PRODUCTION

                         G. Amoroso(1), R. Piatti(1), P. Frangi(1), A. Fini(2)
   (1)
     Fondazione Minoprio - Centro MiRT, Viale Raimondi, 54, 22070, Vertemate con Minoprio (CO), Italy.
      (2)
         Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, University of Florence, Viale delle idee, 30, 50019 Sesto
                                             Fiorentino (FI), Italy
                                     Hg.amoroso@fondazioneminoprio.it



 Water stress is one of the primary constrains to plant productivity worldwide. Water availability
 for irrigation in agriculture and nursery industry will be reduced in the forthcoming years. Since
 weeds are strong competitors for water, sustainable methods for weed control may reduce water
 use in the nurseries. Biodegradable mulches can be an alternative to standard weed management
 and it is also reported that mulching can reduce evaporation from containers. An experiment was
 conducted at Fondazione Minoprio (Vertemate con Minoprio, Como, Italy; 45°44’ N, 9°04’ E),
 in order to evaluate the effect of mulching on daily water use. 480 plants of Thuja plicata
 'Atrovirens' were potted into 3 L containers. Four biodegradable mulching materials were tested
 and compared with both chemical control (oxadiazon) and unmulched control. Two types of
 overleaf irrigation were scheduled (normal water amount and 33% of normal water amount);
 moreover two weed managements were planned (hand weeding – 3 times during the growing
 season – and no weeding until the end of the trial). Growth of ornamental crop (plant height
 increase and shoot dry weight) was measured at the end of the growing season. Both weed
 number and weed shoot dry weight per container were recorded. Water content per pot (as a
 percentage) was evaluated weighting the containers every two hours during the day after the
 morning irrigation (5:30 AM - solar time). Substrate temperature was measured in the hottest day
 period. Mulch, normal irrigation regime and regular hand weeding affected positively plant
 growth. Weed dry weight was significantly higher only in unmulched control. Mulches didn't
 affect substrate water content; this result emphasizes that transpiration was the main component
 of water loss from the substrate. An inefficacy of mulching in order to limit root medium
 temperature was observed.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 104
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  ALTERNATIVE NURSERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: CLOSED-
            LOOP AND HIGH RETENTION MAT.

                                 R. Piatti, P. Frangi, G. Amoroso
    Fondazione Minoprio - Centro MiRT, Viale Raimondi, 54, 22070, Vertemate con Minoprio (CO), Italy
                                   g.amoroso@fondazioneminoprio.it
                                   H




 Current container-grown plant production practices utilize high volumes of both irrigation and
 fertilization to maximize plant growth. Inefficiencies of these management practices may lead to
 high chemical externalities, with environmental damage. Moreover in the next future the water
 availability for nursery irrigation is destined to decrease. As a consequence the nursery industry
 has to increase water use efficiency for plant production. In order to test different nursery
 management systems an experiment was conducted at Fondazione Minoprio (Vertemate con
 Minoprio, Como, Italy; 45°44’ N, 9°04’ E) in 2006. 9000 plants of three cultivars of Rosa
 hybrida (cv 'Cubana', 'Innocentia' and 'Pink Emily') were cultivated in 1,5 litres containers. Three
 different nursery management systems, realized in three nurseries of 300 m2 each-one, were
 compared. The first nursery was managed in a traditional way: overleaf irrigation with static
 sprinklers and without water recovery. Plants in the first nursery were fertilized with a
 controlled-release fertilizer added to the root medium. The second nursery was a closed-loop
 system: overleaf irrigation with static sprinklers and recover of the excess of solution in a 50 m3
 artificial basin for reuse. Plants in the second nursery were fertirrigated. The third nursery was
 realized with a high water retention mat (AquamatTM), in which the solution is served out
 directly in the mat and released to plants by capillarity. Water consumption for each nursery was
 recorded weekly during the trial and at the end of the experiment both shoot and root biomass
 were measured. For each cultivar shoot biomass resulted higher where the retention mat was
 used, while no differences were observed between traditional and closed-loop management.
 Greater root biomass was observed where the traditional management was used. The closed-
 loop system allowed 11% of water saving, while the sub-irrigation system allowed to save 40%
 of water if compared to the traditional system.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              105
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     ECONOMICS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION
                                       Frizzone, J.A1, Mateos, L.2
     1
         Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luis de Queiroz”, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil
                           2
                             Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, CSIC, Córdoba, Spain
                                               H ag1mainl@uco.es


 Deficit irrigation is more and more mentioned as an agronomic technique that contributes to save
 water and to increase water productivity. However, its adoption at farm level has been limited
 and irregular, likely because uncertainly threatens farmers to adopt practices that entail risk.
 Economic and psychological reasons that may help to understand the adoption of deficit
 irrigation are examined here. A set of mathematical expressions for determination of optimum
 water use under deficit irrigation are presented. The expressions use standard economic theory
 and past research. They are general provided that yield and cost functions are known. Yield
 functions were adjusted to polynomial expressions and cost functions to linear expressions. Net
 income was maximized under land area restriction or/and water availability restriction.
 Optimization is performed based on Lagrangian methods. The model is first applied to a single
 crop. Then it is extended to farm level, where multiple crops are grown. Finally, the response of
 farmers to deficit irrigation is examined in terms of risk, considering the spectrum from
 conservative to daring farmers. The analysis is illustrated using one practical case. The paper
 will end with a discussion about the implications of deficit irrigation on farm production, food
 security and regional production.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  106
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION PROGRAMS ON ‘STRAWBERRY
                FESTIVAL’ GROWTH AND YIELD

                Teresa Salamé, Bielinski M. Santos and Maricruz Ramirez
                 Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
                                          tsalame@ufl.edu
                                           H




 Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is a crop widely growth throughout the world.
 United States is the main producer, with the largest production areas concentrated in
 California and Florida. In the latter state, there are 2,800 ha under production and gross
 sales total over $330 million. A concern for Florida strawberry industry is the strict
 regulations on water use due to rapid urbanization and reduction of availability of this
 resource for agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of
 different irrigation programs on the yields of ‘Strawberry Festival’ strawberries. On the
 2007-08 and 2008-09 seasons, field trials were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and
 Education Center, University of Florida, at Balm, Florida. Six treatments consisted of
 combinations of three water volumes and two frequencies of irrigation. For the season
 2007-08 the water volumes were 100, 200 and 400 m3/ha/week, while for the season
 2008-09 were 100, 200 and 300 m3/ha/week. The irrigation frequencies were one and
 two cycles per day. The average reference evapotranspiration (ETo) value for strawberry
 production in West-Central Florida is approximately 200 m3/ha/week. Early and total
 yields were affected by irrigation volumes and number of cycles on the 2007-08 season.
 One irrigation cycle per day gave early yields of 14.3 t/ha using 100 m3/ha/week, and
 15.5 t/ha using 200 m3/ha/week, the use of more water that did not show any effect. In
 contrast, two cycles per day and 100 m3/ha/week had 17% higher early yields that those
 with only one cycle per day. For the 2008-09 season, there was no effect on early yields,
 and total yields were influenced by irrigation volumes when two irrigation cycles per
 day were used, increasing 22% from using 200 m3/ha/week. However, there were no
 significant changes in total yields when one irrigation cycle per day was used.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              107
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




              THEME AREA: IRRIGATION SYSTEMS, WATER
                 MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY
           EFFECT OF BASIN AND DRIP IRRIGATION ON SWEET
                 ORANGE GROWN IN LATERITE SOIL

                                   S. N. Ghosh and P. P. Pal
                Department of Fruits and Orchard Management,Faculty of Horticulture,
                 Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741 252, Nadia,
                                         West Bengal, India
                                     Hprofsnghosh@yahoo.co.in



 An investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of basin and drip irrigation on growth,
 production, fruit quality, foliar N, P, K values and soil moisture status in the orchard of sweet
 orange cv. Mosambi grown in laterite soil. Treatments included drip irrigation at 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0
 Epan with and without black polythene mulching, basin watering @ 30 litre/plant at 18 days
 interval + black polythene mulching and control (No watering + black polythene mulching). The
 experiment was laid out in R. B. D. with four replications. Results from 4 consecutive years of
 study indicated that vegetative growth of the plants greatly enhanced when irrigation through
 drip at 1.0 Epan + polythene mulching was provided. The plants received irrigation at 0.8 Epan +
 polythene mulching resulted maximum number of fruits per plant with superior in fruit quality in
 terms of highest TSS, sugar and vitamin C content. The fruit weight and size were maximum in
 the fruits of the plants which received irrigation at 1.0 Epan + polythene mulching. Foliar
 nitrogen content was highest in plants with drip irrigation at 0.8 Epan + polythene mulching
 while phosphorus and potassium content were non-significant among the treatments. Soil
 moisture status was highest in the plants with drip irrigation at 1.0 Epan + polythene mulching
 and lowest in control (No watering). Irrigation (drip or basin) of the plants during dry months
 resulted lower shoot drying as compared to no irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            108
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       IRRIGATION PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR BEST
     IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN AN IRRIGATION DISTRICT

                         José Roldán, María Díaz and Fátima Moreno
                Department of Agronomy, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
                  jroldan@uco.es , maripdiaz@hotmail.com , mfatima@uco.es
                  H                H   H                         H   H




 Water consumption in the Genil-Cabra irrigation district, located in the province of Cordoba,
 southern Spain, was studied using three irrigation performance indicators: relative irrigation
 supply (RIS); relative water supply (RWS) and relative rainfall supply (RRS). All indicators
 have been calculated as in a global way as grouping data according to crop type, irrigation
 method and soil texture. Data were collected in 31 plots using a telemeter system and transmitted
 via radio to a central computer. All information of agronomic and hydraulic variables was
 incorporated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to ease its management.

 RIS is the best indicator to interpret the irrigation management done by the farmer. Because of
 RIS values vary between 0,54 and 0,85 for the eight irrigation seasons (2001-2008) considered,
 applied irrigations are deficit irrigations. RWS values are greater than RIS values varying
 between 0,65 and 0,89, meaning that crops suffer water stress in some moment during the
 growth season. Variability of RRS values is lower than those of the other indicators, fluctuating
 between 0,39 and 0,54. In this last case, indicator value shows the amount in which precipitation
 satisfies crop water requirements.

 Farmers fit irrigations to the crops but not necessarily to the climatology. However, during the
 years we have taken field data, sometimes mean annual precipitation has been below normal
 values and, sometimes, the availability of irrigation water has been reduced.

 Irrigation management for the farmer as a function of the crop type has been normal in the case
 of olive tree, cotton, sunflower and corn. We have found deficit irrigation for asparagus and
 sugar beet because both crops, with high water requirements, are unviable if we have an
 irrigation season with water restrictions or with low rainfall. On the contrary, wheat and garlic
 are crops excessively irrigated taking into account that both are winter crops with low water
 requirements. In any case, we are talking about mean values and almost 50% of values show an
 incorrect irrigation.

 The mean values of performance indicators we have calculated are very useful to study a general
 trend through times but are not sufficient to characterize the total irrigation area, more than 7.000
 ha.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                   109
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      SUKA KOLLUS, ANCESTRAL ECOSYSTEM OF WATER-SOIL-
        COP MANAGEMENT FOR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.)
        PRODUCTION IN THE WATERSHED OF TITICACA LAKE

    José Roldán1, René Chipana2, Fátima Moreno1 , Hugo Bosque2and José Luis del
                                         Pino3
              1
                Department of Agronomy, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
              2
                Faculty of Agronomy, University Mayor of San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia
              3
                Department of Medieval History, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain
  jroldan@uco.es , renechipana@yahoo.com ,, mfatima@uco.es , hugobosque@yahoo.es ,
  H                H   H                         H   H                H   H                           H




                                    ca1pigaj@uco.es
                                        H




 The inhabitants of the Andes developed several technologies for integrated management of
 water, soil and crop mainly in the area surrounding Titicaca Lake, a land which now belongs to
 Peru and Bolivia. One of them is suka kollus; platforms built above ground level and surrounded
 by channels for water circulation. This agroecosystem characterizes the Tiwanaku culture and
 began to be used about 2000 years ago, being important in the production of food mainly sweet
 and bitter potatoes (Solanum tuberosum and Solanum andigenum). This technology is very
 appropiated in flooded areas or susceptible to flooding like the land located around Titicaca lake.
 The one-crop farming was practically impossible due to the increase of nematodes population in
 the soil. Then, a fallow period of about ten years must be incorporated in the crop rotation
 cycles.
 During the last three decades, potato crop has been widely practiced in this agroecosystem and
 very high yields were obtained, varying between 4000 and 71000 kg ha-1 depending on crop
 variety, soil fertility, location and irrigation water management. These yields were higher than
 those obtained in traditional system of cropping (pampean or high plateau lands and dry farming)
 in almost all cases. In fact, several traditional systems had no annual production due to frost,
 whereas suka kollus generate a microclimate that mitigates the negative effect of frost.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            110
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      ANALYSIS OF IRRIGATION DEMAND AND MONITORING OF
        IRRIGATION EFFECTS IN HORTICULTURE SYSTEMS

                                    Schindler, U. and L. Müller
                                      ZALF Müncheberg, Germany
                                          uschindler@zalf.de
                                           H




 High and stable yields of horticultural crops require controlled water and nutrient supply in all
 phases of biomass production. Water and solute deficits can lead to stress and yield loss as well
 as reducing crop quality also when it occurs in short periods. Irrigation systems allow the
 optimum control of soil water and nutrient conditions. On the other hand, excess of water can
 result in plant growth stress too because of perched water and deficiency of air in the soil as well
 as leaching of solutes. Therefore, a sustainable and high productive irrigation management of
 horticultural crops requires:

 1.         A sustainable soil water and fertilizer management
 2.         Mitigation of water and solute losses by leaching

 To meet this claim, beside suitable irrigation technics information on the temporal demand on
 water and fertilizers of the horticultural crops are required. Furthermore, methods must be
 available which enable the monitoring of soil water and fertilizer management relating to
 sustainability.

 This paper deals with:

 1. Requirements of horticultural crops on irrigation demand.
 2. Novel instruments for monitoring the irrigation quality.
 3. The importance of soils for irrigation management and methods for quantifying soil
    hydrological properties.
 4. Method for monitoring of deep drainage and solute leaching by soil hydrological
    measurements.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                             111
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




            IMPROVING WATER EFFICIENCY: THE IRRIGATION
                ADVISORY SERVICE OF CRETE, GREECE
                     K. Chartzoulakis, I. Kasapakis and D. Tzobanoglou
  NAGREF-Institute for Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants, Dept. of Irrigation and Water Resources, 73100
                                         Chania, Crete, Greece
                                        kchartz@nagref-cha.gr
                                         H




 Irrigation advisory services can play an important role in assisting farmers to adopt new
 technologies and increase water efficiency, minimizing environmental risks and contributing to
 the sustainability of agricultural sector. This work presents the development and operation of a
 tele-information system available to farmers for irrigation scheduling, based on real-time data
 (climatic, soil, crop) using modern technologies aiming to promote sustainable and rational use
 of irrigation water. The system is developed in a semi-arid region of Crete, Greece with a total
 area of 53,000 hectares, irrigated with localised systems. The farmers irrigate empirically and
 tend to “play safe”, increasing irrigation water amount, especially when water price is low. As a
 result about 25 % of applied water is lost, while at the same time tensions and conflicts with
 other sectors (urban, tourism) arise during peak months (July, August). After a study for the
 variability of climatic conditions in each study area for a period of 30 years (1975-2004),
 automatic meteorological stations were installed for monitoring the climatic data. Soil map
 database in GIS form has been created using the results of soil analysis for each area. Daily crop
 evapotranspiration (ETc) is calculated using reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop
 coefficient (Kc) for each growth stage, based on the literature and experience in the area. In
 cases of reduced water availability (dry years), instead of the full irrigation requirements, those
 satysfying the water needs for the critical growth stages of each crop are being calculated. An
 automated interactive telephone service has been installed to give, upon request, the irrigation
 information to the farmers at any time, through speech recognition technology. The farmers of
 the study areas are trained for the use of the automated telephone-based service, giving to the
 system the required information (place of the farm, crop, soil type, system of irrigation, date of
 last irrigation). For each single call the system compiles all the relevant information in order to
 calculate the optimun irrigation dose. Demonstration fields (olive, avocado, citrus and
 grapevines) are installed in order to check if the suggested irrigation doses are sufficient for
 optimal crop growth and production. During the first two years of function the calculated
 irrigation requirements by the system were 9-20%, depending on the crop, less than those
 applied empirically by the farmers, especially when there were no limitations in water supply by
 the network. The application of suggested irrigation doses by the system in the demonstration
 fields maintain the soil water content at optimum levels for plant growth at the depth of 0-100
 cm. Furthermore, the plant water status (leaf water potential) and gas exchange (photosynthesis,
 stomatal conductance) data recorded, confirmed that the plants are grown at optimum soil water
 conditions. The technical, social and economic limitations for the advisory system are discussed.

 Keywords: Irrigation; water efficiency; crop water requirements; water conservation




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                               112
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   IRRIGATION SCHEDULING AND USE OF BLACK POLYTHENE
       MULCH IN BARAMASI LEMON TO CONTROL FRUIT
          CRACKING AND IMPROVE FRUIT QUALITY

                                         Savreet Sandhu1
                  1
                   Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
                                    savreetkhehra@rediffmail.com
                                    H




 Moisture regulation is of utmost importance to get targeted fruit quality in lemon. As lemon is
 confronted with serious problem of fruit cracking in conjunction with poor fruit quality so timely
 scheduling of irrigation and moisture conservation needs to be emphasized on priority as
 inadequacy of water at critical stage of fruit development adversely affects the quality and
 productivity of lemon. Split fruits, poor in fruit quality are unmarketable and thus result in a
 great loss to the grower. High temperatures, low humidity and low soil moisture conditions
 during fruit development promote poor fruit quality. Sharp fluctuations in the day and night
 temperature coupled with heavy irrigation after dry spells contribute towards fruit cracking. An
 adequate irrigation to the bearing trees during fruit growth and development is beneficial. Thus,
 present study is an endeavour in this direction. To combat this serious problem in lemon during
 peak summer period, an experiment comprising of six irrigation treatments at different ASMD,
 with and without mulching were conducted at "Punjab Government Progeny Orchard & Nursery,
 Attari, Amritsar" during the fruiting years 2006 and 2007. Use of black polythene as mulch in
 combination with 20% ASMD proved most effective in reducing fruit cracking and to get
 superior quality of fruit during dry summers. The fruit splitting is most likely to occur shortly
 before maturity when rain or irrigation follows a period of drought. Thus, cutting short the
 irrigation intervel during peak summer period and the use of black polythene as mulch, resulted
 in attractive fruit maintaining consumer appeal in taste, appearance and storability. Lemon
 cultivation is becoming exceedingly popular because of its utilization in more different ways
 than any other citrus fruit. Hence, the moisture regulation in lemon has to be worked out
 systematically for making lemon cultivation a successful venture.


 Keywords: Irrigation, mulching, black polythene, citrus limon, baramasi, fruit cracking, fruit
 quality.

 Section: Irrigation scheduling using soil water content measurements, weather stations network
 and remote sensing.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              113
                                      VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        IMPLEMENTATION OF PRECISELY SCHEDULED LOW-
       FREQUENCY IRRIGATION ON STEEP SLOPES IN A COOL
       CLIMATE GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) GROWING REGION

                                 Bernd R. Gruber and Hans R. Schultz
                Geisenheim Research Center, Section of Viticulture, D-65366 Geisenheim, Germany.
                                           bernd.r.gruber@fa-gm.de
                                            H




 Observing grapevine water relations in a temperate, humid wine growing region with summer
 rainfall (Rheingau, Germany), frequently occurring periods of short-lived but pronounced
 drought stress (predawn water potential Ψ < -1 MPa) on sites with low soil water holding
                                                   pd
 capacity were revealed. It was tested whether irrigation can be successfully implemented in this
 type of traditionally non-irrigated quality wine growing regions. In order to minimize the risks of
 over-supply even by unpredictable short-to-medium term precipitation events, a low-frequency
 irrigation concept using Ψ as scheduling parameter in combination with decision intervals of
                                 pd
                                                                                2
 one week and low amounts of water per irrigation event (approx. 4 L/m ) was applied. Yield and
 quality characteristics of six consecutive years demonstrate the pronounced benefits achievable
 with careful irrigation timing in vineyards with low soil water holding capacity despite applying
                                                                2
 only low amounts of additional water (approx. 30 L / m a). Correlations of midday stem water
 potential (Ψ ) and midday leaf water potential of transpiring leaves (Ψ ) compared to predawn
                  st                                                             tl
 water potential (Ψ ), covering a wide range of evaporative demand and water availability, were
                        pd
 assessed over several years. Pronounced differences between these parameters in characterizing
 actual plant water status were revealed, particularly in the range of moderate stress where
 decisions about irrigation have to be taken. In addition, comparisons with analogous correlations
 from other wine growing regions show a different relationship between water availability and
 vine water status during the day, complicating transfer of concepts established in regions with
 higher evaporative demand.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                  114
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          A SURVEY ABOUT SCHEDULING IRRIGATION
      HORTICULTURISTS PRACTICES AND WISHES AMONG 300
         HORTICULTURISTS OF SOUTH-WEST OF EUROPE

      C. Isbérie1, R. Riachi1, M. Erena-Arrabal2, F. Alcon3, B. Saphy4, J. Girona5, J.
                  Castel6, Luis Bonet6, N. Conceição7, T. Paço7, P. Debert8
                         1
                          Cemagref, UMR G-EAU, Aix-en-Provence, France
                                       2
                                         IMIDA, Murcia, Spain
                                     3
                                      UPCT, Cartagena, Spain
                                 4
                                   UNICOQUE, Cancon, France
                                          5
                                           IRTA, Lleida, Spain
                                       6
                                         IVIA, Valencia, Spain
                                        7
                                          ISA, Lisbon, Portugal
                                       8
                                         ACMG, Agen, France
                                    carole.isberie@cemagref.fr
                                    H




 The project PRECIRIEG "Network of concerted actions in horticulture for accurate and
 watersaving irrigation scheduling in SUDOE" from the European Regional Program INTERREG
 SUDOE, has associated during 18 months scientists from Spain, Portugal and South-West of
 France. The aim of the project was to share methods and strategies of irrigation scheduling and,
 if possible, to bring improvements and innovations. For this, we also wanted to better take into
 account the interests and motivations of farmers in this topic.

 To this end, a survey about irrigation scheduling in horticulture and viticulture has been
 conducted with farmers of the 7 regions of the European project. The one hand was to better
 understand wich methods farmers used, and how, and wich advantages or disadvantages they
 noticed. This was compared with what they knew of all the different scheduling methods used in
 their region. On the other hand we wanted to express their wishes of additional knowledge about
 the techniques themselves but also their operational support needs.

 The questionnaire was divided into five main parts: 1) wich was the knowledge by the farmer of
 the irrigation scheduling methods used in horticulture in their region; 2) wich irrigation
 scheduling techniques they used themselves on their farm: water balance, measures about soil /
 plant / crop / atmosphere, "feeling", and wich changes they had done in recent years; 3) what
 technical support they had in their region; 4) a description of crops, soils and methods of
 irrigation and control of it on the farm; 5) how they managed the data acquired for scheduling.

 300 farmers have responded to the questionnaire. This paper summarizes the results. 52% of
 farmers said they were using their"feeling" to schedule… Nevertheless, 44% used water balance
 elements, and 30% measurements in soils, -water content and tensiometry mainly. Most records
 are handly made, and analyzed weekly. It appeared also a great variability in the price of water
 depending of the region. In conclusion, improvements are suggested, including passing through a
 better knowledge of the amounts of water applied.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                          115
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    A SIMPLE SOIL-PLANT-ATMOSPHERE MODEL IN SIMULINK
              FOR IRRIGATION CONTROL TESTING

                            R. Romero1, J. L. Muriel and I. Garcia
                1
                  IFAPA, Centro Las Torres-Tomejil Alcaládel Río, Sevilla, Spain
                        Hrafael.romero.vicente.ext@juntadeandalucia.es


 The aim of this poster is to present a simple soil-plant-atmosphere model that has been
 developed, using Matalb’s Simulink, to test different irrigation control strategies. Simulink is an
 environment for multidomain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded
 systems. It provides an interactive graphical environment and a customizable set of block
 libraries that let you design, simulate, implement, and test a variety of time-varying systems. Our
 model requires daily evapotranspiration (Eto) and Rainfall inputs, and initial values for root
 depth and LAI, generating water content outputs in every soil layer (thetai). Evaporation and
 Transpiration, Root and LAI growth and Water Balance models were implemented in Simulink
 blocks. In addition, blocks to control irrigation were designed and tested. The virtual platform
 was used to simulate different irrigation control strategies easily because of its graphical and
 highly intuitive nature.




 Fig.1 Control Scheme. Simulink design to test control estrategies. Stress index (defined
 as TR/TP) is used as set point by the PID controller to generate irrigation commands.
 (Yellow blocks: inputs; orange block: outputs




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            116
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




            SURFACE IRRIGATION PERFORMANCE IN THE UPPER
              TUNUYÁN RIVER BASIN MENDOZA, ARGENTINA

                       Schilardi, C.1,2, J. A. Morábito2,3 , Vallone, R.C.2,4
        1
            Departamento General de Irrigación , España y Barcala - Ciudad - Mendoza -
                                               Argentina.
                              2
                                Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias-UNCuyo
                     3
                       Instituto Nacional del Agua – Centro Regional Andino
                                        4
                                          E.E.A. INTA Mendoza
                                    H eschila@irrigacion.gov.ar


 The irrigated area in the Upper Tunuyán Basin comprises 41,601 hectares with surface irrigation
 rights. It is, therefore, essential to develop indicators to determine irrigation water use efficiency
 –which will, in turn, help to detect the main problems and to find solutions for the sustainable
 development of the basin.

 The overall objective of this study is to obtain information on irrigation water use within the
 agricultural properties in the command area of the Upper Tunuyán River and to determine the
 potential efficiencies to be achieved considering possible operational changes and salt balance.
 Surface irrigation methods, with and without tailwater runoff, prevail in the basin. Walker &
 Skogerboe’s methodology (1987) and the ASAE standards (1999) were used.

 Soil and irrigation characteristics include: furrow irrigation with runoff; sandy-loam soil
 textures; 0.87% slopes; soil salinity from 0 to 100 cm: 1.12 dSm-1; irrigation water salinity: 0.70
 dSm-1; managed and unit flows of 53 L s-1 y 1.24 L s-1m-1 respectively; 123 m long irrigation
 plots; 7-hour application periods; and 5.3 mm h-1 basic soil infiltration.

 The following results were obtained: on-farm irrigation efficiency (39%); and conveyance,
 application, storage and distribution efficiencies: 91%, 43%, 99% and 91%, respectively.
 Potential efficiency may rise to 68% if plot irrigation management is improved; it may well be
 higher than 68% if the salt balance is taken into account.


 Key words: surface irrigation, performance indicators, Upper Tunuyán




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                              117
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  WATER PERCOLATION LOSSES AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
  ESTIMATION IN FRUIT CROPS UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION IN
                 THE SOUTH OF HAVANA.

        Teresa López1, Manuel R. Rodríguez, Roberto Martínez, Geisy Hernández,
                    Felicita González, Yoíma Chaterlán y Greco Cid.
    1
     Instituto de Investigaciones de Riego y Drenaje. (IIRD). Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG). Apdo
                            Postal 6090. C. Habana. Cuba. TeleFax: (537) 91 1038
                                              H teresa@iird.cu


 The present work resume the results of experiences done in the Experimental Station of the
 Irrigation and Drainage Research Institute, in Alquízar in south of Havana, for water losses
 definition in drip irrigation systems and evapotranspiration estimation in banana and papaya
 crops. It was analyzed the water flux behavior in a Ferralsol soil that is characteristic of this
 region, under surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The results shows that the water flux rate
 that percolate or income to the crop root zone depend of among of applied water and water
 content previous to irrigation or rain. In surface drip irrigation in general were high diary water
 losses from crop root zone and high water contents and hydraulic conductivity values in upper
 profile depths. In surface drip irrigation about 80% of water storage depletion in soil profile
 occurs in the depth of 0-45 cm from soil surface and also the main contribution to the total crop
 evapotranspiration, while in sub superficial treatments the zone of major diary variations of
 water storage and water root extraction increase to 30-70 cm. The water balances shows that
 water redistribution losses in the case of superficial drip irrigation can be as 20-60% of total
 water inputs and to no considerer these losses can bring as a consequence important errors in
 estimation of actual crop evapotranspiration.

 Key words: root zone water flux quantification; water balances.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                 118
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




         MINERAL NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF MUSKMELON
                IRRIGATED WITH EFFLUENT WATER

                           H. Nerson1 M. Edelstein1 and M. Ben Hur2
     1
         Department of Vegetable Crops, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar
                  Research Center, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel.
          2
            Institute of Soil, water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research
              Organization, Volcani Center, P.O .Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
                                  H hnerson@volcani.agri.gov.il


 Insufficient fresh water for agriculture in semi-arid regions has led to a search for alternative
 water sources, and as result the use of effluent in crops irrigation has increased markedly over
 the past decade. This growing trend has raised a number of new issues such as the validity of
 established fertilization recommendations. Effluent has two main contradictory characters that
 may affect crop production. Effluent water contains nutrient elements that may be beneficial for
 plant growth, but may also contain high levels of heavy metals and microflora which may be
 harmful to the crop. The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether irrigation
 with effluent water may be a partial or complete alternative to mineral nutrient supply for
 muskmelon grown under field conditions. Muskmelon plants were grown under three levels of
 nitrogen and phosphorus (0, 60 and 100 kg NP/hectare) and irrigated with fresh or effluent water
 sources. Irrigation with effluent water consistently enhanced vegetative plant growth in the
 control plots (0 NP). The dry weight of the shoots were 4.5, 1.9, 2.6 and 2.3 folds higher than
 those grown with fresh water 10 days after emergence, at flowering, at fruit-set and at initiation
 of fruit harvest, respectively. The positive influence of effluent water on vegetative development
 was also significant; although to a lesser extent, in the fertilized treatments. This vegetative
 growth enhancement resulted in a higher early fruit yield (first week of harvest), and on average
 the early yield of plots irrigated with effluent and fresh water were 48% and 19% out of the total
 seasonal yield, respectively. The highest total yield was obtained from fertilized plots (41.4
 tons/hectare), and the lowest one by unfertilized plots (28.6 tons/hectare), irrigated with fresh
 water. The mean yield of plots irrigated with effluent water was intermediate (34.5 tons/hectare).
 There was a significant interaction between water source and fertilization with respect to fruit-
 yield. When plants were irrigated with fresh water, fertilizer applications increased yields,
 whereas fertilizer addition, under irrigation with effluent water did not affect fruit yield.
 Irrigation with effluent water increased fruit quality in appearance and sweetness (TSS),
 resulting nullification of the total yield gap to no differences in commercial yields between plots
 irrigated by the different water sources.

 The results of the present study suggest that effluent water may be an alternative to mineral
 fertilization of melon crop without causing any decrease in commercial fruit yield, and with
 advantages in early yield and fruit quality. Nevertheless, it is impossible to ignore the fact that
 effluent water had a deleterious effect on yield potential (total yield) which may be connected to
 the phenomenon of earlier fruit-set.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            119
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  ATMODRIPPER SYSTEM FOR PRECISION PLANT IRRIGATION
                                 A. G. Calbo1, W. A. Marouelli2
                1
                    Embrapa Instrumentação Agropecuária, São Carlos, SP Brazil
                            2
                              Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, DF Brazil
                                   adonai@cnpdia.embrapa.br
                                   H




 Atmodripper is a trickle irrigation system in which the water out-flow is controlled by an air
 influx. This system enables real time adjustments of the water out-flow and make drippers less
 susceptible to clogging, because water flows through tubes with an internal diameter between 3
 and 5 mm. The atmodripper can be used to deliver very small water fluxes, bellow 5 mL/h,
 needed to irrigate pots with hydrophobic substrate, to high fluxes, above 1.0 L/h, frequently
 needed for soil applications. The system can be assembled in two ways: a) linear unities to
 irrigate field crops; and b) radial (bubbler) unities to irrigate plant pots in domestic and
 greenhouse environments. In both conditions the water out-flow can be controlled by: a) air flow
 control – the water flow increases linearly between zero and 1.0 L/h and non linearly between
 1.0 and about 3.0 L/h; and b) water pressure control –for a constant air flux the water flow
 increases according a relative height between the air inlet and the dripping outlet tube level. By
 conveying air with water this system enables complementary actions: a) improvement of the soil
 aeration; and b) the actuation of Irrigas® sensors through special air driven valves and irrigation
 controllers that allow water flow only when the soil water tension is greater than the reference
 value of such sensors. If a sensor/controller is coupled to each dripper the irrigation can be
 performed to attend the water requirement of each plant/pot. Consequently, the atmodripper is a
 new tool for precision irrigation and fertigation of fruits, ornamentals, vegetables, and seedlings
 in open fields, greenhouse, and domestic environment.

 Keywords: atmodripper, dripper, Irrigas®, irrigation scheduling, precision irrigation.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            120
                            VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                            November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           VINEYARD IRRIGATION COULD BECOME THE RULE
            TOMORROW IN SOME FRENCH VINEYARD AREAS

                         N. Brisson1, P. Pieri, E. Lebon, B. Itier
                                INRA – Avignon – France
                                 brisson@avignon.inra.fr
                                 H




 Vine is successfully grown under moderate water deficit conditions and French rules of
 wine production are not in favor of irrigation. Yet climate change in the southern part of
 France is expected to decrease rainfall and consequently to deteriorate vine water status.
 It is then worthwhile to analyze the consequences of such an evolution on the
 production. Another way to handle the problem is to estimate the quantity of irrigation
 water required to maintain the vine water status at a level comparable of what was
 experienced in the past thirty years.

 Within the project CLIMATOR, we investigate these issues by analyzing the impact of
 climate change on vineyard systems, in several locations. This presentation aims at
 presenting modeling results on the evolution of vineyard water status under rainfed
 conditions and water requirement under deficit irrigation conditions, for some well
 known vineyard French areas (Bordeaux, Toulouse, Avignon and Dijon). Those results
 come from changes in water balances and phenological calendars. As far as the future is
 concerned, it is crucial that results are accompanied by estimates of uncertainties and
 sources of variability. This is done within the project by the parallel use of several
 climate downscaling methods, several vine models (STICS, BHV), genotypes
 (Chardonnay, Merlot, Grenache), soil types and planting densities.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                      121
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF NIÑO AND NIÑA EVENTS ON
       WATER BALANCE OF GRAPEVINE (CV. CABERNET
        SAUVIGNON) IN CENTRAL VALLEY OF CHILE

     H. Valdés-Gómez1,2, N. Brisson2, C. Acevedo-Opazo3, C. Gary4 and S. Ortega-
                                       Farías3
     1
       : Universidad de Talca, Fac. de Ingeniera, Escuela de Ingeniería en Bioinformática, Av. Lircay s/n,
                                                   Talca, Chile
                    2
                      : INRA, Agroclim, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon, France
        3
          : Universidad de Talca, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, CITRA, Avenida Lircay s/n, Talca, Chile
 4
   : INRA, UMR SYSTEM (Cirad-Inra-Montpellier SupAgro), 2 place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex
                                                    2, France
                                           H   hevaldes@utalca.cl



 The tendency for more frequent events of El Niño Southern Oscillation Event (ENSO) since
 the late 1970's has been questioned about how anticipate the irrigation management strategies of
 the crops, and, particularly in grapevine in central valley of Chile. Niño events are characterised
 to high rain and moderated temperatures whereas Niña events produce the contrary effects. In
 this context a research was carried out to evaluate the effects of both climatic phenomenons on
 the water balance of a grapevine cv. Cabernet sauvignon, the main cultivar growing in this
 region. STICS model, which was previously calibrated and validated for grapevine in Talca
 Valley, was chosen to carry out the simulation of water balance. This model was combined with
 a climatic database of eight years of ENSO events (four years of Niño and four years of Niña)
 and the soil type of Talca series. The irrigation scheduling was managed automatically by the
 model and then it varied between years. The remaining crop practices were provided as input and
 then were the same for all years. A descriptive climatic analysis for the normally grapevine
 growth period (between middle September and end March) showed a climate water deficit
 (Precipitation - Potencial evapotranspiration) systematically and significantly higher (average of
 27 % higher) in Niña events (-861 mm) compared to Niño events (-677 mm). However,
 simulation results showed that grapevine transpiration was only 4% higher in Niña events
 (277 mm) than in Niño events (267 mm). Also seasonal irrigation application calculated by the
 model was 238 mm in dry years compared to 219 mm in humid years. The date of the first
 irrigation was not very different between years and it was estimated around December 4. These
 surprising results can be explained by the grapevine phenology, thus in Niña events budbreak
 takes place at the beginning of October whereas in Niño events this stage arrive in the middle of
 September. Then total grapevine growth period (budbreak to harvest) is 14 days longer in Niño
 than Niña years because harvest date in general is estimated at the same date for both types of
 years. Finally, when was studied other water balance variables, as run-off and deep percolation,
 but for all the year (not only the growing season) we can observe that in Niño events both
 variables are twice larger than in Niña events. Average values of run-off and percolation were
 588 mm and 170 mm in humid years and 272 mm and 70 mm in dry years, respectively.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                122
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TOMATO PRODUCTIVITY
   AND WATER REQUIREMENTS IN A MEDITERRANEAN AREA

                    M. Rinaldi1*, L. D’Andrea1, D. Ventrella1, M. Moriondo2
                1
            CRA - Unità di Ricerca per i Sistemi Colturali degli Ambienti caldo-aridi, Bari - Italia
   2
    Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche e Gestione del Territorio Agro-Forestale, Università di Firenze -
                                                    Italia
                                           Hmichele.rinaldi@entecra.it

 Temperature and CO2 are two of the main environmental factors associated with climate change. It is
 generally expected that elevated CO2 concentration will increase crop production. However, other
 environmental factors such as temperature along with management practices could further modify the crop
 response to CO2.

 In Southern Italy, the processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) represents one of the most
 intensive forms of land use in terms of water requirement. In Mediterranean area, where water resources
 are limited, is important to optimize irrigation use efficiencies via use of improved irrigation management
 practices.

 The aim of this simulation study was to determine the effects of climate change (different temperature and
 CO2 concentration) on crop productivity and water requirements of three tomato cultivars (different crop
 cycle lengths in terms of heat units).

 The climate changes impact on irrigation practices can be assessed by mathematical models. In this work
 was used the i_EPIC (Interactive_Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) crop simulation model, version
 n. 5300.

 Thirty-six different scenarios featuring “heat units x irrigation water x climate change” were simulated: 3
 different cultivars; 4 irrigation water amounts; 3 weather data-set.
 The cultivars were different for the cycle length: 1800, 2200 and 2600 heat units. The irrigation water was
 applied with seasonal amount of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mm, varying the amount of water supply (10, 20,
 30 and 40 mm) at 5-day interval. The climatic scenarios were: - past of 31 years (Past from 1975 at 2005
 with 360ppm for CO2,) and two futures of 100 years (Anomaly_2 with +2 °C with 550ppm for CO2,
 Anomaly_5 with +5 °C with 360ppm for CO2). Daily weather data used for simulation for the Past were
 supplied by JRC (MARS–Meteorological Data Base-EC-JRC, http://mars.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ ), whereas data-
                                                                H                             H




 set of c1imatic future projections (Anomaly_2 and Anomaly_5) was generated by the Past and downscaled
 at higher resolution by means of a statistics approach, generated on the LARS-WG model.

 Crop management dates were implemented in input files, according to local practice and crop parameters
 were obtained from previous validation and calibration studies.

 Main results indicated higher yield in early variety (1800 HU) and an optimal seasonal irrigation
 application between 400 and 600 mm. The effect of warmer climatic scenarios was positively
 compensated with CO2 higher concentration: this simulation study showed as in the future (Anomaly_2
 and Anomaly_5) there is the probability to obtain a greater tomato fruit yield in dry matter (10 and 11 t ha-
 1
   ) than in the Past (7 t ha-1).

 In conclusion, the model was confirmed to be a useful decision support system to verify the optimal crop
 management strategy for future climate change.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                   123
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                METHODOLOGIES FOR SELECTION TO DROUGHT
                       TOLERANCE IN POTATOES

          C. Reisser Júnior1; C. M. Castro1; Medeiros, C.A.B1.; Pereira, A. da S1.,
                                      G.C. Carvalho2
                   1
                    Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuárias de Clima Temperado – EMBRAPA
                                            Pelotas – RS - Brazil
          2
            Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Federal de Pelotas-Pelotas-RS Brazil
                                        Hreisser@cpact.embrapa.br


 The potato breeding program of Embrapa aims to enhance germplasm and develop new cultivars
 adapted to subtropical and tropical ecosystems. One of the objectives of germplasm enhancement
 is to improve for traits that mitigate the expected impacts of global warming, such as heat and
 drought tolerance. The objective of this work was to study selection methods for drought
 tolerance. The work has been carried on tested at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS,
 Brasil, since 2007. The methods, based on “reposition of evapotranspiration” in small plastic
 bags, polyethilenoglycol 6000 (PEG) in substrate and PEG in hydroponics. These methods have
 been tested in plastic house, and use plants from tissue culture. To validate de results
 experiments were carried out in the field. The three dry tolerance methods revealed differences
 among the potato genotypes; the tuber yield and the total plant dry matter showed to be the most
 sensitive variables; and the use of PEG in hydroponics, showed to be the simplest method, but
 more expensive than the.

 Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L., hydroponics, water balance, water deficit.




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                                124
                             VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    IRRIGATION OF FRUIT ORCHARDS UNDER FUTURE WATER
                       CONSTRAINTS

                           Luis A. Gurovich1 y Patricio Prieto1
                  1
                  Universidad Católica de Chile - P. O. Box 30622 Santiago – Chile
                                         lgurovic@puc.cl
                                         H




 Irrigation strategies under water constraint availability, due to climactic change and
 high energy costs for fruit production in the future are discussed for several alternative
 scenarios. Yield and quality optimization, related to total irrigation water applied and /
 or to energy inputs for irrigation, rather maximization of orchard productivity by
 unitary area is postulated as the future relevant goal in fruit production management
 technologies.

 The use of precise agriculture methods, and intensive control of soil water availability
 by means of phytomonitoring and micro – environmental sensoring, will completely
 transform fruit orchard production technology as it is practiced today, not only in
 relation to water irrigation application, but also in integrated chemigation and tree vigor
 control practices.

 Keywords: Future fruit production technology, irrigation water constraints




Oral Lectures
                                                                                                            125
          VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                  POSTERS




Posters
                                                                                    126
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      WATER USE BY DRIP-IRRIGATED EARLY-SEASON PEACH
                           TREES

   I. Abrisqueta1, J. Vera1, L.M. Tapia2, W. Conejero1, J.M. Abrisqueta1, M.C. Ruiz-
                                        Sánchez1
  1
   Dpto. Riego, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 164, 30100
                                                Murcia, Spain
       2
         Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias (INIFAP), Uruapan, México
                                        HU  jmabrisq@cebas.csic.es
                                                              U




 The water balance of drip-irrigated peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. Flordastar, on GF-
 677 peach rootstock) planted in drainage lysimeters (5 x 5 x 1.5 m) with a clay loam textured soil
 located in southern Spain was determined during a 24-month-period. Trees were drip irrigated
 during the night using one lateral pipe per tree row and eight emitters per tree, each delivering 2
 L h-1. Tree irrigation requirements were determined according to daily reference crop
 evapotranspiration (ETo) by the Penman-Monteith equation, a crop factor based on the time of
 the year and the percent of ground area shaded by tree canopy. The water balance parameters are
 shown and discussed. The measured crop water use followed the same trend as shown the ETo.
 Crop water use increased with time, reaching a peak in August, a shift of 1.5 months compared
 to the peak in ETo. The crop coefficient (Kc) was calculated using the measured crop water use
 and the ETo values. Over the two years, Kc increased gradually, beginning with irrigation in
 February and extending to early May. There was a brief fall at the end May, followed by a
 recovery in early June until a maximum was reached in August. This was followed by a rapid
 decline after early November when irrigation period ended. The crop coefficients calculated on
 the basis of a water balance might save up to 36 and 23 % for 2007 and 2008, respectively, in
 irrigation water with respect to the FAO-56 recommendations.




Posters
                                                                                                             127
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  THE EFFECTS OF SOIL AMENDMENTS AND DEPTH OF CORM
     PLANTING ON THE QUALITY TRAITS OF GLADIOLUS
  (GLADIOLUS GRANDIFLORUS) FLOWERS GROWN UNDER THE
          CONDITIONS OF AL-HASSA, SAUDI ARABIA

                                     Mahmoud S. Al-Safar
              College of Agricultural and Food Sciences. King Faisal University, Al-Hassa
                                        Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                                       HUmalsafar@hotmail.com  U




 The trial was conducted in the greenhouse with gladiolus corms ( Gladiolus grandiflorus ) in
 2006-2007. The corms were planted in 20th of April each year at 3 depths of planting 4, 6 and 8
 cm in a soil to which soil amendments (DRiWATER and Terrasorb™) were added. The greatest
 number of inflorescence stalks growing from one corm was obtained by planting gladiolus in
 soils to which DRiWATER was added. The length of the main shoot, the length of the spike, the
 number of inflorescences in a spike as well as the diameter of the first flower was also the
 highest when the corms were grown with DRiWATER amendment. High number of flowering
 stalks was obtained when corms were placed at the depth of 4 cm. Planting at 6 and 8 cm depth
 produced larger first flowers in the inflorescence and greater leaf area.




Posters
                                                                                                              128
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    IMPACT OF SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION
       ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF 'HONEY DEW' MELON

                             A. Antunez1, C. Alfaro and M. Alé
                     Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias - CRI La Platina
                                         HU aantunez@inia.cl
                                                           U




 This study was conducted to determine the effect of the irrigation method on yield, fruit quality
 and profit benefits for field-grown Honey Dew melon (Cucumis melo L.). Three irrigation
 treatments were established: furrow (C), surface drip irrigation (T1) and subsurface drip
 irrigation (T2), in a nested block design while results were analyzed by Dunnett’s test, at 95%
 confidence (α = 0.05).

 Twenty plants were randomly selected, harvested and analyzed per irrigation treatment. Yield
 was evaluated by number of fruits and fruit size per fruit. Fruit quality was evaluated
 determining dry matter, pH, tritatable acidity (TA), soluble solid (SS) content and SS/TA rate of
 the fruit’s flesh.

 Drip irrigated melon plants produced up to 35% more commercial fruit than furrow irrigated
 plants, along with higher soluble solid content and tritatable acidity fruit. Subsurface drip
 irrigated melon plants (T2) produced the highest SS/TA rate and the highest dry matter
 percentage content of fruits of the treatments. On the other hand, surface drip irrigated plants
 (T1) yielded higher percentage of “first” category fruit along with greater equatorial diameter
 fruit compared to other treatments.

 Finally, the results were projected in a commercial production and the best profit was
 accomplished by surface drip irrigated melon plants (T1), being four times higher than furrow
 irrigated plants.


 Keywords: irrigation systems, drip irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, fruit quality




Posters
                                                                                                             129
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




         POSITION OF THE IRRIGATION TAPE IN THE
   TRANSPLANTING BEDS FOR MELON AND MARROW CROPS 1
              (1)
                  Proyecto FIA-PI-C- 2005-1-A-051.

           Agustín Aljaro U.2 ; Cristián Cáceres R.3 y Martín Battaglia A.3
                      2
                          Agronomist M.Sc. INIA, Chile; 3Agronomists INIA Chile
                                             aljaro@inia.cl
                                            HU             U




 In 2007 two independent experiments were carried out on melon and marrow. It was
 evaluated the effects of the different positions of the irrigation tape on the transplanting
 beds. Both were established at a demonstrative module of Regional Research Centre of
 La Platina, INIA, located in Colina, a close county of the Metropolitan Region of
 Santiago.
 In both experiments the Treatment 1 consisted in a watering tape located on the surface
 of the beds just at the side of the transplanting line of melon and marrow speedlings. In
 Treatment 2, the tape was also located at the side of the planting line, but buried 7-9 cm
 deep. Both were compared with a Control treatment; consist in the traditional system
 irrigation, this is by furrow. The effects of the different systems were measured on
 quality, healthiness and yield of the harvesting fruits.
 On melon trial the used was variety Otero, a F1 hybrid; in marrow it was used Arauco,
 an open pollinated seed, both very common used in Chile. The system of cropping was
 by speedlings sown in October 2007 and transplanted in November on a 1.5 m wide bed,
 having a plant density of 27.000 pl/ha. For the melon and marrow experiments, the field
 design was a four replicates Complete Random Blocks.
 The collected data at harvesting time shown a much better yield of fruits compared with
 those harvested in the furrow watering treatment, having a bigger size and a more
 melons and marrows per plant. Besides this, 80% and 50% of more fruits of marrow and
 melon were collected in the buried tape when they were compared with the tape on the
 surface of the land.
 The above results are mainly due to the detrimental effects that the surface free water has
 on diseases dissemination, mainly attacking the growing vines and fruit setting of the
 plants. Humidity closed to the plant necks stimulates fungus development which may
 affects roots and stems, conducting to a lower plant establishment, losses of vigor and
 finally to a lower flowering and fruit setting.




Posters
                                                                                                              130
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      ASSESSMENT OF METHODS TO DETERMINE THE LOSS OF
       WATER AND NITRATES IN A LETTUCE CROP GROWN IN
                       ORGANIC SOIL
          É. Bergeron Piette1, J. Caron1, D. Rekika1, L-É. Parent2 and A. Gosselin1
                    1
                     Horticulture Research Center, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
             2
              Département des sols et génie agroalimentaire,Université Laval, Québec, Canada
                                    eliane.bergeron-piette.1@ulaval.ca
                                   HU                                U




 Lettuce growers in organic soils have encountered numerous problems related to irrigation and
 fertilization. Water is becoming in short supply and fertilizer prices are going up while solute
 leaching to groundwater is a growing environmental concern. Growers are thus looking for
 improved irrigation and fertilization strategies with respect to productivity, water and nutrient
 uptake and solute leaching.

 The first objective of this project is to compare three methods of water flux estimation in terms
 of accuracy and relevance to water and nutrient use and leaching in a lettuce crop. Romaine
 lettuce was grown in organic soils of Southwestern Québec, Canada. Four pan lysimeters were
 installed at four sites at the depth of field drains. The pans were connected to a bucket and
 provided reference values for water flux to the groundwater (first method). A second method to
 estimate the flux was based on the daily evapotranspirative demand. A third method was based
 on water balance, computed from changes in water storage and evapotranspiration demand.
 Water fluxes were combined with nitrate water concentration to determine the flux of solutes to
 groundwater. Nitrate concentration was measured in samples collected using a suction lysimeter.

 The three methods were compared for four irrigation strategies: one based on the
 evapotranspirative demand, one based on a non-irrigated control and two based on matric
 potential threshold values of minus 15 and minus 30 kPa. Water and solute fluxes estimated by
 water balance measured from changes in water storage were closer to reference values than those
 obtained from evapotranspiration. Our data suggest substantial nitrate leaching to lower depths.
 No effect on leaching was observed from irrigation treatments. Additional work is ongoing to
 reduce nitrate leaching in lettuce cropping on organic soils.




Posters
                                                                                                               131
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     DEFINING BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) FOR
   USING SOIL MOISTURE PROBES FOR ON-FARM IRRIGATION
                  SCHEDULING DECISIONS.
      Cabot, O., Ferrer, F., Fonseca, F. Rodrigo, G., Domene, M., Tous, D, Iglesias,
                                      N., Villar, JM.
                         Centro de Asesoría Dr. Ferrer (LAB-FERRER), Spain
                                        orene@lab-ferrer.com
                                       HU                   U




 The use of soil moisture data as a on-farm irrigation scheduling guide has been promoted in the
 past decades by practitioners, extension agents and agronomists, among others. However, many
 times the final decisions are based on the accumulated experience, rather than soil moisture or
 other “scientific” methods. With the recent off-spring of more affordable soil moisture
 monitoring probes and data acquisition systems, the load of in-situ & real time data for decision
 taking and systems analysis can be overwhelming and difficult to manage. A need for protocol
 standardization, data normalization and integration of different strains of information through
 adaptive learning is needed. This work explains the basic steps for the Best use of soil moisture
 data for on-farm irrigation scheduling decisions. A flow chart is drawn to integrate aspects such
 as system analysis (canopy size, root system, soil limitations and irrigation system performance),
 selection of probe type, management unit, site and probe placement in relation to depth, root
 distribution and distance to the drip emitter.

 The work sets the guidelines for good probe installation in the Field, proper selection of the
 registration time, integration and averaging (in time and in space) and simple validation of the
 performance of the Control/Monitoring Point (defined as soil moisture probes + data-logger).
 Further data normalization and interpretation plus integration of information strains are
 necessary for practical on-farm decisions, but are not explained in this work.




Posters
                                                                                                            132
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          PARTIAL ROOT DRYING OF LEMON UNDER SEMI ARID
              CONDITIONS OF NORTH OF MINAS GERAIS

                        E. F. Coelho1, 2, M. A. Coelho Filho 1, F.R.SIMÃO2
                    1
                     Embrapa Casava & Tropical Fruits, City, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                                 2
                                   Epamig, Nova Porteirinha, Brazil
                                    eugenio@cnpmf.embrapa.br
                                     HU                          U




 The increase water requirement in agriculture relies in application of water with high efficiency.
 This work aims to evaluate partial root drying technique for lemon cv Tahiti under conditions of
 climate and soil of North of Minas Gerais in sandy soil.

 The experiment followed a random block design with nine treatments and four replications. The
 partial root drying was accomplished by turning on and off water emission from lateral lines that
 were located at both sides of each crop row of the plot at different time intervals (7 and 15 days).
 Treatments consisted of irrigation deficits of full irrigation (FI), with application of 75% of FI as
 partial root drying at intervals of 7 days (T1) and 15 days (T2) in all phonological phases;
 application of 50% of FI as partial root drying at intervals of 7 days (T3) and 15 days (T4) in all
 phonological phases; application of 75% of FI during phases I and II and 50% of FI during phase
 III, as partial root drying at intervals of 7 days (T5), 15 days (T6) in all phases; application of
 75% of FI during phase I and 50% during the remaining phases, as partial root drying at intervals
 of 7 days (T7) and 15 days (T8).

 Results showed that irrigation with partial root drying management may be done with any of the
 treatments. The larger yields and water use efficiencies were obtained for treatments T7 and T8
 (reduction of 25% total irrigation every 7 or 15 days during flowering followed by reduction of
 50% of total irrigation every 7 or 15 days in phases II and III).

 The variance analysis did not detect effect of treatments on the physiological variables leaf
 transpiration, stomatal condutance, temperature and relative water content. A reduction of
 transpiration and stomatal condutance was detected for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 related to
 T9 in the phase I. These variables for treatments T3, T4, T6 and T8 were not smaller than the
 one obtained for T9 at the second phase.

 The variance analysis did not detect effect of treatments on the variation of fruit volume from the
 beginning of growth to harvest as well fruit volume at the period of harvest, although the
 difference between fruit volume of total irrigation and the average volume of other treatments
 had been 23,5%. The variance analysis also did not show effect of treatments on the chemical
 characteristics of fruits such as citric acid, total soluble solids and ratio.




Posters
                                                                                                               133
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          IRRIGATION SCHEDULE WITH DEFICIT (PRD) IN MANGO
            ORCHARD CV ‘KENT’ IN SEMI ARID OF BAHIA STATE

     Maurício Antônio Coelho Filho1; Eugênio Ferreira Coelho2; Victor Vinícius
    Machado de Oliveira3 ;Lucas de Mello Velame4 ;José Antonio do Vale Santana5
            1
            Researcher at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, Cruz das Almas – Bahia, Brasil. e – mail:
                                       macoelho@cnpmf.embrapa.br
               2 Researcher at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, Cruz das Almas – Bahia, Brasil.
  3
    Graduate Student by the University Federal of Bahia Concave - UFRB, Cruz das Almas – Bahia, Brasil.
             3Graduate Student by the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba – São Paulo, Brasil.
       4
         Graduate Student by the University Federal of Lavras - UFLA, Lavras – Minas Gerais, Brasil.
                                     HUmacoelho@cnpmf.embrapa.br   U




 A study was carried with the objective of evaluating alternative for scheduling irrigation with
 reductions of water depths of 50% of the one adopted by the farm for mango crop cv ‘Kent’
 under semi arid conditions of Iaçu county, Bahia State. Five treatments were compared: one
 without water deficit (IT), one with the deficit fixed at one side of the root system (IPS) and
 three with partial deficit (IP) applied alternately in the root system with frequencies of :IP-7, 7
 days, IP-14, 14 days and IP-21, 21 days. Production parameters (fruit growth, weight, number of
 fruits and yield) and physiological parameters (sap flow – FS, stomatal conductance – gs and
 relative water content – CRA) were evaluated. It was observed that the productivity without
 deficit (IT) was larger than the other ones without significant differences from IP-14 and IP-21;
 same tendency verified for fruit number. There was no difference among IP-7, IP-14 and IP-21
 for fruit weight. Considering absolute values, gs, RLWC and FS (L m-2 leaf day-1) behaved as
 yield parameters (IT>IP-21>IP-14>Ip-7>IPS), with physiological response. The alternated
 irrigations IP-14 and IP-21 were the best alternatives. Results indicated that the adopted strategy
 may be feasible for field management, allowing to save 50% of water with reduction of yield of
 9%, 13% and 16% related to IT, considering respectively IP-21, IP-14, IP-7. The treatment IPS
 reduced the production in about 30%.

 Keywords: water deficit, root partial irrigation, mango.




Posters
                                                                                                                 134
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   REGULATED IRRIGATION DEFICIT DURING FRUIT GROWTH
    PHASES OF LEMON IRRIGATED BY TRICKLE UNDER SEMI
             ARID OF NORTH OF MINAS GERAIS
           M. A. Coelho Filho1, E. F. Coelho1, W. L. Simões2, E. L. da Costa3
                1
                 Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.
                             2
                               Embrapa Semi Árido, Petrolina, PE, Brazil.
               3
                Unidade Regional Epamig Norte de Minas, Nova Porteirinha, MG, Brazil.
                                    macoelho@cnpmf.embrapa.br
                                    HU                           U




 Yields of Tahiti acid lime irrigated by drip and microsprinkler were evaluated under different
 levels of soil water deficits applied during three fruit growth phases at Jaiba Irrigation Project,
 North of Minas Gerais.

 The treatments were applied during flowering and fruit set (phase I), fruit development growth
 (phase II) and final growth of fruits (phase III). The treatments were: T0 - 100% ETc in all
 development phases; TR50 - 50% ETc in all phases; T1 - 100% ETc during phases II and III and
 55% of ETc during phase I; T2 - 100% ETc during phases I and III and 55% of ETc during
 phase II; T3 -100% ETc during phases I and II and 55% of ETc during phase III; T4 - 100% ETc
 during phases II and III and 70% of ETc during phase I; T5 - 100% ETc during phases I and III
 and 70% of ETc during phase II; T6 - 100% ETc during phases I and II and 70% of ETc during
 phase III; T7 - 100% ETc during phases II and III and 85% of ETc during phase I; T8- 100%
 ETc during phases I and III and 85% of ETc during phase II; and T9 - 100% ETc during phases I
 and II and 85% of ETc during phase III. The yields obtained for the drip system varied from 16
 to 24 t.ha-1, respectively of T5 and T1, which are considered large since it regarded from one
 flowering.

 In average the irrigation deficit was more critical at phase II. This result can be explained by
 lower atmospheric demand during phase I compared to phase II, corroborated by plant
 physiology response (Leaf transpiration, leaf conductance and leaf water potential). However,
 yields of T1 and T2 were smaller than the obtained for other treatments in case of
 microsprinkler, indicating that reductions of 55% of total irrigation might reduce yield
 significantly. Short variability in yields and no significant differences among treatments showed
 drip system as the one of smaller risk for using irrigation deficit as management tool.

 This study showed that it is possible to use strategies for irrigation water management like
 controlled irrigation deficit for ‘Thaiti’ acid lime without loosing significant productivity either
 by drip or microsprinkler irrigation system.




Posters
                                                                                                               135
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  REGULATED IRRIGATION DEFICIT DURING FRUIT GROWTH
  PHASES OF MANGO BY MICROSPRINKLER UNDER SEMI ARID
                      OF BAHIA
                               M. A. Coelho Filho, E. F. Coelho
                Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.
                                  macoelho@cnpmf.embrapa.br
                                    HU                          U




 Three controlled levels of soil water deficit were evaluated for production of mango crop under
 semi arid conditions at Bahia Sate, Brazil during two productive cycles of 2004 and 2005. The
 levels of deficit were applied at three fruit growth phases (Phase I, Phase II and Phase III), that
 corresponded to 0 to 55, 56 to 83 and 84 to 116 days after flowering of at least 90% of the
 branches.

 Treatments were: T0 – same amount of water applied by the farmer in the whole area during the
 three phases (100% ETc); T2 – total irrigation (100%Etc) during phases II and III and 70% ETc
 during phase I; T2 - total irrigation (100%Etc) during phases I and III and 50% ETc at the phase
 II; T3 - total irrigation (100%Etc) during phases I and II and 50% ETc at phase III; T4 - total
 irrigation (100%Etc) during phases II and III and 70% ETc at phase I; T5 - total irrigation
 (100% ETc) during phases I and III and 70% ETc at phase II; T6 - total irrigation (100% ETc)
 during phases I and II and 70% ETc at phase III; T7 - total irrigation (100% ETc) during phases
 II and III and 85% ETc at phase I; T8- total irrigation (100% ETc) during phases I e III and 85%
 ETc at phase II; T9 - total irrigation (100% ETc) at phases I and II and 85% ETc at phase III.

 During the productive phase of the year 2004, there was no statistical differences among
 treatments (yield, number of fruit per plant and mean weight of fruit). This indicates that it is
 possible to reduce water irrigation use without losing significant yield. However, all treatments
 yielded less than the reference treatment. Considering absolute values, the smaller yields were
 verified for irrigation deficit applied at phase II.

 Results obtained during the year of 2005 showed that the phase III is the less sensitive to water
 deficit followed by phase II. The phase I was the most critical since reductions of 50 to 70% of
 applied water induced reductions of 20 to 27% in yields. Phases II and III had reductions of 13 to
 16% in yields compared to total irrigation treatment. Mean weight fruit of all treatments were
 larger than those verified for T0.




Posters
                                                                                                              136
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          REGULATED IRRIGATION DEFICIT APPLIED TO MANGO
            CROP BY TRICKLE IRRIGATION UNDER SEMI ARID
                           CONDITIONS
             C. E. Cotrim1, M. A. Coelho Filho2, E. F. Coelho2, M. M. Ramos3,
                                 P. R. Cecon3, J.A. Silva1
             1
             Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano, Guanambi, BA, BR.
                   2
                     Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA, BR.
                            3
                             Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, BR.
                                         c-cotrim@hotmail.com
                                        HU                    U




 The objective of this work was to test controlled levels of soil water deficit as an alternative of
 irrigation management by trickle irrigation to evaluate their effects on the yield and fruit quality
 of a 9-year ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango orchard under semi-arid conditions of Bahia State, Brazil.

 The experiment was located at Guanambi County, southwest of the Bahia State, during two
 productive crop cycles. During the first one (07/18 to 11/07/2006), only crop productivity was
 evaluated, and during the second one (06/20 to 10/11/2007), soil water potential (ψm) and leaf
 water potential (Ψleaf) were also measured. Deficits were applied at to the phases I (flowering), II
 (fruit growth) and III (end of fruit growth). An entirely random experimental design with 10
 treatments and five replications irrigated by a drip system and another one with 10 treatments
 and three replications irrigated by a microsprinkler system were carried during 2006. Treatments
 consisted in a control (T0) and in application of 40 (T1, T2 and T3), 60 (T4, T5 and T6) and 80%
 of the ETc (T7, T8 and T9) during the phases I, II and III of fruit development at that year.
 Treatments were reduced to eight for the same design and replications during 2007. Treatments
 were: non irrigated (T1), control (T2) and with application of 60 (T3, T4 and T5) and 30% of
 ETc (T6, T7 and T8) during the phases I, II and III of fruit development at that year.

 Soil water potential (ψm) was determined by using tensiometers and leaf water potential (Ψleaf )
 was determined by using a pressure chamber of Scholander. Fruit yield and quality and water use
 efficiency (WUE) were evaluated.

 ψm remained between 0 and -11 kPa in all treatments, not characterizing water deficit condition.
 ψm varied between -30 and -75 kPa, characterizing short water deficit only for treatment T1. The
 Ψleaf varied between -0.83 and -1.53 MPa for T2, between -1.33 and -1.83 MPa for T1 and
 between -0.83 and -1.70 MPa for the treatments of water deficit. The treatments T1, T7 and T8
 were statistically different from the others by the Tukey test (p <0.05). This showed that the
 differences of the RDI management were evidenced by Ψleaf. The mango yield as well as the
 WUE did not show significant difference among treatments, at the two evaluated years for the
 two trickle systems. The results showed the possibility of reduction of the levels of irrigation
 applied currently, by application of controlled irrigation deficits during the phases of fruit growth
 without providing damages in fruit quality or significant losses of mango orchard yield.




Posters
                                                                                                              137
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




 GROWTH AND YIELD OF MANGO IRRIGATED USING PARTIAL
 ROOT DRYING METHOD UNDER SEMI-ARID CONDITIONS OF
                    BAHIA STATE
  R. Daniel 1, E. F. Coelho 2, M. A. Coelho Filho 2, A. H. R. Sampaio1; E. B. S. Júnior1
                                  1
                                 UFRB, City, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                    2
                     Embrapa Casava & Tropical Fruits, City, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                                       rossini.pi@gmail.com
                                        HU                    U




 The objective of this work was to study the growth and productivity of fruits of mango cultivated
 under irrigation by using the technique of the “Partial Root Drying” (PRD). The experiment was
 carried in an orchard of mango cv. Kent at Boa Vista Farm, Iacu gropastoril Ltda in the district
 of Iacu, Bahia State. Treatments were applied at different phenological phases of the crop (I-
 flowering; II-frutification and III-stability of fruit growth). Irrigation water depth was determined
 based upon crop evapotranspiration calculated using reference evapotranspiration from an A pan
 evaporation. The crop was irrigated by a drip system of two lateral lines per plant row. The
 partial root drying was accomplished by turning on and off water emission from lateral lines that
 were located at both sides of each crop row of the plot at different time intervals (7, 14 and 21
 days).

 Treatments consisted of full irrigation (FI - T11), application of 30% of FI as partial root drying
 at intervals of 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2), 21 days (T3); application of 50% of FI as partial root
 drying at intervals of 7 days (T4), 14 days (T5), 21 days (T6); application of FI during phase I
 and 50% of FI as partial root drying at intervals of 7 days (T7), 14 days (T8), 21 days (T9)
 during the remaining phases; Just one lateral line remained on at one side of the tree during all
 phonological phases for treatment T10. The experiment followed a random block design with
 three replications. The variables number of fruits, total productivity, medium weight of fruits and
 medium productivity were not affected for the treatments with PRD in none of the studied
 phases.




Posters
                                                                                                              138
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   CONCENTRATION OF PROLINE IN LEAVES OF PRECOCIOUS
     DWARFISH CASHEW TREE UNDER STRESS WATER IN
          DIFFERENT PHASES PHENOLOGICALS
  Rossini Daniel1; Hans Raj Gheyi2; Pedro Dantas Fernandes2; Claudivan Feitosa de
            Lacerda3; Karina Guedes Correia4; Micaele da Costa Santos5
                                 1
                                 UFRB, Cruz das Almas, City, Brazil
                         2
                          UFCG/ UAEAg/CTRN, City, Campina Grande, Brazil
                                   3
                                    UFC, City, Fortaleza, Brazil
                              4
                                UFCG, City, Campina Grande, Brazil
                                     5
                                       UFS, City, Aracaju, Brazil
                                        rossini.pi@gmail.com
                                        HU                   U




 The plants, in presence of water stress, it can use mechanisms of tolerance, as the osmotic
 adjustment, for the cell to absorb water and maintain the pressure potential in appropriate levels,
 besides, the decrease of the osmotic potential in having restored to the water stress, it can result
 in an increase of the passive concentration of solutes, among them the proline, consequence of
 the dehydration of the cell or of the accumulation it activates of solutes. With the objective of
 evaluating the Free proline levels in plants of precocious dwarfish cashew tree (Anacardium
 occidentale L.), clone CCP-76 cultivated under stress water during the second year of production
 he behaved an experiment in protected atmosphere (greenhouse) in experimental area of the
 Center of Technology and Natural Resources (CTRN) of the Federal University of Campina
 Grande (UFCG) in Campina Grande, PB. The treatments consisted of application at 40, 55, 70,
 85 and 100% of the real vapotranspiration (ETR) for each of the studied represented
 respectively: A -powder-rest; B -flower; C -frutification. The leaves were collected at the end of
 each phase and conserved in freezer (-80°C). Using the method of Bates et al. (1973) found that
 higher levels of proline in leaves was obtained in treatments with 40% of ETR in all phases,
 however, at the end of the flower the levels were well above the other studied phases.




Posters
                                                                                                             139
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                 November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          EVALUATION OF A CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON THE
          IRRIGAS® SENSOR FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING OF
               HYDROPONIC TOMATO IN CEARÁ, BRAZIL
   Fábio Rodrigues de Miranda1, Antônio Lindemberg M. Mesquita, Marlon Vagner
           V. Martins, Fernando A. S. de Aragão, Cássia M. F. Fernandes
                   Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270
                                    fabio@cnpat.embrapa.br
                                     U




 The study was carried out aiming to evaluate two irrigation scheduling techniques for
 hydroponic tomato production in Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The experiment was set up as a
 split-plot randomized block design, with six replications. On the main factor two irrigation
 scheduling techniques were tested: (a) Automatic scheduling using matric sensors – a closed
 loop irrigation control system based on the Irrigas® sensor was used to start irrigation pulses
 whenever matric potential in the substrate reached -4 kPa. (b) Time clock scheduling - irrigation
 applications were programmed at fixed intervals and rates, according to drainage fraction
 observed on the previous day and water retention capacity of the substrate. Tomato hybrids
 “Miramar” and “Ellen” were evaluated in the subplots. The growing medium was coconut fiber
 in bags of 40 l. Automatic irrigation scheduling based on Irrigas® sensors did not affect tomato
 yield, fruit weight, and number of fruit per plant significantly (p>0.05) as compared to time
 clock scheduling. However, automatic irrigation control reduced water application by 4.3% as
 compared to time clock scheduling, without affecting pH and electrical conductivity levels of the
 drained solution. The tomato hybrid “Miramar” presented yield and number of fruits per plant
 significantly higher (p<0.05) than hybrid “Ellen”, which presented higher fruit weight.




Posters
                                                                                                           140
                                       VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        EFFECT OF IRRIGATION SCHEDULING ON GREENHOUSE
          TOMATO CROP DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

       G. Dimokas 1, S. Kostoula1, C. Lykas1, Ν. Κatsoulas1, E.Α. Khah1and C. Κittas1
   1
       University of Thessaly, School of Agricultural Science, Department of Agriculture Crop Production &
                      Rural, Environment, Fytokou Str, 38446, N. Ionia Magnesias, Greece
                gedimoka@uth.gr , staur_kostoula@yahoo.gr , nkatsoul@uth.gr , ckittas@uth.gr
               HU                UH   HU                     UH   HU           UH   HU           UH




 The correct supply of water and nutrients is important in hydroponic growing systems in order to
 use water efficiently, avoid stress situations and control production. The aim of this work was to
 evaluate the effect of irrigation scheduling on greenhouse tomato crop development and
 production. Experiments were carried out in the farm of the University of Thessaly in the region
 of Volos, during the autumn and winter period of 2007. Two tomato varieties were used, one non
 grafted (cv. Belladona, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and one grafted (cv. King Kong).
 Irrigation frequency was based on crop transpiration, and the amount of water applied was 0.3
 and 0.45mm for high and low irrigation, respectively. In order to study the effects of irrigation
 scheduling on crop growth, measurements on plant characteristics (stem’s length, number of
 nodes, leaves, trusses) were carried out. Simultaneously fresh and dry weight of plant shoots,
 leaves, and fruits were recorded periodically. Measurements of internal and external greenhouse
 climate were also registered. The total period of experiments ended 140 days after transplanting
 date. Results on crop growth showed that only non grafted plants were affected from irrigation
 scheduling after the 70th day of the experiment. High irrigation had almost 10% higher growth
 rate on crop characteristics and statistical analysis confirmed that there were significant
 differences between non grafted and grafted plants. Biomass production was not effected from
 irrigation scheduling. Results confirmed that there are no significant differences on stems,
 leaves. Statistical differences observed only on dry weight of stems at non grafted plants where
 high irrigation overpasses low irrigation. Finally fruits results confirmed that there are no
 significant differences on green and mature fruits, fresh and dry weight. In conclusion, it seems
 that high irrigation effected the plant growth but there were small influence on tomato
 production.




Posters
                                                                                                                  141
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          WIRELESS SYSTEM FOR MANAGING AND MONITORING
                 TECHNIFIED IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

                                               Luis Elgueta
                          AgroSuccess, S.A. Badajoz 18, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
                                         luis.elgueta@agrosuccess.cl
                                         HU                         U




 Returns on investment in fruit production is a basic concern for fruit growers. Such returns
 mainly depend on proper tree irrigation and fertilization to ensure optimum condition and
 generate large volumes of high quality fruit.

 The consequent rise in productivity and fall in operating costs cover all system costs, resulting in
 a greater profit margin of around US $700 per hectare/year.


 How It Works

 -        A computer-based Commander Node allows one to program irrigation and fertilization and
          read field sensors by means of specialized software. Irrigation, sensors and weather station
          data, among others, are stored historically.
 -        Multiple Actuator nodes in the field, hooked up to a wireless network, receive orders from
          the Commander node to perform actions on irrigation devices and sensors. Instruction
          execution results and data gathered by sensors are transmitted to the Commander node via
          Actuator nodes interconnected in the wireless network.

 Method

 -        Storing data in a computerized medium connected to the internet ensures information
          availability to the whole organization. Authorized personnel, regardless of location, may
          view and be notified regarding irrigation conditions, temperature, tension, evapotranspiration
          (ET), etc.
 -        Digital information availability allows for errors in the process to be detected in a timely
          manner or, as a result of an exchange of opinions, the model in use to be optimized.

 Keywords: Wireless irrigation programming and monitoring, measuring water content in ground
 among other remote variables and weather station data, increase returns in fruit production.




Posters
                                                                                                                  142
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        EFFECT OF LEAD POLLUTION AND PHOSPHORIN ON
      GROWTH AND CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF LEUCEANA
                  LEUCOCEPHALA SEEDLINGS

                             Farahat, M.M. and Azza, A.M.Mazher
     Department of Ornamental Plants and Woody Trees, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
                                       farahatnrc55@yahoo.com
                                       HU                       U




 The purpose of this study to evaluate of Leuceana Leucocephala seedlings grown under lead
 pollution to phosphorin application in sandy soil. In a pot experiment carried out in two seasons
 (2004 and 2005) in National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Seeds were inoculated with
 (phosphorin) using 0 and 10 gm of carrier agent (peat moss). Four levels of lead (Pb) at 0, 25, 50
 and 100 ppm were used for irrigation water. All vegetative growth characters decreased as the
 lead concentrations increased. Increasing the concentration of Pb decreased chlorophyll (a), (b)
 and carotenoids content but, increased Pb ppm and K percentages. Soluble sugars, non- soluble
 sugars, total sugars, N and P percentage, Zn and Mn ppm decreased by increasing Pb
 concentrations. On the other hand, phosphorin application gave the highest growth parameters,
 Chlorophyll (a), (b) and carotenoids content. Also, soluble sugars, non-soluble sugars, total
 sugars, N, P and K percentages as well as Zn ppm. But, Pb and Mn ppm decreased by
 inoculation compared with the control. At the low level of Pb, the reduction in vegetative growth
 was little when the seeds were treated with phosphorin. Generally, irrigation water polluted with
 Pb showed that negative effects on growth characteristics. Phosphorin overcome the harmful
 effect of pollution up to 100 ppm Pb. The results suggest that Leuceana leucocephala seedlings
 benefited from inoculation with phosphorin especially under Pb pollution in sandy soil.


 Key words: Leuceana leucocephala, Phosphorin , Lead (Pb) pollution ,Growth.




Posters
                                                                                                              143
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           SOIL SALINITY AND pH MONITORING APPLIED IN
        FERTIGATION GREENHOUSE TO STAKED WATERMELON

          Jose Crispiniano Feitosa Filho1; Tarlei Arriel Botrel2, Lourival Ferreira
                Cavalcante3, Jose Maria Pinto4, Antonio Pires De Camargo5
    1
       Associated Professor II, Paraíba Federal University. Soil and Agricultural Engineering Department.
                        Agricultural Science Center, Areia-PB, Phone: (83) 3362-2300,
   2
     Associated Professor, São Paulo University/USP. Agricultural Engineering Department. ESALQ-USP,
                                                Piracicaba-SP.
     3
       Associated Professor II, Paraíba Federal University. Soil and Agricultural Engineering Department.
                        Agricultural Science Center, Areia-PB, Phone: (83) 3362-2300,
                            4
                              Dr. Researcher of Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE.
  5
     Master student degree of Irrigation and Drainage. Agricultural Engineering Department. ESALQ-USP,
                                                Piracicaba-SP.
                                U  feitosa@cca.ufpb.br ; lofeca@cca.ufpb.br
                                                    U   H




 Salinity signs are often found under greenhouse conditions and also in land crops when used
 fertigation. This work had the purpose of monitoring soil salinity and soil pH from staked mini-
 watermelon in greenhouse conditions with microtubes drip irrigation. It was gathered soil
 samples from depths of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm, at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days after the
 planting. From these samples it was analyzed electrical conductivity of saturation extract and pH
 of saturation paste. There were compared usual fertilization with fertigation treatments. By usual
 fertilization, the applied doses were 150 kg. ha-1 of N, 200 kg. ha-1 of P2O5, and 150 kg. ha-1 of
 K2O, and by fertigation it was used doses of 100%, 50%, and 25% taking as reference the doses
 used in usual fertilization. The soil salinity values were greater at fertigation treatments and at
 shallow soil depths. The soil pH not changed due to fertilization way, soil depths and sample
 date. For the first depth (0-15cm) the treatment with usual fertilization results on salinity values
 of 666, 985, 1012, and 1295 ds.m-1, respectively at 0, 30, 60, and 120 days. At the same soil
 depth, for fertigation treatment with the dose of 100%, it was found salinity values of 764, 1077,
 1478, and 1635 ds.m-1, considering the same interval of days. At the depth of 30-45 cm and usual
 fertilization treatment the values were 420 ds.m-1; 512; 536, and 518 ds.m-1, respectively. By
 fertigation (100% of dose), at depth of 30-45 cm the gathered data were 436; 513; 579, and 695
 ds.m-1. The pH data from 0-15 cm depth with usual fertilization were 7,35; 6,36; 7,10; and 6,89
 with interval of sampling equal to 0, 30, 60, and 120 days. For fertigation treatment (100% of
 dose) at the same depth, it was found the pH values of 7,38; 6,65; 6,92; and 7,37, respectively.
 By fertigation (100% of dose), at depth of 30-45 cm the pH results were 7,26; 6,69; 7,02 e 7,41.
 By usual fertilization the pH values at 30-45 cm of depth were 7,14; 6,78; 6,95; and 7,19,
 respectively.

 Keywords: Fertigation, soil salinity, greenhouse, Sugar Baby variety.




Posters
                                                                                                                144
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  EVALUATION OF NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTIGATION
        OF STAKED WATERMELON IN GREENHOUSE

          Jose Crispiniano Feitosa Filho1; Tarlei Arriel Botrel2, Lourival Ferreira
                Cavalcante3, Jose Maria Pinto4, Antonio Pires De Camargo5
    1
       Associated Professor II, Paraíba Federal University. Soil and Agricultural Engineering Department.
                        Agricultural Science Center, Areia-PB, Phone: (83) 3362-2300,
   2
     Associated Professor, São Paulo University/USP. Agricultural Engineering Department. ESALQ-USP,
                                                Piracicaba-SP.
     3
       Associated Professor II, Paraíba Federal University. Soil and Agricultural Engineering Department.
                        Agricultural Science Center, Areia-PB, Phone: (83) 3362-2300,
                            4
                              Dr. Researcher of Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE.
  5
     Master student degree of Irrigation and Drainage. Agricultural Engineering Department. ESALQ-USP,
                                                Piracicaba-SP.
                                 U  feitosa@cca.ufpb.b ; lofeca@cca.ufpb.br
                                                    U   H




 Greenhouse staked mini-watermelon researches are not usually found in Brazil, and also data
 related with fertilization, irrigation, and fertigation. South, southeast, and northeast Brazilian
 mini-watermelon markets have an increase offer and demand. In order to support this increase, it
 is necessary to acquire and improve knowledge about this kind of watermelon, enhancing its
 crop methods. The main goal of this work is to discuss nitrogen (N) and potassium (K2O)
 application using fertigation, during two production seasons. Doses of N and K2O were applied
 ranging from 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% according with usual fertilization recommendations for
 watermelon (150 kg. ha-1 of N and 150 kg. ha-1 K2O). The P2O5 dose applied was 200 kg. ha-1,
 using conventional or usual fertilization. The drip irrigation was adopted using microtubes, in
 order to provide water daily. While the fertigation was held weekly, during twelve weeks. The
 experimental delineation was done using random blocks with ten treatments and each treatment
 with four repetitions. Some productivity characteristics (fruits size, shape, and weight; peel
 thickness; and yield) were evaluated. The quality (soluble solids content, total titratable acidity
 and relation of soluble solids content/total titratable acidity) of fruits were also available. There
 wasn’t statistical difference for any parameter related with crop aspects. However, it was found
 significant differences on titratable acidity and relation of soluble solids content / total titratable
 acidity.

 Keywords: Citrullus lanatus, fertigation, Sugar Baby variety.




Posters
                                                                                                                145
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    VINE MICROCLIMATE AND GRAPE QUALITY RESPONSE TO
              DEFICIT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES

          A. Fernandes de Oliveira1¸ M. G. Mameli2, D. Satta2, L. de Pau2, G. Nieddu1
                1
               Department of Economics and Woody Plants Ecosystems, University of Sassari,
                                              Sassari, Italy
      2
        AGRIS Sardegna – Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia Department of wood and fruit trees,
                                              Sassari, Italy
                                             acortez@uniss.it
                                             HU              U




 The effects of water availability on light and thermal conditions in the canopy vary within
 cultivars and field-growth conditions. High water supply promotes dense canopies and increases
 competition between shoots and fruits, thus reducing clusters lightning and affecting synthesis
 and accumulation of sugars and polyphenols. On the other hand, when berry exposure is too high
 and temperature reaches values above the optimum berry compounds synthesis might be reduced
 or inhibited.

 To establish reliable and objective assessments of irrigation strategy effects on vine physiology,
 production and quality different levels of regulated deficit irrigation were imposed and studied in
 field-grown grapevines in a northern Sardinian AOC region. In this trial, the effects of deficit
 irrigation levels on microclimate and grape composition of the main Sardinian red variety
 Cannonau was investigated during ripening.

 In order to characterize canopy structure and light microclimate of each RDI level, leaf area
 density parameters (LLN, Leaf Area and Exposed Leaf Area), light intensity interception (PPFD)
 and its spectral quality within vegetative layers and in the fruitzone were periodically measured
 from fruitset to harvest. For thermal microclimate analysis, berries were characterized according
 to cluster position (west- or east- facing), berry position within the cluster (external or internal)
 and irrigation treatment. Internal and external thermocouple sensors were inserted on two
 replicated plots for continuously monitoring berry flesh and skin temperature. During ripening,
 canopy moisture and temperature were also registered using a T/RH sensor.

 Plant physiological status was monitored with leaf gas exchange and stem water potential
 measurements. Yield, berry size and weight, total soluble solids, pH, total acidity, tannins, sugar
 and anthocyanin accumulation patterns and must color properties were measured and correlated
 with cluster thermal regime and wetness collected data.

 Physiological effectiveness for anthocyanin synthesis of ‘Cannonau’ was assessed by computing
 the Heat Normal Hours Accumulated. The observed differences on plants physiological status as
 well as in light, thermal, and moisture patterns of clusters give useful information on establishing
 irrigation scheduling for optimized fruit ripening and composition.

 Keywords: light microclimate, canopy moisture, berry temperature, grape composition




Posters
                                                                                                                146
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY OF WATER IN THE SOIL
     WITH BANANA CROP IRRIGATED BY DIFFERENT WATER
                    DEPTHS BY SPRAYER
          F.S.Costa 1, E.F.Coelho 2, A.J.M.Pamponet 1, E.B.Santana1, A.C.Pires1,
                             G.C.Carvalho1, V.V.M.Oliveira1
                                   1
                                  UFRB, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                   2
                    Embrapa Casava & Tropical Fruits, City, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                                   flaviocostapb@yahoo.com.br
                                    HU                          U




 The objective of this work was to evaluate water distribution uniformity on the surface and
 below the soil surface for banana cv Prata Anã under four irrigation water depths applied by
 sprayer. The experiment was carried in an area of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits, Cruz das
 Almas, BA. The banana cv Prata Anã was in the field as single rows at 2,0 m x 2,5 m spacing.
 Plants were irrigated by a sprayer system with a 60 L h-1 emitter for four plants. A random block
 design with four treatments (T3, T1 = 0.6 T3; T2 = 0.8 T3 and T4 = 1.2 T3) and four replications
 was used. Results showed that there was no significant difference for Christiansen coefficient
 (CUC) for the distribution of water application on the surface as for soil water content uniformity
 below soil surface. The small precipitation uniformity did not influence on the soil water content
 distribution uniformity for banana crop cv Prata Anã.




Posters
                                                                                                              147
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENT FOR GRAPEVINES
   USING TWO REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION METHODS

                                          M. A. F. Conceição
  Embrapa Grape and Wine Research Center, Tropical Viticulture Experimental Station, Jales, SP, Brazil,
                                  marcoafc@cnpuv.embrapa.br
                                     HU                            U




 The Northwest of São Paulo State, Brazil, is an important table grape producing area. There is a
 low rainfall period (April to October) in the region which coincides with the crop production
 cycle, making irrigation an essential tool. The irrigation water requirement calculation is based
 on the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values, which can be estimated by different methods,
 including the Penman-Monteith (EToPM), considered as the standard one. This method,
 however, requires several meteorological data that, frequently, are not available to the grape
 producers, mainly to the small ones. In this case, it is recommended the use of the Hargreaves
 method (EToH), which employs only air temperature values. This study evaluated the feasibility
 of using EToH instead of EToPM to calculate the irrigation water requirement of grapevines in
 the Northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The evaluations were based on simulated soil
 water balances during the dry period of the year (April – October) along five years (2004 –
 2008). The meteorological data were obtained in Jales, SP (20º 15'S, 50° 30'W, 483m), at the
 Tropical Viticulture Experimental Station of the Embrapa Grape and Wine Research Center. The
 irrigation water requirement using EToPM varied from 484.2 mm to 638.2 mm, with an average
 of 528.3 mm, while using EToH it varied from 493.9 mm to 661.6 mm, with an average of 544.5
 mm. The differences between EToH and EToPM strategies were small, ranging from -3.4% to
 6.2%, with an average of 3%, showing that the Hargreaves method can be used by the grape-
 growers of the region.




Posters
                                                                                                                 148
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   EFFECTS OF CANOPY EXPOSURE CHANGES ON GRAPEVINE
                 PHYSIOLOGY (CV. SYRAH)

                      Eugenia Galat Giorgi1, Jorge Perez Peña, Jorge Prieto
          1
           INTA EEA Mendoza. San Martín 3853, Mayor Drummond, Luján de Cuyo. Mendoza.Argentina.
                                        egalat@mendoza.inta.gov.ar
                                        HU                       U




 Changes in canopy architecture during the growing season can affect plant water status and the
 proportion between exposed and shaded leaves. To determine the effects of changes of canopy
 architecture on plant physiology, an experiment was conducted in an irrigated Syrah vineyard at
 the Agricultural Experimental Station Mendoza INTA in 2006/07. Changes in canopy
 architecture were achieved by the Ybm INTA trellis system in which the canopy can be opened
 or closed generating a single or double curtain canopy. The single curtain is similar to a VSP
 while de double curtain is similar to a Lyra system. Between bloom and harvest and based on the
 timing of opening and closing the canopy, four treatments were established: A) closed from
 bloom to harvest; B) closed from bloom to veraison and opened from veraison to harvest; C)
 opened from bloom to veraison and closed from veraison to harvest; and D) opened from bloom
 to harvest. Irrigation was applied according to predawn leaf water potential measurements.
 Predawn and midday leaf water potential, daily evolution of leaf water potential, photosynthesis,
 transpiration, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the cluster
 zone were measured. Irrigation based on predawn leaf water potential values, recommended to
 keep plants without water deficit, produced an unforeseen reduction of vines capacity. Increased
 canopy exposure raised transpiration and decreased midday leaf water potential. Shaded leaves
 showed lower photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and water use efficiency, and
 their maximum photosynthesis was reached at lower levels of PPFD compared with exposed
 leaves. Grapegrowers should be cautious when using thresholds values of leaf water potential
 obtained in other regions for irrigation management. Local or regional research is required to
 adjust those values.

 Keywords: grapevine, trellis system, gas exchange, leaf water potential




Posters
                                                                                                               149
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       AGROCLIMATIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENSO
     PHENOMENA FOR CHILEAN VINEYARDS THANKS TO THE
                   CROP MODEL STICS
          N. Brisson, P1. Gonzáles-Colville, S1. Ortegas-Farias, I. García de Cortazar
                                       1
                                           INRA – Avignon – France
                                       HU  brisson@avignon.inra.fr
                                                                 U




 While in the northern hemisphere the climate change clearly appears as an increase in
 temperature, in the southern hemisphere the particular atmospheric circulation due to ocean
 masses makes climate change appears as an increase in the frequency of extreme events well
 known as “El Nino” and “La Nina” (or ENSO) events.

 The impacts of those events on agriculture in general and vineyard in particular are not so clear
 in Chile. One reason can be that irrigation, thoroughly used, hinders the deleterious effects of dry
 “nina” years. Another reason is that the events are not always precisely in phase with the
 vineyard cycle, which covers two calendar years. Using a vineyard model can be a valuable
 method to analyze if those events have predictable impacts on the crop performances.

 We present a study in which a vine crop model (STICS recently adapted to many well-known
 genotypes) is used on a 20-year climatic series of the region of Talca, in the center of Chile. The
 model calculates dates of the main stages (bud break, flowering, coloring, and maturity),
 micrometeorological variables (air humidity and temperature at the canopy level as well as
 intercepted radiation), production in terms of quantity and sugar rate and variables of the canopy
 water dynamics (transpiration, evaporation, water stress).

 The main results are that the “Nino” or “Nina” character of the year, as defined by the climate
 specialists, is significantly related with the date of occurrence of the coloring stage as well as the
 thermal conditions of the flowering-coloring phase. High humidity during maturation appears as
 another trait of the “Nino” years. Those variables are correlated to quality indicators and water
 functioning. Such results are encouraging to go on looking to the impact of climate change in
 Chile, in order to lead farmers and stakeholders to take it into account.




Posters
                                                                                                               150
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      CARBON ISOTOPE COMPOSITION INDICATES IMPROVED
         PHOTOSYNTHETIC WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF
       STRAWBERRY PLANTS UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION
          Olga M. Grant1, Celia M. James, Phillippa A.A1. Dodds, Nada Šurbanovski1
                               East Malling Research, East Malling, UK
                                        olga.grant@emr.ac.uk
                                        HU                   U




 During photosynthesis, the extent of discrimination against the heaver isotope of carbon, 13C, is
 related to the ratio of internal to external partial pressure of CO2. This is controlled by both
 stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity, and therefore is indirectly related to water use
 efficiency, with greater enrichment i.e. a higher carbon isotope composition (δ13C) being
 associated with greater water use efficiency. The shallow root system, large leaf area, and high
 water content of fruits of the commercial strawberry, F. x ananassa Duch., means that
 strawberry production uses large quantities of water. To save water via deficit irrigation requires
 greater understanding of the response of strawberry plants to limited water availability. We
 explored the impact of deficit irrigation on δ13C of the cultivar ‘Elsanta’ in a series of
 experiments in which plants in pots were given either full or deficit irrigation (70% ETp or
 lower). In three separate experiments when 60-day ‘Elsanta’ was grown under plastic tunnels,
 δ13C was significantly increased under deficit compared with full irrigation. Similarly when 60-
 day ‘Elsanta’ was grown in a controlled environment unit, δ13C was significantly increased under
 deficit irrigation. The only case where there was no significant effect of irrigation on δ13C of 60-
 day plants was when they were grown in freely-draining perlite rather than in a peat-based
 growing substrate. When ‘Elsanta’ was grown as a main season crop, δ13C was not significantly
 affected by irrigation, but was higher than in the other experiments. The lowest δ13C (poorest
 water use efficiency) was found in leaves of fully-irrigated plants grown in the controlled
 environment unit. The largest differences in δ13C between fully- and deficit-irrigated plants also
 occurred in this environment. This may suggest that where water use efficiency is poorest, the
 potential to improve it using deficit irrigation is greatest.




Posters
                                                                                                             151
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




       DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS FROM THE
                   ONSET OF FRUIT PRODUCTION

                Giovanni Caruso1, Hava F. Rapoport2, and Riccardo Gucci1
   1
    Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose, Università di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80,
                                              56124 Pisa, Italy
            2
             Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, C.S.I.C., P.O. Box 4084, 14080 Cordoba, Spain
                                             rgucci@agr.unipi.it
                                            HU                 U




 A 3-year deficit irrigation study was conducted on young olive (Olea europaea cv. Frantoio)
 trees to determine the effect of reduced water supply from the onset of full fruit production on
 vegetative growth and yield components. Irrigation was carried out from 5-6 until15-19 weeks
 after full bloom using subsurface drip lines. The volume of water applied to the fully-irrigated
 trees, calculated from effective evapotranspiration and adjusted with respect to weekly pre-dawn
 leaf water potential, was 558, 1293, and 1857 m3 ha-1 in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively.
 During the same irrigation period the deficit-irrigated trees received approximately 50% total
 water of the control trees, with scheduling of application based on pre-dawn leaf water potential.
 Deficit irrigation reduced the trunk diameter increment to 85% of the controls over the three
 years. Yield components were differently affected by deficit irrigation. Over the 3-year period
 fruit yield and oil yield of deficit irrigated trees were 89% and 102% those of the controls,
 respectively. Fruit fresh weight was decreased slightly, although non significantly, with the 50%
 deficit irrigation, whereas oil in the mesocarp (on a dry weight) basis was similar in both
 treatments. The flesh/pit ratio was similar between the two watering regimes. These results show
 that deficit irrigation starting from the onset of fruit production can be beneficial and that the
 level of water saving in olive orchards is substantially greater than in most other fruit tree crops.




Posters
                                                                                                                 152
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    FIELD AND GREENHOUSE TOMATO YIELDS AS FUNCTIONS
       OF NITROGEN DOSIS APPLIED BY HAND OR BY DRIP
                  FERTIGATION SYSTEM
    Tadeu Graciolli Guimares , Paulo Cezar Rezende Fones2, Paulo Roberto Gomes
    Pereira2, Victor Hugo alvarez V.3, Pedro Henrique Monnerat4) e Mário Puiatti2.
                                  1
                                      MBRAPA CERRADOS CPAC ;
                       2
                         epartamento de Fitotecnia-UFV, 36571-000, Viçosa-MG;
                          3
                           epartamento de Solos-UFV, 36571-000, Viçosa-MG;
            4
              aboratório de Fitotecnia-CCTA-UENF, 28015-620, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ.
                                       graciolli@cpac.embrapa.br
                                      HU                      U




 Tomato yield and relative increment on extra AA fruits yield responses to nitrogen fertilization
 were evaluated in three field experiments simultaneously undertaken during rainy season. In
 each experiment hybrid Débora Plus tomato plants were grown following a particular production
 system. This way, in experiment A plants were grown inside a plastic greenhouse with drip
 fertigation system; in experiment B plants were grown in open field with drip fertigation system,
 while in experiment C plants were grown conventionally, with surface irrigation and hand
 fertilization. In experiment A N rates were 0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg/ha; in experiment B rates
 N rates were 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha, and in experiment C N rates were 0, 125, 250, 375
 and 500 kg/ha. Treatments were replicated four times, following a randomized block design.
 Fruit yield was increased by N rates in all experiments. In experiment A maximum total,
 marketable, extra and equivalent to extra AA fruits yields were 96.7, 75.4, 72.6 and 45.1 t/ha,
 respectively, achieved with 241, 181, 194 and 177 kg/ha of N, respectively. In experiment B On
 open field with drip fertigation these yields were 76.9, 62.9, 59.5 and 33.5 t/ha, achieved with
 150, 125, 115 and 119 kg/ha of N, respectively. On open field with surface irrigation and
 fertilization by hand application, these yields were 62.9, 48.0, 43.6 and 31.7 t/ha, all of them
 achieved with 500 kg/ha of N. The relative increment on extra AA yield resulting from N
 fertilization (increasing in extra AA yield as a function of optimum dose application), in
 experiments A, B and C were 111.6, 59.8 and 35.7 kg of extra AA fruits/kg of N applied,
 respectively.




Posters
                                                                                                            153
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  WATER DEFICIT (PRD) AS STRATEGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF
   WATER USE IN 'TAHITI' LIME ORCHARD UNDER THE SEMI-
                   ARID OF BAHIA STATE
           A. H. R. Sampaio1, M. A. Coelho Filho2, E. F. Coelho3, R. Daniel4,
                       J. A. do Vale Sant’Ana4, E. B. S. Junior4
                                    1
                                    UFRB, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                     2,3
                       Embrapa Casava & Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                                  4
                                    UFRB, Cruz das Almas, Brazil
                                  helderagronomo@hotmail.com
                                    HU                           U




 The management of irrigation with water deficit, by means of partial root drying (PRD), has
 been tested in several woody fruit plants in order to optimize water use. For a year this
 management strategy was tested on a four-year age orchard of 'Tahiti' lime under semi-arid
 conditions of Iaçu-BA. Six treatments were evaluated: T1, T2, T3 and T4 received 50% of ETc,
 T5-100% and T6-75%. The partial root drying was accomplished by turning on and off the
 microsprinklers that were located at both sides of each tree along a crop row of the plot at
 different time intervals (7, 14 and 21 days for T1, T2 and T3, respectively). Irrigation was fixed
 on one side for the treatment T4. In the control treatment, T5, irrigation was fixed with two
 microsprinklers. In case of T6, one and two microsprinkler per plant was on at each interval of
 21 days, according to switch of position of microsprinkler for T3.

 The change of the emitter in the interval of 7 days was sufficient for the soil moisture of the non-
 irrigated side reduce the wilting point. Productivity in the PRD treatments did not statistically
 different from treatment with fixed deficit. However it was detected by the Tukey test at 5%
 significance level, greater productivity for the treatment T5 with 29.6 ton/ha, while T2 and T3
 had the lowest production of 17.8 ton/ha. The measures of transpiration, stomatal conductance
 and resistance, showed that the treatment in deficit developed mechanisms against water loss.
 Despite the reduction of 30% in productivity, the treatments T1 and T4 were more efficient in
 water use, by using an average of 90 L to produce 1 kg of fruit, saving of around 2 million
 L/ha/year. The use of deficit irrigation is a good alternative for the management of water in an
 orchard under the evaluated conditions.




Posters
                                                                                                               154
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          OPTIMIZING WATER USE EFFICIENCY ON VIOLET AND
          WHITE GARLIC TYPES THROUGH REGULATED DEFICIT
                           IRRIGATION
                                   V. M. Lipinski1, and S. Gaviola2
                    1
                     EEA La Consulta INTA, CC 8 (5567) La Consulta, Mendoza, Argentina
    2
        Cátedra de Edafología, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias-UNCuyo, Alte. Brown 500 (5505) Chacras de
                                  Coria, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
                                      HUvlipinski@laconsulta.inta.gov.ar
                                                                     U




 In a three year survey, three garlic cultivars from the ecophysiological group III (Argentine
 classification) were submitted to regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) at different growth stages to
 evaluate the response in terms of yield and water use efficiency (WUE). Trials were carried out
 in San Carlos, Mendoza, Argentina, on fine sandy loam typic Torrifluvent soil. Treatments were
 distributed in a split plot design and disposed in completed randomized blocks with three
 replicates. Cultivars were Lican INTA (violet commercial type), and Nieve INTA and Unión
 (white commercial type). Irrigation treatments were assigned to main plots and cultivars to
 subplots. In R1, the water requirements (ETc) were 100 % replenished during all the season; in
 R2, RDI (50 % of the Etc) was established during the initial vegetative growth stage; in R3, RDI
 was set up during the second fast vegetative growth stage; in R4, RDI was applied during the
 bulb growth stage. Soil water content was monitored with a portable probe (Diviner) and
 watermark sensors at different soil depths. The crop yield response factor (ky) was calculated for
 each growing stage. Yields were no significantly different among irrigation treatments. Neither
 the interaction irrigation-cultivar was statistically significant. However, yields differences were
 found between cultivars. The highest yields obtained in Lican were 12.7 (R4), 10.1 (R4) y 11.8
 (R4) Mg·ha-1, in each year respectively. In Nieve were 17.1 (R1); 12.4 (R1) and 13.2 (R3), and in
 Unión were 17.7 (R1); 12.3 (R1) and 14.0 (R1). The most sensitive stages were the initial
 vegetative growth in Lican (ky: 0.62), the bulb growth in Nieve (ky: 0.47) and the fast vegetative
 growth in Unión (ky: 0.69). WUE was optimized with in R2 for Nieve (18 kg·mm-1) and with R4
 for Licán (16 kg·mm-1) and for Unión (19 kg·mm-1).




Posters
                                                                                                                   155
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WEIGHING LYSIMETER
                 TO MEASURE ALMOND ET

              Ignacio J Lorite1, Cristina Santos2, Luca Testi3, Elías Fereres4
                        1
                            IFAPA – Centro «Alameda del Obispo», Córdoba, Spain
                        2
                            IFAPA – Centro «Alameda del Obispo», Córdoba, Spain
                         3
                           Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC), Córdoba, Spain
          4
           Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC) and University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain
                                  HU   ignacioj.lorite@juntadeandalucia.es
                                                                      U




 Accurate knowledge of the consumptive use of crops is a prerequisite for precise water
 management. While the ET of the main herbaceous crops has been determined in many
 agricultural systems, the existing knowledge on the ET of orchards is much more limited.
 Almond trees are a promising option for the irrigated systems of Andalusia, Spain, given the
 changes in cropping patterns effected by the drift in the Common Agricultural Policy of the
 European Union. To determine the ET of almond trees, a new weighing lysimeter has been built
 in the experimental field “Alameda del Obispo”, located in Cordoba, Southern Spain. The
 lysimeter and the rest of the 5-ha field have been planted to almonds on a spacing of 7 x 6 m (cv.
 Guara) on late February 2009, after completion of lysimeter construction.

 Lysimetry is the standard methodology to measure ET of single trees, as other methods available
 have some limitations. In this work, we describe the building of a large weighing lysimeter (3 m
 x 3 m x 2.15 m depth) and of a complementary facility, a large drainage lysimeter that has
 enough size for six trees (18 m x 14 m x 2.20 m depth). In addition, some considerations are
 made regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the weighing system used (load cells vs. a
 counterbalance mechanism), the resolution of the system (it is possible to determine accurately
 hourly T rates of 1-yr old trees) or the effects of wind on the results. The first results during the
 first year reporting the rates of transpiration and evapotranspiration for young almond trees will
 be presented.




Posters
                                                                                                               156
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENTS ON
  PRODUCTIVITY PARAMETERS OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS L. IN
  AN OPEN FIELD CULTIVATION SYSTEM IN NORTH-WESTERN
                       SARDINIA.
                  D. Satta, M.G. Mameli, M. Tedde, M. Satta, L. De Pau
                                   AGRIS Sardegna, reg. Bonassai,
                                        07100 Sassari, Italy
                                      dsatta@agrisricerca.it
                                       HU                    U




 Myrtus communis L. is a widely spread Mediterranean native shrub that is nowadays being
 cropped to improve berries production aimed to industrial transformation in liqueur. In a three-
 year trial (2006-2008) myrtle plants cv “Daniela” were irrigated according to different irrigation
 strategies: Full Irrigation (FI, 100 % Maximum Evapotranspiration), High stress (HS, 25 %
 Maximum Evapotranspiration), Medium stress (MS, 50 % Maximum Evapotranspiration), Low
 stress (LS, 75 % Maximum Evapotranspiration), Partial Root-zone Drying (PRD, 50 %
 Maximum Evapotranspiration alternating the right side and the left side drip line watering every
 fifteen days) and Farmer’s aid-irrigation management (FIM).

 A randomized block design was carried out, using water saving irrigation as variability factor.

 During the irrigation season the percentage of soil water content was monitored weekly with a
 Delta T Devices profile probe. The midday Stem Water Potential (mSWP), tested as a water
 stress indicator, was measured weekly, with a pump-up portable pressure chamber

 Phenological phases, biometric parameters of berries, yield and berries quality (reducing sugars,
 anthocyans, ashs, etc.) were determined.

 The main results showed that different water saving irrigation strategies could significantly
 influence and improve the berries productivity without significantly effect on quality parameters.
 The severe water reduction of the FIM treatment induced a drastic yield reduction especially in
 the first year.

 The mSWP was a powerful plant water stress indicator. HS treatment gave the best water use
 efficiency result all years. The open field cropped myrtle should be lightly irrigated in Sardinian
 climate according to a non intensive watering system as HS or MS to guarantee a good yield and
 vegetative vigour of plants.

 Keywords: myrtle, irrigation, water stress.




Posters
                                                                                                              157
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EVOLUTION OF SOME BERRY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS
      IN WINE GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA L. CV. TEMPRANILLO)
            UNDER REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION
          F. Mañas1, P. López-Fuster1, A. Montoro1, R. López-Urrea1, E. Fereres2
                       1
                        Instituto Técnico Agronómico Provincial, Albacete, Spain
                        2
                         IAS-CSIC and University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain
                                        HUfmj.itap@dipualba.esU




 This paper summarizes the effects of four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes on grape
 sugar and acid levels and phenolic content. The experimental work was carried out in 2005 and
 2007 in a vineyard planted with Vitis vinífera L. cv. ‘Tempranillo’, located in Albacete (Central
 Spain), under semi-arid climate conditions. The vineyard was planted in 1999, plant spacing was
 3 x 1.5 m and the whole plot was irrigated by a drip system with one line per row and emitters
 every 0.5 m within the line. The four irrigation regimes were: T1: 100% of the crop
 evapotranspiration (ETc) (measured by a weighing lysimeter), T2: 33% ETc, T3: irrigated when
 midday leaf water potential (Ψmd) was lower than -1.3 MPa, T4: irrigated at 66% ETc from bud
 break to veraison, no irrigated from veraison until Ψmd = -1.3 MPa and after that it was irrigated
 33% ETc until harvest. The grape compositions parameters analyzed were: sugars concentration,
 pH, titratable acidity, malic acid, total poliphenols and anthocyanins. Results from both seasons
 showed that the different irrigation scheduling produced statistically significant difference in the
 quality parameters analysed.




Posters
                                                                                                              158
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     GROWTH AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF SINGLE AND
   INTERCROPPING CASSAVA UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS

    Victor Vinícius Machado de Oliveira1, Maurício Antônio Coelho Filho2, Eugênio
     Ferreira Coelho2, Tibério Santos Martins da Silva3, Francisco de Assis Gomes
                                       Junior4
            1
             Graduate Student by the University Federal of Bahia Concave - UFRB, Cruz das Almas –
                     2
                       researcher at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, Cruz das Almas – Bahia.
                       3
                         Analyst at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits, Cruz das Almas – Bahia.
          4
            Undergraduate by the University Federal of Bahia Concave - UFRB, Cruz das Almas – Bahia.
                                         HUviniciusufrb@yahoo.com.brU




 The present work shows results of researches carried at Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits,
 Cruz das Almas, BA involving cassava crop irrigated by sprinkler and sprayer system .
 Experimental areas were cultivated with Solongor Preta cassava cultivar where two spacing
 arrangements (single and double rows) were evaluated for the crop planted with cowpea,
 ‘Carioquinha’and ‘Rosinha’ crops in between rows in intercropping systems and planted as
 single crop. It was observed that cassava was not affected by the intercropping system, with
 maximum growth with leaf area at 150 and 200 DAP if beans were planted after cassava
 emergency. Beans were affected with reduction of 60% of potential yield for intercropping
 system with cassava crop with spacing 1,0 x 0,6 m. Its yield was strongly affected by cassava
 shading when planting date delayed. Yield, growth and crop coefficient varied as a function of
 studied arrangements and time of planting of beans related to cassava.

 Keywords: Manihot esculenta, schedule irrigation, crop coefficient.




Posters
                                                                                                                  159
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      A FAST AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DETERMINATION
           OF PARTIAL SOIL WATER RETENTION CURVE1

                                             M. A. Maffei2
  1
   Work co-financed by the Consejo de Desarrollo Científico, Humanístico y Tecnológico de la Universidad
                       de Los Andes (CDCHT-ULA) number NURR-C-507-09-01-B.
   2
     Universidad de Los Andes, Núcleo Universitario Rafael Rangel, Laboratorio de Fisiología Poscosecha,
                           Trujillo. República Bolivariana de Venezuela. CP3150.
                                  migmaffei@ula.ve fposcosecha@ula.ve
                                 HU                UH   HU                U




                                                        .

 The knowledge of the soil field water capacity (FWC) and the soil water retention curve
 (SWRC) is important for the effective irrigation management and scheduling of many
 crops. The SWRC also called soil moisture characteristic curve, is the relation between
 the soil moisture content and the soil water matric potential. Several methods are used to
 obtain the measurement of the volumetric water content (θw) vs matric potential (ψm).
 Between most common is the pressure plates and membranes of Richards for matric
 potentials between -10 and -1500 Kpa. This method requires of a set of plates,
 membranes, pots of pressure, equipment of air accumulation, pneumatic circuit among
 others, is expensive and delayed. The curve obtained by this method that culminates in
 the theoretical value of the permanent wilting point (-1500 Kpa), it is not practice for the
 scheduling irrigation then many cultures do not support maximum values of -200 Kpa
 reducing its yield seriously. An alternative to this situation is the construction of a
 partial soil water retention curve (PSWRC) between values of -2 Kpa and -80 Kpa, this
 is particularly useful in high frequency irrigation (dripping) in horticultural crops.
 Undisturbed soil samples were taken in piston cylinder liners of diesel motor and put
 under saturation by 72 hours. With the use of electronic balance and tensiometers of
 ceramic porous cup, the points of the PSWC are obtained. The RETC® software was
 used to obtain the fit points by the van Genuchten model.

 Keywords: soil water retention curve (SWRC), scheduling irrigation, van Genuchten
 model.




Posters
                                                                                                               160
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




        WATER STRESS EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL
    PARAMETERS AND ESSENTIAL OIL PERCENTAGE OF ANISE
          HYSSOP (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze)

          Mohammad Mahmoodi1, Reza Omidbaigi1 and Seid Mohammad Fakhr
                                 Tabatabaee
             1
              Department of Horticultural Science. Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran.
                                     f_mahmoodi2000@yahoo.com
                                     HU                           U




 Water is vital for plant growth and development. Water stress, permanent or temporary, limit the
 growth of cultivated plants more than any other environmental factors do. In this study, we
 investigate effect of water stress on morphological parameters such as fresh and dry weight of
 leaf, stem and root, height of plant, number and length of axillary shoots, stem diameter, leaf
 number and leaf area, length of florescence, fresh and dry yield of herbage, and essential oil
 content and percentage of A. foeniculum. Plants were treated with different levels of water stress
 (100, 85, 70, 55, 100-85 (vegetative-reproductive phases), 100-70 and 85-100 % of field
 capacity) in layout of Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications in 2008 at
 Tarbiat Modares University. Result showed significant reductions in morphological parameters.
 The essential oil percentage increased significantly up to 2.30% with 55 % of FC, and decreased
 significantly to 1.64% in 100-70 % of FC.

 Keywords: Water Stress, Morphological Parameters, Essential Oil Percentage, Anise Hyssop
 (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze)




Posters
                                                                                                                161
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     WATER STRESS INDUCED ALTERATION IN HERB YIELD,
    ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT AND COMPOSITION OF Agastache
                        foeniculum

          Mohammad Mahmoodi1, Reza Omidbaigi and Farnoosh Malekshahi
            1
             Department of Horticultural Science. Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran.
                                    f_mahmoodi2000@yahoo.com
                                    HU                           U




 This study aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on essential oil content and its main
 constituents of Agastache foeniculum plant. The result of hydro distillation of dry herb in
 Clevenger type apparatus showed that water stress increase essential oil content. The highest and
 lowest essential oil content was observed at 55% and 100-70 %FC treatments, respectively. Also
 water stress decreased herb dry yield and essential oil yield. According to the GC and GC-MS
 analyses, water stress caused a reduction in the relative concentration of limonene, but an
 increase in methyl chavicol was observed.




Posters
                                                                                                               162
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT
     ON BIOMASS AND ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCTION OF Thymus
       vulgaris L., Salvia officinalis L. AND Rosmarinus officinalis L.,
      CULTIVATED IN THE SOUTHERN SARDINIAN CLIMATE
                                    (ITALY).

             M.G. Mameli1, L. Zucca1, M. Maxia1, G. Manca1, and M. Satta1
                      1
                       AGRIS Sardegna, viale Mameli 123/D, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
                                     mgmameli@agrisricerca.it
                                      HU                        U




 Thymus, Salvia and Rosmarinus are crops which held an increasing importance for the essential
 oils production as cosmetic and alimentary industry. These crops in Sardinia have a traditional
 cropping system that consider a minimal irrigation water requirement or a dried cultivation
 system without taking account of benefits of the modern irrigation approach which are based on
 soil water content measurement and the evapotranspiration evaluation.

 The three years trial (2006, 2007 and 2008) has been carried out to better understand the
 irrigation requirement of these crops in an open field cultivation system. The experiment design
 consists of a complete randomized blocks with three replications and the irrigation strategies as
 controlled variability factor. The irrigation treatments were the no stress (NS) control treatment,
 the high stress (HS) irrigation, the medium stress (MS) irrigation, the aid irrigation (AI)
 extremely stressed and the Partial Root-zone Drying (PRD) obtained alternating the right side
 and the left side drip line watering every fifteen days. It was relieved the plants phenology, the
 quality and the quantity production parameters (biomass and its essentials oil content). They
 were monitored the soil water content and the midday Stem Water Potential (mSWP) as plants
 based water stress indicator.

 The results show that different water saving irrigation strategies could significant influence and
 improve the fresh and dry biomass productivity as in 2006 and 2008 on Thymus and Salvia, and
 the only the 2007 on Thymus and Rosmarinus. The oil content resulted significant influenced by
 irrigation only on Salvia the 2008. The dried weight resulted influenced by irrigation treatment
 only on Rosmarinus the 2007. The oil content was not influenced by irrigation treatment on
 Thymus. PRD and MS resulted the best treatments as regards the water use efficiency, the
 essential oils productivity and the water saving.

 Keywords: irrigation scheduling, essential oils quality, water stress.




Posters
                                                                                                              163
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  POST HARVEST QUALITY OF FRUITS OF BANANA CV TERRA
  UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN

          Aristides Fraga Lima Filho1; Torquato Martins de Andrade Neto1; Eugênio
                      Ferreira Coelho2; Adaílton L. Nascimento Junior3.
                                  andradeneto@hotmail.com
                                   HU                             U




 This work had as objective to evaluate the effect of five levels of irrigation and nitrogen doses on
 characteristics of quality of banana cv Terra fruits. Treatments consisted of five water depths
 (0,0; 0,08; 0,48; 1,12 e 1,52 of ETc) combined with five nitrogen doses (43.6; 261.6; 436.0;
 697.0 e 828.0 kg.ha-1), applied by using a random block design with three replications. A Plan
 Puebla III matrix scheme with two factors and five levels per factor was used. There was no
 significant difference among soluble solids (SS), tritatable acidity (AT), ratio (SS/AT) and pH
 means. There was no effect of the different water depths and nitrogen doses on the quality
 parameters of banana fruits, on the other hands, differences in physical characteristics were
 noticed in the fruits of the treatments.

 Key words: Musa sp, Fertirrigation, fertilizers




Posters
                                                                                                                164
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    EFFECTS OF PARTIAL ROOTZONE DRYING, RELATIVE
  DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND SUSTAINED DEFICIT IRRIGATION
  ON VERMENTINO GRAPEVINE IN NORTH SARDINIA (ITALY).
               L. De Pau, D1. Satta, L. Zucca1, G. Bandino1, M.G. Mameli1
                         1
                          AGRIS Sardegna, reg. Bonassai, 07100 Sassari, Italy
                                      ldepau@agrisricerca.it
                                        HU                    U




 In a three-year trial (2006-2008), Sardinian native Vermentino grapevines were irrigated
 according to different irrigation strategies: Full Irrigation (FI, control), Partial Root-zone Drying
 (PRD), Relative Deficit Irrigation (RDI), Sustained Deficit Irrigation (SDI) and Farmer’s aid-
 irrigation management (FIM).

 A randomized block design was carried out using water saving irrigation treatment (FI, RDI,
 SDI, FIM and PRD) as variability factor.

 During the irrigation season the percentage of soil water content was monitored weekly with a
 Delta T Devices profile probe. The midday Stem Water Potential (mSWP), tested as a water
 stress indicator, was measured weekly, with a pump-up portable pressure chamber.

 Qualitative and quantitative production parameters were determined, and other plant water stress
 indicators, i.e. Maximum Daily Shrinkage (MDS) was monitored.

 The main results showed that different water saving irrigation strategies could significantly
 influence and improve the must quality parameters, without the expected sensible reduction of
 plant productivity on RDI and SDI treatments, in comparison with the FI. The PRD treatment
 reduced yield in the first year, but increased it in the second and third years, compared to control
 (FI).

 The severe water reduction of the FIM treatment induced a yield reduction and quality
 worsening, especially in the first year. MDS was more powerful than mSWP as plant water stress
 indicator. The SDI treatment gave the highest water-use efficiency in all years.

 Keywords: irrigation scheduling, must quality, water stress.




Posters
                                                                                                             165
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  EFFECT OF SOIL AIR CAPACITY ON WATER RELATIONS AND
  VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAFTED
       ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS :EARLY RESULTS
   Raúl Ferreyra1, Gabriel Selles1, Manuel Pinto1, Michelle Morales2, Oscar Seguel2.
                          1
                           Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile.
                            2
                              Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Chile.
                                      HUrenechipana@yahoo.com   U




 Table grapes are grown in a wide range of soil types, thus, often are planted in soils whith
 physical conditions unfavorable for root development. This induces a limited productivity and
 fruit quality, mainly due to an inappropriate relationship between water and air on the soil. This
 situation is common in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile, where almost 22% of total table grapes
 vineyards are cultivated.. The objetive of this study is is generate information about the
 adaptation of Thompson Seedless variety, grafted on six different rootstocks, to soils with
 different capacity of air (CA). The study is conducted in 200L pots, , refilled with soils of
 different textural class, to generate different CA : 26.0%, 14.6%, 10.6% and 9.3%.

 The trial include Thompson Seedless variety grafted on five different rootstocks (110 Richter,
 Harmony, Freedom, Salt Creek, 1616 Courdec) and a control (Thompson S., in its own foot,
 without grafting) ,planted on 2007/08 season.

 The results presented correspond to the season 2008/09, and are considered as early results.

 The CA of the soil were 26.0%, 14.6%, 10.6% and 9.3%, with an oxygen diffusion rates between
 0.68 and 0.28 mg cm-2 min - 1. Stomatal conductance of the Thompson Seedless decreased in
 soils with low CA, and was greater in 26% CA., Thompson on Salt Creek rootstock, and on its
 own foot showed more negative stem water potentials at mid day. Thompson grafted on Richter
 110, Salt Creek and Freedom presented the highest growth in all type of CA conditions.
 Thompson in its own foot presented the lowest growth in soils with low CA (10.6% and 9.3%).

 Keywords: Soil aeration, stomatal conductance, stem water potential, rate of oxygen diffusion




Posters
                                                                                                              166
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  BEHAVIOUR OF THE COLUMNAR CACTUS EULYCHNIA ACIDA
    PHIL. (COPAO) UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENT
   CONDITIONS AND DRIP IRRIGATION, COQUIMBO REGION,
                         CHILE1
          Alfonso Osorio2; Angelica Salvatierra2, Luis Leris2, Lucia Martínez2
                           2
                            Instituto of Agricultural Research, Intihuasi, Chile
                                  asalvatierra@inia.cl ; aosorio@inia.cl
                                 HU                   UH   HU             U




 COPAO, Eulychnia acida Phil., is an endemic cactus found in the dry land of the Coquimbo
 region, which occupies large areas of the regional territory. The specie is distributed in an area of
 approximately 430,000 hectares, but only 35,000 hectares are accessible. It is a specie that is not
 endangered and produce an edible fruit called "rumpa", which is highly acidic and mild flavour,
 and in recent years has increased its consumption in the tourism sectors in the region.

 This paper aims to assess the response of specie to different applications of organic matter and
 water through drip irrigation. Evaluations of reproductive phenology, records of production, and
 continuous monitor of the moisture soil conditions, through direct sampling of type humidity
 sensor and TDR are done. In this case, the plant response to irrigation is of paramount
 importance, considering the natural conditions where it develops.

 Trials were established at two sites in the Region of Coquimbo. One in the coastal area near the
 town of Tongoy and the other in a more Mediterranean area, near the city of Ovalle, a distance of
 approximately 50 km of the former.

 The treatments tested consider the application of two factors or variables: organic amendment
 and use of two irrigation rates, equivalent to 10 and 5% of the reference evapotranspiration
 (ETo) for each sector. The trial design is a randomized block with seven treatments, including
 among them the absolute. Each treatment has eight repetitions. The application of water through
 drip irrigation will be held from flowering to fruit ripening (September to February).

 The preliminary results indicate that in those treatments without irrigation, soil moisture content
 are below the permanent wilting percentage (PMP), reflecting severe conditions of water stress
 in soil and under which the plants grow.




 Keywords: Copao, irrigation, dry, cactus




Posters
                                                                                                                 167
                                 VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT ON THE GROWTH, GAS
          EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF MANGO
               (Mangifera Indica) ROOTSTOCK SEEDLINGS

                             Luvaha E, G.W. Netondo and G.Ouma
          Department of Botany and Horticulture, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno, Kenya.
                                         goumaoindo@yahoo.com
                                         HU                        U




 Six month old Mango (Mangifera indica L) rootstock seedlings were grown in 20 litre plastic pots in a
 greenhouse at Maseno University, Kenya to investigate the effect of water deficit on its morphological and
 physiological characteristics such as plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter and gas exchange
 characteristics and chlorophyll content respectively. A completely randomized design (CRD) with four
 treatments and six replications was used. The treatments involved subjecting the rootstock seedlings to
 four different irrigation regimes namely watering daily, twice in a week, once in a week and once in two
 weeks. The measurements were taken after every two weeks for a period of three months. At the end of the
 experiment, destructive sampling to establish the root to shoot ratio were taken. The soil moisture content
 under the different irrigation regimes was also determined gravimetrically. Growth parameters increased
 under mild water stress except under extreme water deficit where there was wilting. Root to shoot ratio
 increased with increasing water deficit. Increase in water deficit reduced the gas exchange parameters but
 slightly increased chlorophyll content. It is concluded that water deficit significantly (P≤ 0.05) affects
 physiological and morphological characteristics of Mango.

 Keywords: Water deficit, gas exchange, chlorophyll content, mango, seedlings, growth,
 morphological, physiological.




Posters
                                                                                                                 168
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      CONTROL OF NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN BROCCOLI
    (Brassica oleracea L.) USING N-BASED POLYMER FERTILIZERS
                  UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

                       Washington Padilla and Antonio Leon-Reyes
               Grupo Clínica Agrícola Agrobiolab, G. Zaldumbide N49-204 y Luis Calisto
                              Urbanización Dammer II, Quito-Ecuador
                                   antonioleonreyes@hotmail.com
                                   HU                            U




 Broccoli is an important vegetable for its excellent nutritional value and it is considered one of
 the favorite’s vegetables worldwide. Nitrogen is an indispensable nutrient required for many
 plant regulatory mechanisms and the application of nitrogen-based (N-based) fertilizers is
 obligatory for optimal and intensive crop production. Irrational used of N-based fertilizers had
 incurred in detriment of the environment, inefficient use of mineral resources and loss of quality
 of the final product affecting human and animal health. Certainly, excessive accumulation of
 NO3, a compound demonstrated to be carcinogenic at elevated concentrations, has been found in
 broccoli’s heads and leaves due to the irrational used of N-based fertilizers. Here, we
 investigated the response of N-based polymer fertilizers with the aim to minimize nitrogen soil
 loss and to control high levels of NO3 in the plant. We demonstrated that the slow release of
 nitrogen due to the polymer, within an application of 250 and 500 Kg/ha of carbonyl diamide or
 ammonium nitrate, increased 57 % their agronomical efficiency and reduced 12% the NO3
 levels versus its control without the polymer. Taken all together, we demonstrated that rationale
 used of fertilizers, together with the application of new polymer technology, helps to improved
 production and quality of broccoli under drip irrigation systems.

 Keywords: Nitrogen, carbonyl diamide, ammonium nitrate, health, environment.




Posters
                                                                                                               169
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    IRRIGATION SCHEDULING BY CROP COEFFICIENTS BASED
      ON GROWTH STAGE IDENTIFICATION OF VEGETABLE
               CROPS USING THE BBCH SCALES
                                    Peter-Juergen Paschold
                           Research Institute Geisenheim, Hessia, Germany
                                         Paschold@fa-gm.de
                                        HU




 In Germany irrigation scheduling for vegetable carried out more and more on the basis of
 climatic water balance according to the modified PENMAN-MONTHEITH-Equation. The
 associated crop coefficient (Kc) values for irrigation scheduling based on climatic water balance
 are often differentiated into the initial stage, crop development stage, mid-season and late season
 stage. Theses stages are not properly defined for vegetables. In Geisenheim, the developmental
 stages of 35 vegetable species were morphologically described and supplemented with the
                                                                            HU              UH




 BBCH code (Stauss 1994) and with drawings. With these drawings, the appropriate stage of
 plant development can be chosen by the farmer for irrigation scheduling.

 Crop coefficients associated with the growth stages were determined in long-term trials with
 different water treatments in a weighable Lysimeter station. These kc-values were verified in
 larger field trials by using a computer controlled irrigation machine. This machine makes it
 possible to test different kc-values on randomised plots.

 Simultaneous soil moisture in different soil depths were measured with tensiometers and logged
 to prove that controlled irrigation reduces the risk of a nutrient leaching out of the rhizosphere.

 With the appropriate growth stage based on BBCH and drawings the farmer can select more
 accurate kc to use for irrigation scheduling based on climatic water balance, thus achieving high
 yields through sustainable water application.




Posters
                                                                                                            170
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           EFFECT OF SOIL DEPTH ON WATER MANAGEMENT
          OF ROMAINE LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.) CULTIVATED
                          IN A MUCK SOIL
     L. Plamondon1, L. Gaudreau1, A. Gosselin and J. Caron D. Van Winden2, S. Jenni
                 1
                  Horticulture Research Center, Universite Laval Quebex, Canada, G1K 7P4
                      2
                        Production Horticole Van Winden, Sherrington, Quebec, Canada,
             3
               Horticulture Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agrofood Canada
                                    HUlaurie.plamondon.2@ulaval.ca
                                                                 U




 In Canada, field lettuce growers have difficulties to irrigate properly and to avoid nutrient
 leaching in soils. Thus, it is important to make an optimal use of water and fertilizers for lettuce
 production in muck soils. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the optimal soil
 water matric potential required for initiating lettuce irrigation. Romaine lettuce transplants (cv
 Sunbelt) were seeded and grown in sphagnum peat cubic blocks for 14 days. Lettuce transplants
 were then transplanted into 84-liter and 250-liter plastic containers 30 and 100-cm deep
 respectively. The containers were previously filled with large muck soil blocks by keeping the
 stratification to reduce soil disturbance and placed in greenhouse. High pressure sodium lamps
 supplied a supplemental PPF of 500 µmol m-2s-1 for a photoperiod of 16 hours approximately.
 HPS lamps were turned off at a PPF of 500 µmol m-2s-1. Temperatures were maintained at 21°C
 during the day and at 17°C during the night. Transplants were hand-irrigated whenever 4
 different soil water matric potentials were reached (-10, -20, -30 or -50 kPa), as measured with
 home made tensiometers. Plant fresh weight, leaf number, as well as photosynthesis rate were
 measured forty-five days after transplanting. Soil water was depleted at 30 and 60-cm depth, 15
 and 30 days after transplantation respectively. No decrease in yields resulted from irrigation of
 low soil matric potential (-30 and -50 kPa) in deeper containers. These results imply that
 growers could gradually supply more water less frequently as the growth stage evolves with no
 expected yield losses.

 Keywords: Lettuce, irrigation, soil matric potential, greenhouse, muck soil, yields




Posters
                                                                                                               171
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     LONG-TERM EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON
              CHERRY VIGOR AND PRECOCITY

             L.N. Podestá1, E.E. Sánchez2, R.C. Vallone1,3, J.A. Morábito1,4
                         1
                            Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
                 2
                 Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Río Negro, Argentina
                 3
                   Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Mendoza, Argentina
                             4
                               Instituto Nacional del Agua, Mendoza, Argentina
                                     HU   lpodesta@fca.uncu.edu.ar
                                                              U




 In sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) moderate post-harvest water stress would make it possible to
 control vigor and encourage precocity. Different post-harvest controlled deficit irrigation
 treatments were established in a young and vigorous commercial ´Bing` cherry orchard planted
 in dry shallow soil with drip irrigation. The treatments given over a three-year period were as
 follows: T1= 100%, T2= 75% and T3= 50% of full ETc. The percentage of remaining soil
 moisture (%AW) and stem water potential (SWP) at midday were measured during the water-
 deficit period. Shoot length and trunk cross-sectional area were measured each year. Flower bud
 density and yield efficiency were measured the following spring. During the three-year period
 average SWP was -0.68a, -0.83b and -1.04c MPa while %AW was 89.9a, 71.7b and 41.4c for T1,
 T2 and T3 respectively. SWP was highly correlated with %AW (r2= 0.89).

 After three years of the experience trunk growth decreased by 6% (T2) and 10% (T3). Shoot
 length for T3 was 27% lower, flower bud density and yield efficiency were 85% and 57% higher
 when compared to T1. Seasonal shoot length was highly correlated with flower bud density on
 productive branches (r2= -0.76).

 An accurately adjusted post-harvest water deficit can be used to control vigor and promote early
 production of cherries, while saving significant amounts of water.




Posters
                                                                                                            172
                             VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          EFFECTS OF REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION DURING
          STAGE III OF FRUIT DEVELOPMENT ON YIELD AND OIL
              QUALITY OF OLIVE TREES (OLEA EUROPAEA L.
                             “ARBEQUINA”)

             C.M. Puertas1*, E.R. Trentacoste1, J. Morábito2, J.E. Perez Peña3
                                1
                                INTA EEA Junín, Mendoza, Argentina.
                            2
                               INA-FCA UNCuyo, Mendoza, Argentina.
                            3
                              INTA EEA Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina
                            * I. Bousquet s/nº, Junín (CC 78 ZC 5570).
                                    cpuertas@correo.inta.gov.ar
                                    HU                        U




 In recent years, Arbequina has been the most widely planted cultivar in Argentina. Its
 low polyphenol content and oxidative stability affect the oils’ commercial value. It has
 been suggested that reducing irrigation for olive trees may improve no only polyphenol
 content and oxidative stability, but also the percentage of oil extracted and water use
 efficiency. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation were evaluated in 9-year old
 Arbequina olive orchard during growing seasons 2006-07 and 2007-08. Two levels of
 regulated deficit irrigation and a control were imposed during stage III of fruit
 development until harvest: T66 and T33 received 66% and 33% respectively of the dose
 applied to the control treatment T (100% of crop evapotranspiration). Water status, leaf
 gas exchange, olive yield and olive oil yield and quality parameters were evaluated. In
 both seasons T33 showed the lowest stem water potential generating a mild water stress.
 Stomatal conductance was similar among treatments. Yield and yield components (fruit
 weight, stone weight, humidity and oil content) were unaffected, except for the maturity
 index which was higher in T than in T33 during the first season. During the second
 season, all treatments showed similar reductions in crop load compared to the first
 season, with no irrigation effects on alternate bearing pattern. Deficit irrigation did not
 affect oil yield. The quality parameters evaluated (free acidity, peroxide value, total
 polyphenol content and oxidative stability) were different between years. Total
 polyphenol content correlated with oxidative stability only in the second season (r=
 0.97). Irrigation treatment did not affect fatty acid composition. Water savings of 18%
 and 15% were achieved in T33 in the first and second growing season respectively.

  Key words: stem water potential, gas exchange, polyphenol content, oxidative stability.




Posters
                                                                                                            173
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                 November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          FOUR YEARS OF RDI DURING STAGE II VS STAGE III IN
            PEACHES FOR PROCESSING: YIELD VS QUALITY.

          Xavier Domingo1, Miquel Pascual2, Joseph M. Villar3 Amadeu Arbones4
                                   and Joseph Rufat4
                              1
                               DMACS-Universitat de Lleida/Lab-ferrer
                                    2
                                      DHBJ-Universitat de Lleida
                                  3
                                    DMACS-Universitat de Lleida
                                4
                                 IRTA. Area de Tecnologia del Reg
                                        Josep.Rufat@irta.cat
                                       HU                  U




 In the Mediterranean area, peach irrigation reduction can be adopted and applied by growers
 during pit hardening and sometimes it is imposed at the end of fruit growing season due to dry
 weather conditions. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of those irrigation strategies
 on plant and fruit parameters, mainly on yield and quality. The field experiment was run during
 four years on Andross trees in a shallow soil, unthinned and mechanically harvested. Irrigation
 treatments were FI (fully irrigated trees throughout the season according to water balance), RII
 (30% ETc during stage II), and RIII (70% ETc during stage III). The experimental design was
 randomised complete-block with four replications. Water content in the soil was recorded and
 irrigation physiological response on the plant was monitored. Total savings ranged between 8
 and 14% of total water applied. Shortage of water had a different response depending on fruit
 growing stage: deficit irrigation during stage II affects vegetative growth and tissue nutrient
 relations, while a reduction of water during stage III clearly delayed fruit maturity, decreased
 final fruit size, and increased quality parameters like fruit firmness and total soluble solids.
 Potential benefits and disadvantages of both strategies are discussed.




Posters
                                                                                                           174
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




    IRRIGATION CHARACTERIZATION USING PERFORMANCE
    INDICATORS OF WATER AND ENERGY USE IN IRRIGATION
      WATER USER’S ASSOCIATIONS. A CASE STUDY IN THE
    IRRIGATION WATER USER’S ASSOCIATION OF ALBATERA
                    (ALICANTE) SPAIN.

   A. Ruiz Canales1, J.A. Albert-Jovert1, R. Abadía-Sánchez1, C. Rocamora-Osorio1
                                   Universidad Miguel Hernández
             Grupo de Investigación AEAS-Agua y Energía para una Agricultura Sostenible
                       Ctra.de Beniel km 3,2. 03312 Orihuela (Alicante) – Spain
                                          acanales@umh.es
                                         HU               U




 Several performance indicators proposed by the “International Programme for Technology and
 Research in Irrigation and Drainage” IPTRID were obtained at the irrigated area in the Irrigation
 Water User’s Association of Albatera (Alicante) Spain. These indicators were determined along
 four seasons (2003/2004-2006/2007). Moreover, an energy audit of this Irrigation Water User’s
 Association was made along 2006. Additional performance indicators were obtained on this
 energy audit. Performance indicators are classified in three groups: descriptive indicators,
 management indicators, and energy indicators. Descriptive indicators are adequate for general
 characterization of a Water User’s Association. These indicators are obtained from basic data on
 each association. Management indicators (classified in efficiency, financial, productivity, and
 environmental), are determined mostly from those proposed by the IPTRID. Energy indicators
 proposed were obtained from several previous research works developed by some authors of this
 paper. Additionally, some indicators have been modified or eliminated in order to adapt it to the
 present case study. Descriptive, environmental and energy data obtained from these indicators
 are described and contrasted along several seasons. The development of these indicators to
 evaluate the performance of Irrigation Water User’s Associations is an adequate practice to
 propose management of water and energy usage, along with reducing other production costs.
 Finally, these performance indicators are adequate to compare several Irrigation Water User’s
 Associations in a “benchmarking” proceeding.

 Keywords: Performance indicators, water scarcity, crop production, energy saving, energy audits
 in water user´s associations




Posters
                                                                                                            175
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                     November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     IRRIGATION PROGRAMMING SYSTEMS BASED ON WATER
       CONTENT GAUGES FOR CITRIC TREES. SOME DATA OF
        SEVERAL CASE STUDY IN THE SOUTHEAST OF SPAIN.
            Ruiz Canales, A1. J.M. Molina-Martínez2 and H. Puerto-Molina1
     1
     Univesidad Miguel Hernandez, Grupo de Investigación Aeas Agua y Energía para una 2Agricultura
                                 Sostenible, Orihuekla (Alicante); Spain.
   Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena Departamento de Ingeniería de los alimentos y del equipamiento
                                   agrícola, Cartagena (Murcia), Spain
                                           HUacanales@umh.es U




 Along the Mediterranean countries, water scarcity is a structural problem. In the South of
 Valencia Community and in the region of Murcia (Spain) this problem is becoming more acute.
 The cited regions have a traditional agricultural activity. In this sector, the two main problems
 these areas face are the shortage of water resources and prices, since prices perceived by farmers
 do not compensate cultivation costs. Incomes received by farmers, level of harvest prices and the
 evolution of these prices in the last years have been decreasing seriously. The development of
 land for different uses, mainly industrial, residential and recreational has been increasing the
 competition for water and land uses among these production sectors and the agricultural one. On
 these areas the cultivation of citric fruits is very important. These are irrigation, intensive crops
 with important water demands. In these areas, a series of actions are needed to optimize available
 water offer and rationalize the demand management. One of these actions is to increase the
 efficiency of existing irrigation systems by the improvement of techniques of irrigation
 programming. In the last years, irrigation systems have been suffering a modernisation process.
 The majority of the processes in the modernisation of the irrigation systems imply the change of
 surface irrigation systems to drip irrigation systems. These changes have been promoted by
 national and regional administrations and farmers. However, the adoption of drip irrigation
 systems has not implied an adequate irrigation management. For this reason, these irrigation
 systems have not reached high values of efficiency, considering the potential efficiency of drip
 irrigation systems. An adequate irrigation programming is necessary in order to increase the
 efficiency values. Mainly, to avoid infiltration water losses and to apply only the water for
 satisfying the crop water needs. Traditional irrigation programming has been based on a soil
 water balance model as the proposed by FAO. This methodology has been demonstrated that this
 is partially certain for fruit trees. For this reason is important to contrast some possible
 alternative or complement to the FAO model. Finally, the application of several systems of
 irrigation programming for citric trees based on water content gauges has been studied. Some
 results, advantages and disadvantages of these systems are analyzed.

 Keywords: water content gauges, water scarcity, crop production, water saving, irrigation
 programming, citric trees




Posters
                                                                                                               176
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   WATER USE IN THE PRODUCTION OF HIDROPONIC FORAGE
             UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

                     L. Salas Pérez1, V. P. Alvarez Reina, P. Preciado Rangel1
      1
          Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro-UL- Postgrado. Periférico y Carretera Santa Fe.
                                         Torreón, Coahuila, México
                                           lilia-nt@hotmail.com
                                            HU                  U




 Considering that agriculture is the main consumer of water in the world and their
 availability to plants decreases due to increased evapotranspiration and temperature, it is
 obvious that the best way to save water is through the implementation of agricultural
 practices such as hydroponic forage production, where evapotranspiration losses are
 minimal compared to the conventional production of forage species. This research was
 carried out in a greenhouse located in Lagunera Region, Coahuila, Mexico. Irrigation
 was performed using a micro with model issuers SP360, flow 40-60L/H, ratio 1.0-1.5 m,
 spaced every 40 cm. The following response variables were determined: yield, efficiency
 in use of water (EUW) and evapotranspiration of hydroponic forage grown under six
 irrigation regimes.: regime one: periods of 5 s every 10 min; regime two: periods of 5 s
 every 15 min; regime three: periods of 5 s every 20 min; regime four: periods of 10 s
 every 10 min; regime five: periods of 10 s every 15 min; regime six: periods of 10 s
 every 20 min in a completely randomized design. The results show that in greenhouse
 conditions water consumption is significantly reduced and a moderate water deficit did
 not affect the production of hydroponic fodder. The climatic condition of the state
 greenhouse reduces evapotranspiration, which is why the greenhouses can be considered
 an efficient system to reduce water consumption by crops. The yield of forage in
 hydroponic greenhouse conditions is more than 100% to those obtained in the open air.

 Keywords: Hidroponic Forage, Efficiency in Use Water, Evapotranspiration.




Posters
                                                                                                                177
                              VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                  November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




          FIRST APPROACH IN THE ET ESTIMATION FOR OLIVE
           ORCHARDS USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

          Cristina Santos1, Masahiro Tasumi2, Ignacio J Lorite3, Richard G Allen4
                       1
                         IFAPA – Centro «Alameda del Obispo», Córdoba, Spain
                               2
                                 University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
                       3
                         IFAPA – Centro «Alameda del Obispo», Córdoba, Spain
                               4
                                University of Idaho, Kimberly (ID), USA
                               HUcristinam.santos@juntadeandalucia.es
                                                                    U




 METRIC is an ET estimation model developed by the University of Idaho that has been applied
 previously in the USA and Spain with success to produce high resolution ET maps using
 thermally-equipped satellites. Previous METRIC analyses have primarily focused on the
 estimation of ET over fields of annual agricultural crops and forages, and there have not been
 extensive applications to non-homogeneous canopies such as olive. Application to non-
 homogeneous canopies is complicated, due to uncertainties in the estimation of crop roughness
 and aerodynamic resistances, and mixtures of shade that affect temperature and sensible heat
 flux calculation.

 One of the most important crops in the semiarid Mediterranean regions are olive orchards. In
 this work we have evaluated METRIC ET results for olive fields located in Andalusia (Spain) in
 order to define specific irrigation schedules for this crop. Compared with traditional Kc-based ET
 estimations, METRIC has the great advantage of obtaining ET maps over vast areas, because it
 estimates ET by energy balance for each pixel using satellite data.

 Surface roughness for momentum transport (zom) is a measure of the form drag and skin friction
 for the layer of air that interacts with the surface, and is used in METRIC for the aerodynamic
 resistance calculation, necessary to obtain the sensible heat flux. This parameter was calculated
 using a general equation for agricultural areas, and has been modified in this work for woody
 crops such as olive. For this purpose, variables such as crop density and height were
 characterized using aerial photography. The model was calibrated by using FAO-56 ET
 estimations from non-irrigated olive fields where rainfall data were known.

 A trial-and-error analysis suggested that modifications of the original equation for the
 determination of zom based on the tree height provided good results when it was compared with
 FAO-56 calculations for rainfed olive orchards.




Posters
                                                                                                            178
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




           CANOPY TEMPERATURE AS AN INDICATOR OF WATER
                      STATUS IN CITRUS TREES

                                 F. Stagno1, A. Giuffrida1, F. Intrigliolo1
     1
          CRA - Centro di ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee -ACM, Acireale - Ct, Italy)
                                            fiorella.stagno@entecra.it
                                            HU                        U




 Measurements of midday stem water potential (Ψmd) and midday canopy temperature (IRmd)
 were carried out during three seasons in a fully irrigated citrus orchard [Citrus sinensis (L)
 Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late’. The aim of the work was to assess the relationship between these
 parameters. The analysis of infrared thermometer data allowed to build an empirical model. The
 data obtained in the first two years allowed to calculate a linear function [ md=ƒ(IRmd)] with a
 correlation coefficient (r) of -0.865. In the third year of the study, the regression model was
 tested with a validation procedure. During the period of observation, Ψmd data (observed and
 fitted) did not show significant statistical differences demonstrating the accuracy of model.




Posters
                                                                                                                     179
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                       November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




     TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF SOIL WATER CONTENT UNDER
     CULTIVATION OF TWO VEGETABLE CROPS IN SOUTHERN
                          ITALY
              D. Ventrella, P1. Campi, L1. Giglio, D. Palumbo1, M. Castellini1
          1
           Agricultural Research Council-Research unit for cropping systems in dry environments
                       CRA-Research unit for cropping systems in dry environments
                                    Via Celso Ulpiani 5, Bary, Italy
                                     domenico.ventrella@entecra.it
                                     HU                            U




 In the environments of Southern Italy, the water resources are more and more a limitant factor
 for crop yield and an increase of temperature and reduction of precipitation are expected for this
 century, as a consequence of climate warming. In such a context, the irrigation strategy is a
 crucial step in order to optimize the water resources. The field-measurements of soil water
 content (SWC) are of fundamental importance to study the soil water balance with particular
 reference to several components like the plant water uptake, the downward infiltration, the water
 re-distribution in the soil profile and the capillary rise.

 In the framework of AQUATER Project (Decision support systems to manage water resources at
 irrigation district level in Southern Italy using remote sensing information), the main objective of
 this study has been to monitor the SWC dynamics in a Watermelon and Asparagus field
 cultivations located in two farms of Southern Italy.

 SWC has been continuously monitored, along the soil profile, by using TDR method and stored
 every hour into a CR10X. A different numbers of probes were vertically/horizontally installed a
 different depths along the soil profile and positions from crop rows. The probe signals were
 controlled by a TDR-100 (Campbell Sci. Shepshed, UK) and stored every hour in a
 CR10/CR1000 data logger.

 Below the dripper lines, the surface layer presented the largest temporal fluctuations due to
 irrigations, soil evaporation and plant water uptake. However, in the interrow positions the SWC
 gradually decreased up to be constant in the driest months of the year. The temporal variations of
 SWC measured at hourly scale allowed to individuate the periods immediately after the irrigation
 events when the drainage is predominant and when the soil moisture depletion is explained by
 root water uptake in the daytime. The soil water content at the end of “drainage stage” can be
 considered the “effective field capacity”, the upper limit of available soil water, that can be
 utilized in order to quantify the irrigation minimizing the soil drainage losses.




Posters
                                                                                                                 180
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                    November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




  DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO ECONOMICALLY
    AND TECHNICALLY SELECT THE OPTIMUM SIZE OF A
       PIPELINE NETWORK OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.
                                            Sergio Villagrán
                               Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Chile
                                        sergiovillagran@udec.cl
                                       HU                      U




 The development of an expert system to select the pipe size in a pipeline network of an
 irrigation system, that considers the nature of the irrigation system, as to the variability of flows
 and pressures that exist for each the irrigation Units and optimizing the total cost of the irrigation
 system.

 The optimization selection of pipe diameters of the main and secondary lines, which minimizes
 the total cost of the system, considering technical and economic variables (fixed capital cost,
 operational cost in a rising energy cost scenario), and the calculation of the differential flow and
 operating times for each Unit, according to their participation in different Units and sub Units of
 the irrigation system, was developed.

 To do this at an early stage is an optimization model, which considers the various costs involved
 and conditions of the hydraulic system. A second step considers integrating these expert systems
 in a decision support system.




Posters
                                                                                                              181
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




      COMPLYING WITH SOCIETY'S DEMANDS, SOLVING THE
     EMISSION PROBLEM CAUSED BY IRRIGATION SURPLUS IN
                      GREENHOUSES
          Ellen Beerling1, Wim Voogt1, Tycho Vermeulen1 and Wouter Verkerk1
                              1
                               Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture
                                        wim.voogt@wur.nl
                                         HU                U




 Irrigation surplus is a commonly used strategy in soil grown crops in greenhouses. This results in
 emissions of nutrients and pesticides, which is becoming a problem for many protected
 cultivation systems in the EU. New European rules will be implemented, limiting the amount of
 nutrients and pesticides to be released in the environment. These developments pose a serious
 challenge – or threat – to the commercial growers in Europe. The innate reflex of growers’
 organizations and the crop protection industry is to organize protest against such
 implementations. The alternative is to develop innovative solutions that aim at social, economic
 and environmental sustainable production systems. These solutions can only be implemented
 successfully when all stakeholders are involved in the process and show their commitment. An
 overview of our tools and strategies is presented.

 Our strategy is to build networks with growers and other stakeholders in which we search for
 congruent interests, resulting in common goals, but in which there is also room for individual
 interests of the different stakeholders. The determinant factor in this process is the creation of
 trust among different actors. Helpful in this is the joint identification of motivations for change,
 bottlenecks and definition of possible solutions. An important focus of these networks is the
 exchange of knowledge to enhance the implementation of good and best practices. An other
 important focus is the joint development of knew knowledge, targeted on specific hot spots, and
 the creation of innovative sustainable production systems.
 .
 In several regions in The Netherlands these networks operate well and we believe this strategy
 offers opportunities in a European context as well. Based on our knowledge and experience we
 present a realistic approach, that meets the demands of modern European society. Researchers
 interested in cooperation in this field are invited to contact us.




Posters
                                                                                                             182
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                        November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




   IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AUTOMATIC METEOROLOGICAL
     STATION FOR THE RATIONAL USE OF THE IRRIGATION
               WATER IN THE CHACA VALLEY.
    Rodrigo Marcelo Vásquez Vásquez1, David Miguel Armando Fernández Villca1
                       and Mario Alejandro Condori Viza1
      1
          Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Tarapacá, Estudiantes de 5º año. Arica-Chile
                                           rvasquez_v@hotmail.com
                                           HU                       U




 The Chaca Valley, located 40Km from the Arica city, presents problems relating to agricultural
 activities, mainly lack of water resources, specifically the decrease of underground aquifers and
 inefficiency in the irritation practices applied to crops in the area, decreasing its application
 efficiency and therefore loss of this scare resource in the valley. Moreover, the farmers have
 decided to reduce the cultivated area due to inadequate amount of water for cultivation. It means
 low productivity of the farms and the valley in general. The lack of agroclimatogy data in the
 valley makes impossible to perform technical studies for improving the profitability of current
 crops.

 The completion of project is focused on improving the efficiency with technical recommendation
 and use of water resource, through the determination of irritation time and getting the rational
 use of water. The people benefited will be the inhabitants of Chaca Valley, neighborhood
 community and indigenous community. These activities will be financed by the Institutional
 Development Fund for student (FDI) of the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC).

 The project will be conducted under the direction of a team of student from faculty of agronomy
 and professors of University of Tarapacá related to the area, Aldo Espindola P. Agroclimatology
 professor and head of weather forecast area of the Chacalluta Airport; and Amador Torres H. M.
 Sc. Agronomy.

 The implementation of weather station will be the base of future productive researches for the
 sector, allowing to students of agronomy and farmers prepare thesis and projects about
 agriculture. Futhermore, this installation allows to get data for analyzing the climate change in
 the valley.




Posters
                                                                                                                  183
                                  VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                      November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                                               AUTHORS

 A. Antunez                                   129       C. Gary                                            122
 A. Artigao                                   101       C. Germanà                                          36
 A. Continella                                 36       C. Goñi                                             81
 A. Domínguez                                 101       C. Isbérie                                         115
 A. Elia                                       30       C. Kittas                                          141
 A. Fernandes de Oliveira                     146       C. Lykas                                           141
 A. Fini                                      104       C. M. Castro                                       124
 A. G. Calbo                                  120       C. Pastenes                                         21
 A. Giuffrida                             36, 179       C. Poblete-Echeverría                               70
 A. Gosselin                             131, 171       C. Reisser Jr.                            99, 100, 124
 A. H. R. Sampaio                             139       C. Rocamora-Osorio                                 175
 A. Hernández                                  80       C. Savige                                           44
 A. McAllister                                 44       C. Schilardi                                       117
 A. Melián-Navarro                            176       C.A.B. Medeiros                                    124
 A. Montoro                               57, 158       C.E. Cotrim                                        137
 A. Morales-Sillero                            89       C.F.A Teixeira                                 99, 100
 A. N. Lakso                                   22       C.M. Puertas                                       173
 A. Navarro                                    30       Carles Paris                                        54
 A. Olguín                                     90       Carlos Schugurensky                                 98
 A. Olguín Pringles                            45       Carlos Zúñiga E.                                    78
 A. Otero                                      81       Carmen Duarte                                   32, 33
 A. Quiñónez                                   84       Celette F.                                          43
 A. Ruiz Canales                              175       Celia M. James                                     151
 A. Yeves                                      20       Claudio O. Stöckle                                  15
 A. da S. Pereira                             124       Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda                       138
 A. de Cires                                   89       Cr. Paltineanu                                      51
 A.C. Pires                                   147       Craig Kallsen                                       79
 A.D. Palumbo                                  41       Cristina Aspillaga                                  42
 A.D. Wheaton                                  46       Cristina Santos                               156, 178
 A.E. Rubio-Casal                              89       Cristián Barrera M.                                 78
 A.H.R. Sampaio                               154       Cristián Cáceres R.                            93, 130
 A.J.M. Pamponet                              147       Cristos Xiloyannis                                  65
 A.M.Mazher Azza                              143       Cássia M. F. Fernandes                             140
 A.M.S.R. Pamplona                             86       D. Martin                                           72
 A.W. Schumann                                 82       D. Pacheco                                          90
 Aat van Winkel                                95       D. Palumbo                                         180
 Adaílton L. Nascimento Junior                164       D. Pérez                                            20
 Agustín Aljaro U.                        93, 130       D. Rekika                                          131
 Alfonso Osorio                          102, 167       D. Risco                                            20
 Amadeu Arbonés                           54, 174       D. Satta                                 146, 157, 165
 Ana Herrero                                   26       D. Tous                                            132
 Angelica Salvatierra                         167       D. Tzobanoglou                                     112
 Antonio Leon-Reyes                           169       D. Van Winden                                      171
 Antonio Pires De Camargo                144, 145       D. Ventrella                                  123, 180
 Antônio Lindemberg M. Mesquita               140       D. Whitfield                                    35, 44
 Aristides Fraga Lima Filho                   164       D.R. Cobos                                          50
 B. Faber                                      83       D.S. Intrigliolo                            20, 22, 62
 B. Saphy                                     115       Daniel Cozzolino                                    47
 B. Schaffer                                   67       David Cruz Choque                                   25
 B. Tisseyre                                   38       David J. Midmore                            75, 76, 77
 Barbeau G.                                    43       David M. A. Fernández V.                           183
 Bartolomeo Dichio                             65       Delpuech X.                                         43
 Bernard Itier                            121, 14       E. Holzapfel                                    84, 85
 Bernd R. Gruber                              114       E. B. S. Júnior                                    139
 Bielinski M. Santos                          107       E. Bergeron Piette                                 131
 Blake L. Sanden                               94       E. Chitu                                            51
 Blake Sanden                                  79       E. F. Coelho                             133, 135, 139
 Bruce Schaffer                                49       E. Galat Giorgi                                     24
 C. Acevedo-Opazo                         38, 122       E. Holzapfel                                        68
 C. Alfaro                                    129       E. Lebon                                           121
 C. Barrera                                    66       E. Luvaha                                          168
 C. Fassio                                 67, 69       E. López-Mata                                      101
 C. García                                 28, 55       E. M. Lodolini                                      88




Authors
                                                                                                                 184
                                     VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                         November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



 E.A. Khah                                          141    H. Vandendriessche                                  53
 E.B. Santana                                       147    Hans R. Schultz                                    114
 E.B.S. Junior                                      154    Hans Raj Gheyi                                 60, 138
 E.E. Sánchez                                       172    Hava F. Rapoport                                   152
 E.F. Coelho                         136, 137, 147, 154    Helen Longbottom                                26, 34
 E.L. da Costa                                      136    Herman Silva                                        58
 E.R. Trentacoste                                   173    Hugo Bosque                                        110
 Ellen Beerling                                     182    Hugo Bosque Sanchez                                 25
 Elías Fereres                         57, 158, 156, 13    I. Abrisqueta                                  97, 127
 Enrique Palacios V.                                 74    I. Garcia                                          116
 Esequiel Rolando Jiménez Espinosa                  103    I. Garcia de Cortazar                              150
 Esteban González-Rodriguez                          59    I. García-Tejero                                    80
 Eugenia Galat Giorgi                           23, 149    I. Goodwin                                  35, 46, 61
 Eugênio Ferreira Coelho                  134, 159, 164    I. Isac                                             92
 F. Alcon                                           115    I. Kasapakis                                       112
 F. Capraro                                          90    I.C. Antonio                                        86
 F. Elsen                                            53    Ignacio J. Lorite                            156, 178
 F. Ferrer                                          132    J. A. Morábito                                     117
 F. Flores                                           91    J. Arenas                                           71
 F. Fonseca                                         132    J. Caron                                     131, 171
 F. Intrigliolo                                 36, 179    J. Castel                                          115
 F. Jara                                             38    J. Celedón                                          66
 F. Mañas                                           158    J. Girona                                          115
 F. Santibáñez                                       71    J. Haberland                                        66
 F. Stagno                                      36, 179    J. Jara                                     68, 84, 85
 F. Stanica                                          92    J. Mamani                                           69
 F. Vilaró                                           28    J. Morábito                                        173
 F. Vita Serman                                  45, 90    J. Perez Peña                                       24
 F.A. Ibañez                                         21    J. Vera                                        97, 127
 F.R. Simao                                         135    J.A. Albert-Jovert                                 175
 F.S. Costa                                         147    J.A. Frizzone                                      106
 Farnoosh Malekshahi                                161    J.A. Morábito                                      172
 Felicita González                              32, 118    J.A. Silva                                         137
 Felicita González Robaina                           29    J.A. Taylor                                         38
 Fernando A. S. de Aragão                           140    J.A. de Juan                                       101
 Francisco Lang-Tasso                                73    J.A. do Vale Sant'Ana                              154
 Francisco Rivera                                    56    J.C. Melgar                                         82
 Francisco de Assis Gomes Junior                    159    J.E. Fernández                                      89
 Fábio Rodrigues de Miranda                         140    J.E. Perez Peña                                    173
 Fátima Moreno                                 109, 110    J.I. Núñez                                          21
 G. Martínez                                         85    J.L. Muriel                                80, 89, 116
 G. Amoroso                                    104, 105    J.L. Smith                                          50
 G. Bandino                                         165    J.M. Abrisqueta                                97, 127
 G. Caruso                                           88    J.M. Molina-Martínez                               176
 G. Conversa                                         30    J.M. Tarjuelo                                      101
 G. Dimokas                                         141    J.M. Torres-Ruiz                                    89
 G. Manca                                           162    J.M. Villar                                        132
 G. Nieddu                                          146    J.P. Syvertsen                                      82
 G. Rodrigo                                         132    J.R. Castel                                     20, 62
 G. Yaciofano                                        24    J.R.P. Gonçalves                                    86
 G.C. Carvalho                                 124, 147    Jaime Otarola                                       58
 G.C. Rodrigues                                      31    Jaume Arnó                                          64
 G.M. Dunn                                           46    Jay K. Dhungel                                      77
 G.Ouma                                             168    Jesus del Campo                                     54
 G.W. Netondo                                       168    Joachim Müller                                  27, 48
 Gabriel Selles                         66, 42, 166, 58    Joan Girona                                         54
 Gary C.                                             43    Joan Ramon Rosell                                   64
 Geisy Hernández                                    118    Jordi Marsal and Claudio Stöckle                    39
 Geisy Hernández Cuello                              87    Jordi Marsal.                                       54
 Giovanni Caruso                                    152    Jorge Perez Peña                               23, 149
 Giuseppe Montanaro                                  65    Jorge Prieto                                   23, 149
 Greco Cid                                          118    Jose Crispiniano Feitosa Filho               144, 145
 H. F. Rapoport                                      88    Jose Maria Pinto                             144, 145
 H. Nerson                                          119    Josep M Villar                                     174
 H. Puerto-Molina                                   176    Josep M. Villar                                 63, 64
 H. Schoofs                                          53    Josep Rufat                                63, 64, 174
 H. Valdés-Gómez                                38, 122    José Antonio do Vale Santana                       134




Authors
                                                                                                                    185
                                VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



 José Luis del Pino                          110      M. Iancu                                           92
 José María Quiroga Alonso                    16      M. Mastrorilli                                 30, 41
 José Roldán                            109, 110      M. Maxia                                          162
 Julio Alcayaga                               49      M. Mochizuki                                       83
 Julián Herrera Puebla                        29      M. Moriondo                                       123
 K. Chartzoulakis                            112      M. O’Connell                                   35, 44
 K. Navone                                    24      M. Rinaldi                                        123
 K. Sheffield                                 44      M. Satta                                          157
 K. Umiker                                    50      M. Satta                                          162
 Kanokwan Sringarm                            27      M. Soto                                            84
 Karina Guedes Correia                   60, 138      M. Tedde                                          157
 Karla Barboza Pereira                        60      M.A. Coelho Filho                       136, 137, 154
 Kattia Rypowski                             102      M.C. Ruiz-Sánchez                             97, 127
 Kerry B. Walsh                               77      M.Dumitrascu                                       92
 Klaus Spohrer                                48      M.F. de Moura                                      86
 L-É. Parent                                 131      M.G. Mameli                             157, 162, 165
 L. Bueno                                     90      M.I. Ferreira                                      31
 L. Cristino                                  80      M.J. Martín-Palomo                                 89
 L. D'Andrea                                 123      M.M. Farahat                                      143
 L. De Pau                         157, 165, 146      M.M. Ramos                                        137
 L. Gaudreau                                 171      M.O. Cardoso                                       86
 L. Giglio                                   180      Magdalena Pedroso                                  32
 L. Madaloz                              99, 100      Mahmoud S. Al-Safar                               128
 L. Mateos                                   106      Manuel Pinto                                      166
 L. McClymont                                 35      Manuel R. Rodríguez                               118
 L. Müller                                   111      Marcela Burgos                                    102
 L. Pinto                                     80      Marcelo Martinez                                   66
 L. Plamondon                                171      Maricruz Ramirez                                  107
 L. Puppo                                     52      Mario A. Condori V.                               183
 L. Salas Perez                              177      Mario Viveros                                      94
 L. Zucca                               162, 165      Marlon Vagner V. Martins                          140
 L. de Pau                         157, 165, 146      Martin P. Mendez                                   19
 L.C. Timm                               99, 100      Martín Battaglia A.                           93, 130
 L.L. Bissey                                  50      Mary Lu Arpaia                                 69, 79
 L.M. Tapia                              97, 127      María Díaz                                        109
 L.N. Podestá                                172      María León                                         33
 L.O. Lagos                                   72      Masahiro Tasumi                                   178
 L.S. Pereira                                 31      Mauricio Cortes                                   102
 Laurel Hidalgo Fernández                    103      Maurício Antônio Coelho Filho                134, 159
 Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante           144, 145      Merce Mata                                         54
 Luca Testi                                  156      Micaele da Costa Santos                           138
 Lucas de Mello Velame                       134      Michael J. Davies                              26, 34
 Lucia Martínez                              167      Michelle Morales                                  166
 Luis A. Gurovich                    40, 56, 125      Miquel Pascual                            63, 64, 174
 Luis Bonet                                  115      Mohammad Mahmoodi                            161, 162
 Luis Elgueta                                142      Mário Puiatti                                     153
 Luis Gurovich                                49      N. Brisson                              121, 122, 150
 Luis Gurovich R.                             78      N. Conceição                                  31, 115
 Luis Leris                                  167      N. Iglesias                                       132
 Luis Morales-Salinas                     59, 73      N. Katsoulas                                      141
 Luis Sanchez                                 19      N. Tanasescu                                       51
 Luz Alicia Cárdenas-Jirón                    59      N. Valderrama                                      68
 Luís S. Pereira                              33      N.C. Cooley                                        46
 M. A. Coelho Filho                133, 135, 139      Nada Surbanovski                                  151
 M. A. F. Conceição                          148      Nelson Pereira M.                                  11
 M. A. Maffei                                160      Nick Dokoozlian                                    19
 M. Abuzar                                    44      Nuria Bonastre                                     54
 M. Alé                                      129      O. Cabot                                          132
 M. Belmonte                                  24      O. Daugovish                                       83
 M. Ben Hur                                  119      Olga M. Grant                             26, 34, 151
 M. Castellini                               180      Omar Puig Estrada                                  87
 M. Castro                                67, 69      Oscar Seguel                                      166
 M. Domene                                   132      Osvaldo Campos                                     32
 M. Edelstein                                119      P. Paredes                                         31
 M. Erena-Arrabal                            115      P. Campi                                  41, 55, 180
 M. G. Mameli                                146      P. Debert                                         115
 M. García Petillo                            52      P. Frangi                                    104, 105




Authors
                                                                                                              186
                               VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                   November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



 P. Gil                                       66     Rogelio Fullana                                        98
 P. Gonzales-Colville                        150     Rossini Daniel                                    60, 138
 P. Janssens                                  53     Ruiz Canales                                          176
 P. López-Fuster                         57, 158     S. Casanova                                            28
 P. Maldonado                                 66     S. Gaviola                                            155
 P. Morales                                   52     S. Irmak                                               72
 P. P. Pal                                   108     S. Jenni                                              171
 P. Pieri                                    121     S. Kostoula                                           141
 P. Preciado Rangel                          177     S. N. Ghosh                                           108
 P.R. Cecon                                  137     S. Sari                                                24
 Patricio Oyarce                              40     S. Villagrán                                      37, 181
 Patricio Prieto                             125     Samuel Ortega-Farias             70, 91, 150, 38, 122, 42
 Paula Paredes                                33     Samuel Patty Patty                                     25
 Paulina Villagra                             42     Savreet Sandhu                                        113
 Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes                  153     Seid Mohammad Fakhr Tabatabaee                        162
 Paulo Roberto Gomes Pereira                 153     Sigfredo Fuentes                                       47
 Pedro Dantas Fernandes                  60, 138     Somchai Ongprasert                                 27, 48
 Pedro Henrique Monnerat                     153     Steve Tyerman                                          47
 Peter-Juergen Paschold                      170     Surya P. Bhattarai                             75, 76, 77
 Phillippa A.A. Dodds                        151     T. Deckers                                             53
 Phul P. Subedi                               77     T.A. Paço                                         115, 31
 Pilar M. Gil                         67, 49, 78     Tadeu Graciolli Guimarães                             153
 Pittaya Sruamsiri                            27     Tarlei Arriel Botrel                            144, 145
 R. Abadía-Sánchez                           175     Tatiana Silva Santos                                   60
 R. Bruce                                     61     Teresa López                                  32, 33, 118
 R. C. Vallone                               117     Teresa López Seijas                                    29
 R. Carlesso                                  28     Teresa López Seijas                                    87
 R. Daniel                             139, 154      Teresa Salamé                                         107
 R. Gucci                                     88     Theodore C. Hsiao                                      17
 R. Hayashi                                   52     Tibério Santos Martins da Silva                       159
 R. López-Urrea                          57, 158     Torquato Martins de Andrade Neto                      164
 R. Piatti                             104, 105      Tycho Vermeulen                                       182
 R. Riachi                                   115     U. Schindler                                          111
 R. Romero                           80, 89, 116     Umavadee Srekasetarakul                                27
 R. Ruiz                                      80     V. M. Lipinski                                        155
 R.C. Vallone                                172     V.P. Alvarez Reyna                                    177
 R.D. Rosa                                    31     V.S.S. Terra                                      99, 100
 Raúl Ferreyra                                42     V.V.M. Oliveira                            147, 134, 159
 Raúl Ferreyra E.                66, 58, 166, 78     Victor Hugo Alvarez V.                                153
 René Chipana Rivera                     110, 25     Víctor García de Cortázar                              42
 Reza Omidbaigi                        161, 162      W. Conejero                                           127
 Ricardo Pérez Hernández                     103     W. Verjans                                             53
 Ricardo Sanz                                 64     W.A. Marouelli                                        120
 Riccardo Gucci                              152     W.L. Simões                                           136
 Richard G. Allen                        178, 12     Washington Padilla                                    169
 Richard Harrison-Murray                  26, 34     Wendy Sullivan                                         47
 Richard Stirzaker                            96     Wies Cynkar                                            47
 Ripoche A.                                   43     Wim Voogt                                         95, 182
 Robert Dambergs                              47     Winai Wiriya-Alongkorn                             27, 48
 Robert Heath                                 69     Wolfram Spreer                                     27, 48
 Roberta De Bei                               47     Wouter Verkerke                                       182
 Roberto Martínez                            118     Xavier Domingo                                    63, 174
 Roberto Martínez Varona                      87     Xinming Chen                                           77
 Rodrigo Iturriaga                            49     Yoima Chaterlan                                   33, 118
 Rodrigo M. Vásquez V.                       183




Authors
                                                                                                                 187
                                   VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile




                                                    INDEX


Committee                                                                                                       1
Program                                                                                                         2

Plenary Lectures                                                                                               10

        Advances in irrigation in Chile                                                                         11
        Advances in crop evapotranspiration studies                                                             12
        Designing and managing deficit irrigation in fruit trees and vines                                      13
        Improvement of water use for agriculture at catchment level under drought conditions                    14
        Impact of climate change on irrigated agriculture                                                       15
        Sustainable use of the water in the agriculture: recycling of sewage                                    16
        Potential use of FAO model aquacrop for managing irrigation and productivity of vegetables              17

Oral Lectures                                                                                                  18

        Crop load and irrigation management during the latter stages of ripening, effects on vine
        water status, fruit dehydration and fruit composition of Merlot grapevines                              19
        Is Pre-veraison Irrigation Cut-off more convenient than Post-veraison Water Stress as a
        Strategy to Improve Grape Composition in Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo in Spain?                       20
        Effect of water status on leaf gas exchange, senescence and fruit production potential of
        'Carménère' grapevine                                                                                   21
        Effects of light interception amount and canopy orientation to the sun on grapevine water
        status and the whole canopy gas exchange                                                                22
        Effects of canopy exposure changes on grapevine physiology (cv. Syrah)                                  23
        Vertical Shoot Positioning vs. Box Pruning: can we improve grape quality and yield, and still
        reduce water use and production costs?                                                                  24
        Critical level of water in the soil for development potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the
        highlands of Bolivia                                                                                   25
        Application of regulated deficit irrigation to controlling growth of hardy nursery stock               26
        Biomass Formation and Nutrient Partitioning in Potted Longan Trees under Partial Rootzone
        Drying                                                                                                  27
        Morpho-physiological and yield modifications in two potato cultivars under different
        irrigation managements                                                                                  28
        Water response factor of some horticultural crops in ferrasoles of the south of Havana                  29
        Influence of mycorrhizae in geranium irrigated with saline water: agronomical and
        environmental response.                                                                                 30
        The dual crop coefficient approach: testing the SIMDualKc model with peach orchard
        evapotranspiration eddy covariance measurements                                                         31
        Adjustment of Tomato Crop Coefficients on Organic Substrate                                             32
        Determination of Crop Coefficients for Horticultural Crops in Cuba through Field
        Experiments and Water Balance Simulation                                                                33
        A generic system for establishing crop coefficients across a wide range of hardy nursery
        stock                                                                                                   34
        Variation in within-block crop water requirements of orchards and vineyards - implications
        for irrigation management units                                                                         35
        An empirical model to predict the water status of orange trees                                          36
        A prototype of automatic pressure pump (type Scholander pump)                                           37
        Towards the spatial prediction model of vine water status using ancillary information                   38
        Predicting plant water potential in a pear orchard under different irrigation conditions                39



Index
                                                                                                                    188
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



        Early water stress assessment and automatic irrigation system operation based on electrical
        signaling in fruit trees                                                                                40
        Asparagus water requirements in Southern Italy                                                          41
        Estimation of water requirements of Thompson Seedless trained as overhead trellised system
        ('parronal') by means of eddy covariance method in the Aconcagua valley, Chile                          42
        Evaluation of a water balance model for cover cropped vineyards in Mediterranean and
        Atlantic climate conditions                                                                             43
        Satellite remote sensing of water use, vegetation cover and crop coefficients for perennial
        horticulture in northern Victoria, Australia                                                            44
        Water requirement of Vitis vinifera L. CV. Syrah grown in a warm region. Crop coefficients
        (Kc) estimations                                                                                        45
        Use of thermal imagery to detect water stress during berry ripening in vitis vinifera (l. cv.
        Cabernet Sauvignon)                                                                                     46
        Estimating leaf and stem water potentials of grapevine using near infrared spectroscopy: an
        application for precision irrigation scheduling                                                         47
        Wind speed affects drought stress monitoring in mango and longan by thermal photography                 48
        Electrical Signal Measurements in Avocado Trees: a Potential Tool for Monitoring
        Physiological Responses to Soil Water Content?                                                          49
        Quantifying the Art: Instruments in Deficit Irrigation                                                  50
        Correlation between the crop water stress index and irrigation water requirements for apple in
        a loamy soil: a case study in southern Romania                                                          51
        Young Apple Trees Response to Water Stress. Early Results.                                              52
        Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Pear Trees cv. Conference under Temperate Zone
        Climate                                                                                                 53
        Evaluation of Different Irrigation Strategies on Apple (Malus domestica). Physiological and
        Productive Results.                                                                                     54
        Effects of irrigation management and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality in 'Gala'
        Apple cultivar                                                                                          55
        Combined use of plant sensors to operate high precision / high frequency irrigation
        scheduling in fruit orchards                                                                            56
        Dendrometric measurements in wine grape (Vitis vinifera, L.; cvs. Tempranillo, Cabernet
        Sauvignon and Macabeo) under regulated deficit irrigation                                               57
        Is the use of dendrometer a usefull tools for table grape irrigation scheduling?                        58
        Simple model to estimate net radiation in central zone of Chile from NOAA images and
        digital elevation model                                                                                 59
        Fluorescence of the chlorophyll a in cashew tree, measure with and without use of adapting
        clip of the originator of light                                                                         60
        Post Harvest Deficit Irrigation Decreases Subsequent Fruit Number in T204 Peach                         61
        Long Term Effects of Deficit Irrigation and Subsequent Recovery of Young Japanese Plum
        Trees                                                                                                   62
        Water productivity of peach for processing in a soil with low available water holding capacity          63
        Evaluation of peach tree growth characteristics by LIDAR system. Relation with water
        irrigation strategies in peach                                                                          64
        Regulated deficit irrigation strategy integrated in a sustainable orchard management                    65
        Sensitivity and variability of water state indicators in hass avocado trees                             66
        Influence of Rootstock on the Response of Hass Avocado to Flooding Stress                               67
        Different levels of water and fertilizer application in avocado trees cv hass during four
        seasons at Peumo Valley, Chile                                                                          68
        Effect of root anatomy and morphology on sap flow in Hass avocado trees on clonal
        rootstocks                                                                                              69
        Estimation of daily actual evapotranspiration over a Merlot vineyard using meteorological
        data in combination with reflectance measurements                                                       70
        Reference evapotranspiration determination under climatic stress conditions in 'Pampa del
        Tamarugal' Atacama Desert                                                                               71




Index
                                                                                                                    189
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



        Development of a Surface Energy Balance for Modeling Evapotranspiration of Partially
        Vegetated Surfaces.                                                                                      72
        Wind fields modeling in del Maule Region, for reference evapotranspiration estimation                    73
        Earth observation as a support to improve water use in irrigated agriculture                             74
        Oxygation: an irrigation approach for balancing crop supply of soil water and oxygen for
        improving yields, nutrients and water use efficiency                                                     75
        Oxygation promising for horticultural irrigation: New approach for balancing crop supply of
        soil water and oxygen for effective root functioning mediated through root aquaporin gene
        activities                                                                                               76
        Oxygation enhanced pineapple yield and quality                                                           77
        Improving Soil Oxygenation With Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Heavy Clay Loam Soil:
        Effect on Plant Water Status, CO2 Assimilation and Biomass of Avocado Trees                              78
        Early-Navel Fruit Yield, Quality and Maturity in Response to Late-Season Irrigation Stress               79
        Physiological response of citrus trees to different strategies of deficit irrigation                     80
        Supplementary irrigation in 'Spring' navel orange and satsuma 'Owari' mandarin on temperate
        growing conditions.                                                                                      81
        Irrigation and nitrogen application frequencies affect growth, N and water uptake efficiency
        of Citrus seedlings                                                                                      82
        Drip and sprinkler irrigation for establishment of strawberry transplants in southern
        California                                                                                               83
        Evaluation of drip irrigation systems for blueberries in south central Chile                             84
        Evaluation of a micro-sprinkler irrigation system at an apple farm in the Central Valley of
        Chile                                                                                                    85
        Management of drip irrigation on watermelon                                                              86
        Soil water balance and wetted areas quantifications for drip irrigation in tropical fruit trees          87
        Irrigation differently affects endocarp and mesocarp growth during olive fruit development               88
        Influence of the soil water content and distribution on both the hydraulic and transpiration
        performance of 'Manzanilla' olive trees                                                                  89
        Plant and soil water status behaviour under different irrigation strategies in Arbequina CV.
        Olive orchard                                                                                            90
        Effect of three levels of water application on oil yield and quality for an olive (cv. Picual)
        orchard                                                                                                  91
        Influence of the groundcover management system and drip irrigation on the behaviour of the
        'Golden spur' apple cultivar grafted on MM 106 rootstock                                                 92
        Position of the irrigation tape in the transplanting beds of lettuce crop                                93
        Improving Water Penetration and Yield Using Water-Run Gypsum in Surface Irrigated
        Almonds                                                                                                  94
        Advanced irrigation management in soil grown greenhouse crops aiming at diminishing
        nutrient leaching to the environment                                                                     95
        Strategy, tactics and heuristics for managing nitrate in horticultural crops                             96
        Soil water content variations as a water stress indicator in peach trees                                 97
        Review of Vegetation Water Content measurement technologies                                              98
        Calibration of FDR (Reflectometry in Frequency Domain) device, model Diviner 2000®, by
        tensiometry                                                                                              99
        Calibration of a Capacitance Probe Model Diviner 2000® for a 'Argissolo Vermelho
        Amarelo'                                                                                               100
        Irrigation uniformity effect over economic crop yield                                                  101
        Soil moisture profiles under different conditions associated with irrigation efficiency of drip
        irrigation. Case studies from avocado and mandarin, Limari River Valley                                102
        Financial gain from the hydraulics improvement of localized irrigation by microjet technique
        in an area of the Cooperative 'Organoponico Vivero Alamar'                                             103
        Effect of mulching and irrigation on container-grown plant production                                  104
        Alternative nursery management system: closed-loop and high retention mat                              105
        Economics and psychology of deficit irrigation                                                         106




Index
                                                                                                                     190
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                           November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



        Effects of Irrigation Programs on 'Strawberry Festival' Growth and Yield                               107
        Effect of Basin and Drip Irrigation on Sweet Orange Grown in Laterite Soil                             108
        Irrigation performance indicators for best irrigation management in an irrigation district             109
        Suka Kollus, ancestral ecosystem of water-soil-cop management for potato (Solanum
        tuberosum L.) production in the watershed of Titicaca Lake                                             110
        Analysis of irrigation demand and monitoring of irrigation effects in horticulture systems             111
        Improving water efficiency: the irrigation advisory service of Crete, Greece                           112
        Irrigation Scheduling and Use of Black Polythene Mulch in Baramasi Lemon to Control Fruit
        Cracking and Improve Fruit Quality                                                                     113
        Implementation of precisely scheduled low-frequency irrigation on steep slopes in a cool
        climate grape (Vitis vinifera L.) growing region                                                       114
        A survey about scheduling irrigation horticulturists practices and wishes among 300
        horticulturists of south-west of Europe                                                                115
        A simple Soil-Plant-atmosphere model in Simulink for irrigation control testing                        116
        Surface irrigation performance in the upper Tunuyán river basin Mendoza, Argentina                     117
        Water percolation losses and evapotranspiration estimation in fruit crops under drip irrigation
        in the south of Havana                                                                                 118
        Mineral nutrient requirements of muskmelon irrigated with effluent water                               119
        Atmodripper System for Precision Plant Irrigation                                                      120
        Vineyard irrigation could become the rule tomorrow in some French vineyard areas                       121
        Modelling the effects of Niño and Niña events on water balance of grapevine (cv. Cabernet
        Sauvignon) in Central valley of Chile                                                                  122
        Effects of climate change on tomato productivity and water requirements in a Mediterranean
        area                                                                                                   123
        Methodologies for Selection to Drought Tolerance in Potatoes                                           124
        Irrigation of fruit orchards under future water constraints                                            125

Posters                                                                                                       126

        Water use by drip-irrigated early-season peach trees                                                   127
        The effects of soil amendments and depth of corm planting on the quality traits of gladiolus
        (Gladiolus grandiflorus) flowers grown under the conditions of Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia                  128
        Impact of surface and subsurface drip irrigation on yield and quality of 'Honey Dew' Melon             129
        Position of the irrigation tape in the transplanting beds for melon and marrow crops                   130
        Assessment of Methods to Determine the Loss of Water and Nitrates in a Lettuce Crop
        Grown in Organic Soil                                                                                  131
        Defining Best Management Practices (BMPs) for using soil moisture probes for on-farm
        irrigation scheduling decisions                                                                        132
        Regulated irrigation deficit during fruit growth phases of mango by microsprinkler under
        semi arid of Bahia                                                                                     133
        Irrigation schedule with deficit (PRD) in mango orchard cv 'Kent' in semi arid of Bahia State          134
        Partial root drying of lemon under semi arid conditions of north of Minas Gerais                       135
        Regulated irrigation deficit during fruit growth phases of lemon irrigated by trickle under
        semi arid of north of Minas Gerais                                                                     136
        Regulated irrigation deficit applied to mango crop by trickle irrigation under semi arid
        conditions                                                                                             137
        Concentration of proline in leaves of precocious dwarfish cashew tree under stress water in
        different phases phenologicals                                                                         138
        Growth and yield of mango irrigated using partial root drying method under semi-arid
        conditions of Bahia state                                                                              139
        Evaluation of a control system based on the Irrigas® sensor for irrigation scheduling of
        hydroponic tomato in Ceará, Brazil                                                                     140
        Effect of Irrigation Scheduling on Greenhouse Tomato Crop Development and Production                   141




Index
                                                                                                                     191
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                            November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



        Wireless system for managing and monitoring technified irrigation systems                               142
        Effect of lead pollution and phosphorin on growth and chemical constituents of Leuceana
        leucocephala seedlings                                                                                  143
        Soil salinity and pH monitoring applied in fertigation greenhouse to staked watermelon                  144
        Evaluation of nitrogen and potassium fertigation of staked watermelon in greenhouse                     145
        Vine microclimate and grape quality response to deficit irrigation strategies                           146
        Distribution and availability of water in the soil with banana crop irrigated by different water
        depths by sprayer                                                                                       147
        Irrigation water requirement for grapevines using two reference evapotranspiration methods              148
        Effects of canopy exposure changes on grapevine physiology (cv. Syrah)                                  149
        Agroclimatic characterization of the ENSO phenomena for Chilean vineyards thanks to the
        crop model STICS                                                                                        150
        Carbon isotope composition indicates improved photosynthetic water use efficiency of
        strawberry plants under deficit irrigation                                                              151
        Deficit irrigation on yield components from the onset of fruit production                               152
        Field and greenhouse tomato yields as functions of nitrogen dosis applied directly to the soil
        or by drip fertigation system                                                                           153
        Water deficit (PRD) as strategy for optimization of water use in 'Tahiti' lime orchard under
        the semi-arid of Bahia State                                                                            154
        Optimizing water use efficiency on violet and white garlic types through regulated deficit
        irrigation                                                                                              155
        Design and Construction of Weighing Lysimeter to Measure Almond ET                                      156
        Effects of different irrigation managements on productivity parameters of Myrtus communis
        L. in an open field cultivation system in north-western Sardinia.                                       157
        Evolution of some berry composition parameters in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv.
        Tempranillo) under regulated deficit irrigation                                                         158
        Growth and evapotranspiration of single and intercropping cassava under irrigated conditions            159
        A fast and inexpensive method for determination of partial soil water retention curve                   160
        Water stress induced alteration in herb yield, essential oil content and composition of
        Agastache foeniculum                                                                                    161
        The effects of different irrigation management on biomass and essential oil production of
        Thymus vulgaris L., Salvia officinalis L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., cultivated in the
        southern Sardinian climate (Italy).                                                                     162
        Water stress effects on morphological parameters and essential oil percentage of anise hyssop
        (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze)                                                                   162
        Post harvest quality of fruits of banana cv Terra under different levels of irrigation and
        nitrogen                                                                                                164
        Effects of Partial Rootzone Drying, Relative Deficit Irrigation and Sustained Deficit
        Irrigation on Vermentino grapevine in north Sardinia (Italy).                                           165
        Effects of soil air capacity on water relations and vegetative growth of Thompson seedless
        grafted on different rootstock: early results                                                           166
        Behaviour of the columnar cactus Eulychnia acida Phil. (copao) under different soil
        management conditions and drip irrigation, Coquimbo Region, Chile                                       167
        Effect of water deficit on the growth, gas exchange and chlorophyll content of mango
        (Mangifera Indica) rootstock seedlings                                                                  168
        Control of nitrate concentration in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) using n-based polymer
        fertilizers under drip irrigation systems                                                               169
        Irrigation Scheduling by Crop Coefficients based on Growth Stage Identification of
        Vegetable Crops using the BBCH scales                                                                   170
        Effect of soil depth on water management of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated in
        a muck soil                                                                                             171
        Long-term effect of water deficit irrigation on cherry vigor and precocity                              172
        Effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation During Stage III of Fruit Development on Yield and
        Oil Quality of Olive Trees (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina')                                               173




Index
                                                                                                                      192
                                    VI International Symposium on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops
                                                                          November 2-6, 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile



        Four years of RDI during stage II vs stage III in peaches for processing: yield vs quality            174
        Irrigation programming systems based on water content gauges for citric trees. Some data of
        several case study in the Southeast of Spain.                                                         175
        Irrigation characterization using performance indicators of water and energy use in irrigation
        water user's associations. A case study in the Irrigation Water User?s Association of Albatera
        (Alicante) Spain.                                                                                     176
        Water use in the production of hydroponic forage under greenhouse conditions                          177
        First approach in the ET estimation for olive orchards using remote sensing techniques                178
        Canopy temperature as an indicator of water status in citrus trees                                    179
        Temporal patterns of soil water content under cultivation of two vegetable crops in Southern
        Italy                                                                                                 180
        Development of an expert system to economically and technically select the optimum size of
        a pipeline network of irrigation systems                                                              181
        Complying with society's demands, solving the emission problem caused by irrigation
        surplus in greenhouses                                                                                182
        Implementation of an automatic meteorological station for the rational use of the irrigation
        water in the Chaca valley                                                                             183

Authors                                                                                                      184
Index                                                                                                        188




Index
                                                                                                                    193

								
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