Worksheet 5-3 Name Hybrid Orbitals 1. What is meant by the term by jackl17

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									Worksheet 5-3                                               Name
Hybrid Orbitals

1. What is meant by the term orbital overlap?



2. What is the designation for the hybrid orbitals formed from each of the following
   combinations of atomic orbitals and what is the bond angle associated with the hybrid
   orbital?
       a. one s and two p

       b. one s, three p

       c. one s, one p

3. What set of hybrid orbitals is used by the central carbon atom in the following?

       a. CCl4                       b. HCN                        c. CH3



4. a. If the valence atomic orbitals of an atom are sp hybridized, how many unhybridized p
   orbitals remain in the valence shell?              How many pi bonds can the atom form?

   b. In a triple bond, there are            pi bonds and           sigma bonds.


5. a. Draw Lewis structures for methane (CH4) and formaldehyde (H2CO).




   b. What is the hybridization of the carbon atom in each?
             methane                        formaldehyde

   c. The carbon atom in methane cannot participate in multiple bonding, whereas that in
      H2CO can. Explain this observation by using the hybridization at the carbon atom.
6. Ethyl acetate is a fragrant substance used both as a solvent and as an aroma enhancer. Its
   Lewis structure is:




       a. What is the hybridization of each carbon atom?
            C1                      C2                   C3                       C4

       b.   What is the total number of valence electrons in ethyl acetate?
       c.   How many valence electrons are used to make sigma bonds in the molecule?
       d.   How many valence electrons are used to make pi bonds?
       e.   How many valence electrons remain in non-bonding pairs in the molecule?

7. The compound below is acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin.




       a. What are the approximate values of the bond angles labeled 1, 2, and 3?
            1=                     2=                    3=

       b. What hybrid orbitals are used about the central atom of each of these angles?
            C1                      C2                     O3

       c. How many sigma bonds are in the molecule?                 pi bonds?

8. The lactic acid molecule, CH3CH(OH)CO(OH), gives sour milk its unpleasant, sour taste.
      a. Draw the Lewis structure, assuming that carbon always forms four bonds in its stable
          compounds. The first (OH) group is attached to the second carbon; the second (OH)
          group is attached to the third carbon.




       b. How many pi bonds are in the molecule?            sigma bonds?

       c. Which CO bond (first or second) is the shortest in the molecule?

       d. What is the hybridization of atomic orbitals around each carbon atom? (carbons
       numbered 1-3 from left to right)
             C1                      C2                     C3
       e. What are the approximate bond angles around each carbon atom?
             C1=                     C2=                    C3=

								
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